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volume of 2400 m3). For the radionuclides listed in appendix C of this part, the air immersion DACs were calculated for a continuous, non-shielded exposure via immersion in a semi-infinite atmospheric cloud. The value is based upon the derived airborne concentration found in Table 1 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 11, Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion, published September 1988. This document is available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
Derived air concentration-hour (DAChour) means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air (expressed as a fraction or multiple of the DAC for each radionuclide) and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours.
DOE activity means an activity taken for or by DOE in a DOE operation or facility that has the potential to result in the occupational exposure of an individual to radiation or radioactive material. The activity may be, but is not limited to, design, construction, operation, or decommissioning. To the extent appropriate, the activity may involve a single DOE facility or operation or a combination of facilities and operations, possibly including an entire site or multiple DOE sites.
Entrance or access point means any location through which an individual could gain access to areas controlled for the purposes of radiation protection. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, irrespective of their intended use.
General employee means an individual who is either a DOE or DOE contractor employee; an employee of a subcontractor to a DOE contractor; or an individual who performs work for or in conjunction with DOE or utilizes DOE facilities.
High contamination area means any area, accessible to individuals, where removable surface contamination levels exceed or are likely to exceed 100 times the removable surface contamination values specified in appendix D of this part.
High radiation area means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (0.001 sievert) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
Individual means any human being. Member of the public means an individual who is not a general employee. An individual is not a "member of the public" during any period in which the individual receives an occupational dose.
Minor means an individual less than 18 years of age.
Monitoring means the measurement of radiation levels, airborne radioactivity concentrations, radioactive contamination levels, quantities of radioactive material, or individual doses and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate radiological hazards or potential and actual doses resulting from exposures to ionizing radiation.
Nonstochastic effects means effects due to radiation exposure for which the severity varies with the dose and for which a threshold normally exists (e.g., radiation-induced opacities within the lens of the eye).
Occupational dose means an individual's ionizing radiation dose (external and internal) as a result of that individual's work assignment. Occupational dose does not include doses received as a medical patient or doses resulting from background radiation or participation as a subject in medical research programs.
Person means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, Government agency, any State or political subdivision of, or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or other entity, and any legal successor, representative, agent or agency of the foregoing; provided that person does not include the Department or the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Radiation means ionizing radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other
particles capable of producing ions. Ra- Sealed radioactive source means a radiation as used in this part, does not dioactive source manufactured, obinclude non-ionizing radiation, such as tained, or retained for the purpose of radio- or micro-waves, or visible, infra utilizing the emitted radiation. The red, or ultraviolet light.
sealed radioactive source consists of a Radiation area means any area acces known or estimated quantity of radiosible to individuals in which radiation active material contained within a levels could result in an individual re- sealed capsule, sealed between layer(s) ceiving a deep dose equivalent in ex- of non-radioactive material, or firmly cess of 0.005 rem (0.05 millisievert) in 1 fixed to a non-radioactive surface by hour at 30 centimeters from the source electroplating or other means intended or from any surface that the radiation to prevent leakage or escape of the rapenetrates.
dioactive material. Sealed radioactive Radioactive material area means any sources do not include reactor fuel elearea within a controlled area, acces ments, nuclear explosive devices, and sible to individuals, in which items or radioisotope thermoelectric generacontainers of radioactive material tors. exist and the total activity of radio Source leak test means a test to deteractive material exceeds the applicable mine if a sealed radioactive source is values provided in appendix E of this leaking radioactive material. part.
Stochastic effects means malignant Radioactive material transportation and hereditary diseases for which the means the movement of radioactive probability of an effect occurring, rathmaterial by aircraft, rail, vessel, or er than its severity, is regarded as a highway vehicle when such movement function of dose without a threshold is subject to Department of Transpor- for radiation protection purposes. tation regulations or DOE Orders that very high radiation area means any govern such movements. Radioactive area accessible to individuals in which material transportation does not in- radiation levels could result in an indiclude preparation of material or pack- vidual receiving an absorbed dose in agings for transportation, monitoring excess of 500 rads (5 grays) in one hour required by this part, storage of mate at 1 meter from a radiation source or rial awaiting transportation, or appli- from any surface that the radiation cation of markings and labels required penetrates. for transportation.
