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Senator KENDRICK. Measured in cubic feet per second ? Mr. Ward. Yes, sir; we have an average of 264 feet at present from the aqueduct. We have about 139 feet, or something around 150, I am not quite certain, about 150 feet available otherwise; so we at present have about 420 or 430 second-feet that are available.

Senator KENDRICK. Under this plan you would expect to receive a thousand feet per second from the Colorado River?

Mr. WARD. We would expect a thousand more than we now have for our own use, probably 500 extra feet for surrounding communities that are in grave need of additional domestic water.

Senator Ashurst. Mr. Ward, according to your statement, the present plan of the city of Los Angeles would be to lift the water some 1,700 feet?

Mr. WARD. Yes; I understand so.

Senator ASHURST. Let me say that the United States Government no later than 12 days ago issued its authoritative water-supply paper, pointing out to you that a perpetual and abundant supply of drinking water is available by gravity, if you put your dam at Bridge Canyon. I hope you will read this Government report.

Mr. WARD. I will be glad to read that. Senator ASHURST. You can get an abundant, perpetual supply of water by gravity:

Mr. WARD. Does it give the expense of so doing?

Senator Ashurst. Not much greater than the expense of installing the pumping plant at the point you mention and, of course, you will be required to maintain and to operate-to pay the enormous expense of pumping, lifting 1,700 feet.

Mr. WARD. If that can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of capable engineers, it will be very weighty.

Senator ASHURST. The United States Government usually employs expert and efficient engineers. And, after a year of careful investigation, the Secretary of the Interior promulgates this document as the latest, most authoritative expression of the United States of America.

Mr. WARD. I was not aware of that; I knew something of that kind was being prepared.

Senator ASHURST. I would direct your attention to pages 45, 71, and 77, and other pages.

Mr. WARD. I have relied chiefly-our committee has relied chieflyupon the data that it has had upon the previous reports of the Reclamation Department and the United States Reclamation Service, chiefly the reports of Mr. Weymouth and Mr. Davis, and they have recommended the Boulder Canyon Dam as the preferable site, and it was recommended after a great many years of study and a great deal of money had been expended in studying the Colorado River.

Senator ASHURST. I have the highest regard for those gentlemen, but they will find themselves in the situation I often find myself, that, unfortunately, I didn't know it all.

Mr. WARD. There is no assumption upon the part of our committee that we know it all. We are very glad to get any kind of help we can.

Senator PITTMAN. Mr. Chairman

The CHAIRMAN. Senator Pittman.

Senator Prtiman. I think we might just as well read the exact language of the portion referred to:

It is the writer's opinion that it may be feasible to build a high dam at Bridge Canyon, a gravity system to furnish domestic water supply for the cities of southern California.

Mr. WARD. “ It may be feasible."

Senator ASHURST. Will my esteemed friend also read the excerpt on the other pages?

The CHAIRMAN. Do you want to conclude your statement, Mr. Ward ?

Mr. Ward. Yes; thank you.

Senator Ashurst. My friend is an able lawyer and can extract a sentence

Mr. WARD. Gentlemen, I would like to leave with the committee the personnel of this committee so they will be able to determine the character of the men who made this report.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. A. M. Souden in the room, chairman of the board of directors of the United States National Bank?

Mr. SOUDEN. Yes, Mr. Chairman.

The CHAIRMAN. You are to discuss the attitude of the Los Angeles business interests upon this proposed development.

Mr. SOUDEN. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Very well, you may proceed.



Mr. Soudex. In order to conserve your time, I will limit my discussion to a very few words.

The present situation is similar to that which existed in the city from 1900 to 1905. Our city in 1905 had an estimated population of 170,000 and we found at that time that we were completely utilizing all of the resources of our watershed and it was necessary for our city to seek additional water supply if we were to continue to grow. Many different sources of water supply were investigated by committees and engineers and ultimately the Owens Valley was decided upon as being the logical point from which to secure an adequate supply of water. The matter of bringing water more than 250 miles across a desert, through three mountain ranges and yet being able to deliver water to the consumer at a price which would be economical, was a stupendous project. Los Angeles at that time had only limited resources and was known primarily as a city of climate because our manufacturing industry was of nominal importance; in fact, Bank Credit Managers hardly recognized Los Angeles as a manufacturing community.