Week means a period of seven conRadiological area means any area secutive days. within a controlled area defined in this Year means the period of time beginsection as a "radiation area,” "high ra- ning on or near January 1 and ending diation area," "very high radiation on or near December 31 of that same area," "contamination area," "high year used to determine compliance contamination area," or "airborne ra with the provisions of this part. The dioactivity area."
starting and ending date of the year Radiological worker means a general used to determine compliance may be employee whose job assignment in changed provided that the change is volves operation of radiation producing made at the beginning of the year and devices or working with radioactive that no day is omitted or duplicated in materials, or who is likely to be rou- consecutive years. tinely occupationally exposed above 0.1 (b) As used in this part to describe rem (0.001 sievert) per year total effec- various aspects of radiation dose: tive dose equivalent.
Absorbed dose (D) means the energy Real-time air monitoring means meas absorbed by matter from ionizing radiurement of the concentrations or quan ation per unit mass of irradiated matetities of airborne radioactive materials rial at the place of interest in that maon a continuous basis.
terial. The absorbed dose is expressed Respiratory protective device means an in units of rad (or gray) (1 rad = 0.01 apparatus, such as a respirator, worn gray). by an individual for the purpose of re- Committed dose equivalent (Hr so) ducing the individual's intake of air- means the dose equivalent calculated borne radioactive materials.
to be received by a tissue or organ over
from radioactive material taken into the body (e.g., "internal sources”).
Lens of the eye dose equivalent means the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 cm.
Quality factor (Q) means the modifying factor used to calculate the dose equivalent from the absorbed dose; the absorbed dose (expressed in rad or gray) is multiplied by the appropriate quality factor.
(i) The quality factors to be used for determining dose equivalent in rem are as follow:
X-rays, gamma rays, positrons, electrons (in
cluding tritium beta particles) ........ Neutrons, s10 keV .......... Neutrons, >10 keV ......... Protons and singly-charged particles of un
known energy with rest mass greater than
one atomic mass unit ....... Alpha particles and multiple-charged particles
(and particles of unknown charge) of unknown energy ................................
a 50-year period after the intake of a radionuclide into the body. It does not include contributions from radiation sources external to the body. Committed dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem (or sievert).
Committed effective dose equivalent (HE.so) means the sum of the committed dose equivalents to various tissues in the body (H1.50), each multiplied by the appropriate weighting factor (W)that is, He.so = £ wr H1,50. Committed effective dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem (or sievert).
Cumulative total effective dose equivalent means the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values recorded for an individual, where available, for each year occupational dose was received, beginning January 1, 1989.
Deep dose equivalent means the dose equivalent derived from external radiation at a depth of 1 cm in tissue.
Dose is a general term for absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent as defined in this part.
Dose equivalent (H) means the product of absorbed dose (D) in rad (or gray) in tissue, a quality factor (Q), and other modifying factors (N). Dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem (or sievert) (1 rem = 0.01 sievert).
Effective dose equivalent (He) means the summation of the products of the dose equivalent received by specified tissues of the body (HT) and the appropriate weighting factor (W)—that is, He = EwrHt. It includes the dose from radiation sources internal and/or external to the body. For purposes of compliance with this part, deep dose equivalent to the whole body may be used as effective dose equivalent for external exposures. The effective dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem (or sievert).
Erternal dose or exposure means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radiation sources outside the body (i.e., "external sources"').
Extremity means hands and arms below the elbow or feet and legs below the knee.
Internal dose or exposure means that portion of the dose equivalent received
QUALITY FACTORS FOR NEUTRONS—Continued [Mean quality factors, o (maximum value in a 30-cm dosim
etry phantom), and values of neutron flux density that deliver in 40 hours, a maximum dose equivalent of 0.1 rem (0.001 sievert). Where neutron energy falls between listed values, the more restrictive mean quality factor shall be used.]
are used consistent with the meanings given in the Act. (58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59680, Nov. 4, 1998]
Shallow dose equivalent means the dose equivalent deriving from external radiation at a depth of 0.007 cm in tissue.
Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) means the sum of the effective dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures).
Weighting factor (WT) means the fraction of the overall health risk, resulting from uniform, whole body irradiation, attributable to specific tissue (T). The dose equivalent to tissue (HT) is multiplied by the appropriate weighting factor to obtain the effective dose equivalent contribution from that tissue. The weighting factors are as follows:
8835.3 General rule.
(a) No person or DOE personnel shall take or cause to be taken any action inconsistent with the requirements of:
(1) This part; or
(2) Any program, plan, schedule, or other process established by this part.
(b) With respect to a particular DOE activity, contractor management shall be responsible for compliance with the requirements of this part.
(c) Where there is no contractor for a DOE activity, DOE shall ensure implementation of and compliance with the requirements of this part.