Twenty-five million dollars was our initial investment in the present acqueduct-it appeared to be a staggering sum. When the realize that the resources of the local banks were only four times that amount, we are quite sure that almost anyone would hesitate and thoroughly investigate the situation before giving assent to creating such a debt. However, the debt was created; the bonds were sold; the aqueduct was built and has been operated successfully and our city has grown until we now have a population of 1,200,000 people and in 1924 our bank clearings were in excess of $7,000,000,000, with exchanges on local banks of more than $7,250,000,000, and our manufactured products sold in the open market during the year 1924 for $1,200,000,000. Since we built our acqueduct we have developed and completely financed a harbor which has no superior and is handling freight and passenger traffic which gives it third place in the shipping of the United States. Our building permits for the first nine months of 1925 were $115,000,000, and for Southern California, (by that I mean the territory that would be benefited by the Boulder Dam), the building permits totaled $207,000,000. A people who can build into this sum must be possessed of large financial means.

So much for our population, resources, and ability to successfully complete our part of this undertaking.

The present generation ought to use daily all of the water and hydroelectric energy now developed and delivered to our city. We realize that a city can not stand still, but must continue to grow or it will suffer a decrease in population, commercial importance, and financial strength; thus we must provide additional water and electricity or the coming generation will have cause to censure us.

With all of these facts in mind, our investigations lead us in many directions, but we always return to the Colorado River, where our engineers assure us is water in abundance and hydroelectric energies can be developed for our needs and the needs of our neighbors.

Our citizens upon numerous occasions have reaffirmed their intention to operate and distribute in the municipality certain public utilities, notably water, power, and light. We are to-day operating a great electric generation, transmission, and distributing system. Our capital invested is more than $35,000,000. Through this agency our growth has been phenomenal. Water, power, and light are distributed to our citizens and service furnished to industrial enterprises at a very low rate.

The effect of the tremendous growth of our city was manifested two years ago, when the necessity arose for the complete rebuilding and strengthening of the electric distributing system. To accomplish this result a committee of business men was formed, known as the citizens' power bond committee, whose function was to present to the people all possible information so that they would authorize the issuance of the necessary bonds for the completion of the work. The members of the citizens' power bond committee were carefully selected, so that all classes of citizens had ample representation thereon. We gave particular attention to the subject of the require ments of the city of Los Angeles with regard to a power supply and its use for the people within its boundaries. We learned of the great needs of our city and approximated the burden requisite for our citizens to assume to secure that which was necessary.

As a result of our experience and investigation we are in a position, representative of the business men of Los Angeles, to assure the Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation that the people in Los Angeles (you understand no great work ever had the unanimous cooperation of all the people under the project) are now very

much in earnest in their desire to obtain in the Boulder Canyon Dam a substantial block of hydroelectric energy; in fact, such substantial share as the Government agencies decide should be allocated to the needs of the city.

We have in mind the needs and desires of all other States and communities to participate in the benefits of the project. Such benefits as they desire may be obtained by going there themselves or engaging an appropriate agency on their behalf, but after satisfying the reasonable needs of other communities the city of Los Angeles desires to engage and to pay for whatever and any power opportunities that the appropriate agency of the Government may feel Los Angeles should be permitted to have.

In making this statement I have in mind the fact that under the proposed legislation the city of Los Angeles would be required to pay its proportionate share of the Boulder Canyon Dam. We also appreciate that this entails financial obligations of a very considerable amount, and with this phase of the situation in mind I have given you in brief the condition the city of Los Angeles faced in 1905, when we provided $25,000,000 for the present aqueduct, and for your information I have given you a comparison of our present financial situation and population, both of which have increased many fold in the past 20 years.