(d) Nothing in this part shall be construed as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect health and safety.
(e) For those activities that are required by 88 835.102, 835.901(e), 835.1202 (a), and 835.1202(b), the time interval to conduct these activities may be extended by a period not to exceed 30 days to accommodate scheduling needs. [58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998]
0.25 Breasts ...................
0.15 Red bone marrow
0.12 Thyroid ........
0.03 Bone surfaces..
0.30 Whole body 2
1.00 1 "Remainder" means the five other organs or tissues, excluding the skin and lens of the eye, with the highest dose (e.g., liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, and upper large intestine). The weighting factor for each remaining organ or tissue is 0.06.
2 For the case of uniform external irradiation of the whole body, a weighting factor (WT) equal to 1 may be used in determination of the effective dose equivalent.
8 835.4 Radiological units.
Unless otherwise specified, the quantities used in the records required by this part shall be clearly indicated in special units of curie, rad, roentgen, or rem, including multiples and subdivisions of these units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray (Gy), and sievert (Sv), are only provided parenthetically in this part for reference with scientific standards. (58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998]
Whole body means, for the purposes of external exposure, head, trunk (including male gonads), arms above and including the elbow, or legs above and including the knee.
(c) Terms defined in the Atomic Energy Act and not defined in this part
Subpart B-Management and
Administrative Requirements $ 835.101 Radiation protection pro
grams. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a documented radiation protection program (RPP) as approved by the DOE.
(b) The DOE may direct or make modifications to a RPP.
(c) The content of each RPP shall be tion of program content and implemencommensurate with the nature of the tation, shall be conducted through a activities performed and shall include process that ensures that all functional formal plans and measures for applying elements are reviewed no less frethe as low as reasonably achievable quently than every 36 months. (ALARA) process to occupational expo
[63 FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998] sure.
(d) The RPP shall specify the exist- 8835.103 Education, training and ing and/or anticipated operational skills. tasks that are intended to be within
Individuals responsible for develthe scope of the RPP. Except as provided in 8835.101(h), any task outside
oping and implementing measures nec
essary for ensuring compliance with the scope of a RPP shall not be initi
the requirements of this part shall ated until an update of the RPP is ap
have the appropriate education, trainproved by DOE.
ing, and skills to discharge these re(e) The content of the RPP shall ad
sponsibilities. dress, but shall not necessarily be limited to, each requirement in this part. (63 FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998]
(f) The RPP shall include plans, schedules and other measures for $835.104 Written procedures. achieving compliance with regulations Written procedures shall be develof this part. Unless otherwise specified oped and implemented as necessary to in this part, compliance with amend ensure compliance with this part, comments to this part shall be achieved no mensurate with the radiological hazlater than 180 days following approval ards created by the activity and conof the revised RPP by DOE. Compli- sistent with the education, training, ance with the requirements of and skills of the individuals exposed to
835.402(d) for radiobioassay program those hazards.
Subpart C-Standards for Internal
Sur submitted to DOE: (1) Whenever a change or an addition
and External Exposure to the RPP is made;
$ 835.201 (Reserved] (2) Prior to the initiation of a task not within the scope of the RPP; or 8835.202 Occupational dose limits for (3) Within 180 days of the effective
general employees. date of any modifications to this part.
(a) Except for planned special expo(h) Changes, additions, or updates to
sures conducted consistent with the RPP may become effective without
8 835.204 and emergency exposures auprior Department approval only if the
thorized in accordance with $ 835.1302, changes do not decrease the effective
the occupational dose received by genness of the RPP and the RPP, as
eral employees shall be controlled such changed, continues to meet the re
that the following limits are not exquirements of this part. Proposed
ceeded in a year: changes that decrease the effectiveness
(1) A total effective dose equivalent of the RPP shall not be implemented
of 5 rems (0.05 sievert); without submittal to and approval by
(2) The sum of the deep dose equivathe Department.
lent for external exposures and the (i) An initial RPP or an update shall
committed dose equivalent to any be considered approved 180 days after
organ or tissue other than the lens of its submission unless rejected by DOE
the eye of 50 rems (0.5 sievert); at an earlier date.
(3) A lens of the eye dose equivalent 58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 of 15 rems (0.15 sievert); and FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998]
(4) A shallow dose equivalent of 50
rems (0.5 sievert) to the skin or to any $835.102 Internal audits.
extremity. Internal audits of the radiation pro- (b) All occupational doses received tection program, including examina- during the current year, except doses