When and if the Federal Government authorizes the construction of the Boulder Canyon Dam, as proposed, we have no hesitation in assuring you that the business interests in Los Angeles, together with the remaining citizens, will commit themselves to issue bonds and thereby make good their oral statements--commitments.

We are again looking into the future, as we did in 1905, when we went 250 miles into the high Sierras for water and power. The city of Los Angeles does not require and does not ask any contribution by the Federal Government the full return of which is not guaranteed by our firm contract. We can develop hydroelectric energy for our use with our own resources, but such development would not meet the wishes of other communities, so we are asking for Government construction of the dam, and we will finance and distribute such hydroelectric power under Government control as we can use. but we would have no objection to the cooperation of other agencies, provided mutually satisfactory contracts could be arranged.

We therefore ask that the Federal Government furnish the machinery by appropriate legislation and act as the agency for the distribution of the benefits therefrom, and our city is an applicant, among others, to quickly and promptly meet and finance a program that will return to the Federal Government in full, with interest, its appropriation covering the construction of the Boulder Canyon Dam.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Mr. Souden. Mr. A. L. Sonderegger.


Mr. SONDEREGGER. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, the coastal belt includes a strip of land bordering on the Pacific Ocean from Los Angeles to the Mexican boundary, a distance of about 150 miles and of a width of 20 to 60 miles. It includes the counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego, south and west of the high mountains; in other words, exclusive of their desert areas.

The coastal belt has a population of 1,825,000 and an irrigated area of 560,000 acres. Los Angeles County has approximately 588,000 acres of valley land, of which 291,000 are irrigated, and it has 131,000 acres of hill land, subject to limited development. Its present population is 1,425,000, of which over 1,000,000 are within the city limits of Los Angeles. Other large cities are Pasadena, with 76,000 inhabitants; Long Beach, with 100,000; Pomona, with 25,000; and numerous other cities of 20,000 or less. Los Angeles County south of the high mountains is also termed the metropolitan area of Los Angeles.

San Bernardino County has about 150,000 acres of irrigable land, with 100,000 acres under water and a population of 85,000, of which 30,000_reside in San Bernardino, the county seat. It is 60 miles from Los Angeles.

Riverside County has 65,000 inhabitants, the county seat being Riverside, with 30,000 people. The irrigable area is 220,000 acres, of which in 1925 120,000 acres were under water.

These four northern counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange, being contiguous, are commercially and from the standpoint of ultimate water supply, a unit.

San Diego County is somewhat detached from the others and for both geographical and topographical reasons presents a unit of its own. Its population is now 150,000, of which 125,000 live in the city of San Diego. Irrigable area, 100,000 acres, of which about 50,000 acres will be under water within the next few years.

The coastal belt of southern California during the past 25 years has experienced a land development undreamed of in magnitude and probably without precedent. The result of it has been an increase in population from a total of 270,000 in 1900 to a total of 1,825,000 in 1925. In this growth Los Angeles County participates with a lion's share, its population having grown from 170,000 in 1900, to 1,425,000 in 1925, while the City of Los Angeles has grown from 120,000 to approximately 1,000,000. The population of this city has practically doubled in the past five years, having increased by about one-half million since the last Federal census.

The four other counties to-day have three to six times the population they had 25 years ago.

Statistical data as to increase in population and irrigated lands is submitted in Tables No. 1 and No. 2.

The factors which have contributed to this development are analyzed as follows: First, a land development due to climatic and other conditions in which the irrigated area increased from 214,000 acres to 560,000 acres in 25 years. Second, the development of a back country, with an irrigated area of 520,000 acres, including Coachella Valley, Imperial Valley, Yuma Project, and Palo Verde Valley. Third, the advent of industrial development in the Metropolitan Area of Los Angeles and the growth of commerce. Fourth, the influx of a large population of comparatively well-to-do people whose means have enabled them to improve irrigable lands and to develop them to a point of highest productivity.

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