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facility or a major modification to an exist- ics. For example, DOE Order 420.1 provides ing DOE nuclear facility must prepare a pre- DOE's expectations with respect to fire proliminary documented safety analysis. A pre tection and criticality safety. liminary documented safety analysis can en 3. Safety structures, systems, and compo sure that substantial costs and time are not nents require formal definition of minimum wasted in constructing a nuclear facility acceptable performance in the documented that will not be acceptable to DOE. If a con
safety analysis. This is accomplished by first tractor is required to prepare a preliminary
defining a safety function, then describing documented safety analysis, the contractor
the structure, systems, and components, must obtain DOE approval of the prelimi
placing functional requirements on those nary documented safety analysis prior to
portions of the structures, systems, and com procuring materials or components or begin
ponents required for the safety function, and ning construction. DOE, however, may au
identifying performance criteria that wil thorize the contractor to perform limited
ensure functional requirements are met. procurement and construction activities
Technical safety requirements are developed without approval of a preliminary docu
to ensure the operability of the safety struc mented safety analysis if DOE determines
tures, systems, and components and define that the activities are not detrimental to public health and safety and are in the best
actions to be taken if a safety structure, sys:
tem, or component is not operable. interests of DOE. DOE Order 420.1, Facility Safety, sets forth acceptable nuclear safety
4. Technical safety requirements establish design criteria for use in preparing a prelimi
limits, controls, and related actions nec nary documented safety analysis. As a gen
essary for the safe operation of a nuclear fa: eral matter, DOE does not expect prelimi
cility. The exact form and contents of tech nary documented safety analyses to be need
nical safety requirements will depend on the ed for activities that do not involve signifi
circumstances of a particular nuclear facil cant construction such as environmental res
ity as defined in the documented safety anal toration activities, decontamination and de
ysis for the nuclear facility. As appropriate commissioning activities, specific nuclear
technical safety requirements may have sec explosive operations, or transition surveil
tions on (1) safety limits, (2) operating lim lance and maintenance activities,
its, (3) surveillance requirements, (4) admin
istrative controls. (5) use and application G. HAZARD CONTROLS
and (6) design features. It may also have al 1. Hazard controls are measures to elimi
appendix on the bases for the limits and re nate, limit, or mitigate hazards to workers,
quirements. DOE Guide 423.X, Implementa the public, or the environment. They include
tion Guide for Use in Developing Technica (1) physical, design, structural, and engineer
Safety Requirements (TSRs) provides a com ing features; (2) safety structures, systems,
plete description of what technical safety re and components; (3) safety management pro
quirements should contain and how the grams; (4) technical safety requirements; and
should be developed and maintained. (5) other controls necessary to provide ade
5. DOE will examine and approve the tech quate protection from hazards.
nical safety requirements as part of pre 2. The types and specific characteristics of paring the safety evaluation report and re the safety management programs necessary viewing updates to the safety basis. As with for a DOE nuclear facility will be dependent all hazard controls, technical safety require on the complexity and hazards associated ments must be kept current and refled with the nuclear facility and the work being changes in the facility, the work and th performed. In most cases, however, a con- hazards as they are analyzed in the doct. tractor should consider safety management mented safety analysis. In addition, DOE es programs covering topics such as quality aspects a contractor to maintain technica surance, procedures, maintenance, personnel safety requirements, and other hazard con training, conduct of operations, criticality trols as appropriate, as controlled document
ty, emergency preparedness, fire protec- with an authorized users list. tion, waste management, and radiation pro 6. Table 4 sets forth DOE's expectation tection. In general, DOE Orders set forth concerning acceptable technical safety re DOE's expectations concerning specific top- quirements.
As appropriate for a particular DOE nuclear facility, the section of the technical safety
Will provide information on • • *
The limits on process variables associated with those safety class physical bar
riers, generally passive, that are necessary for the intended facility function and that are required to guard against the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. The safety limit section describes, as precisely as possible, the parameters being limited, states the limit in measurable units (pressure, temperature, flow, etc.), and indicates the applicability of the limit. The safety limit section also describes the actions to be taken in the event that the safety limit is exceeded. These actions should first place the facility in the safe, stable condition attainable, including total shutdown (except where such action might reduce the margin of satety) or should verify that the facility already is safe and stable and will remain so. The technical safety requirement should state that the contractor must obtain DOE authorization to restart the nuclear facility following a violation of a safety limit. The safety limit section also establishes the steps and time lim
its to correct the out-of-specification condition. Those limits which are required to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility.
The operating limits section may include subsections on limiting control settings
and limiting conditions for operation. The settings on safety systems that control process variables to prevent exceeding
a safety limit. The limited control settings section normally contains the settings for automatic alarms and for the automatic or nonautomatic initiation of protective actions related to those variables associated with the function of safety class structures, systems, or components if the safety analysis shows that they are relied upon to mitigate or prevent an accident. The limited control settings section also identifies the protective actions to be taken at the specific settings chosen in order to correct a situation automatically or manually such that the related safety limit is not exceeded. Protective actions may include maintaining the variables within the requirements and repairing the automatic device promptly or shutting
down the affected part of the process and, if required, the entire facility. The limits that represent the lowest functional capability or performance level of
safety structures, systems, and components required to perform an activity safely. The limiting conditions for operation section describes, as precisely as possible, the lowest functional capability or performance level of equipment required for continued safe operation of the facility. The limiting conditions for operation section also states the action to be taken to address a condition not meeting the limiting conditions for operation section. Normally this simply provides for the adverse condition being corrected in a certain time frame and for further action it
this is impossible. Requirements relating to test, calibration, or inspection to assure that the nec
essary operability and quality of safety structures, systems, and components is maintained; that facility operation is within safety limits, and that limiting control settings and limiting conditions for operation are met. If a required surveillance is not successfully completed, the contractor is expected to assume the systems or components involved are inoperable and take the actions defined by the technical safety requirement until the systems or components can be shown to be operable. If, however, a required surveillance is not performed within its required frequency, the contractor is allowed to perform the surveillance within 24 hours
or the original frequency, whichever is smaller, and confirm operability. Organization and management, procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and re
porting necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility consistent with the technical safety requirement. In general, the administrative controls section addresses (1) the requirements associated with administrative controls, (including those for reporting violations of the technical safety requirement); (2) the staffing requirements for facility positions important to safe conduct of the facility; and (3) the commitments to the safety management programs identified in the documented safety analysis as necessary components of the safety basis for the fa
cility. The basic instructions for applying the safety restrictions contained in a technical
safety requirement. The use and application section includes definitions of terms,
operating modes, logical connectors, completion times, and frequency notations. Design features of the facility that, if altered or modified, would have a significant
effect on safe operation. The reasons for the safety limits, operating limits, and associated surveillance re
quirements in the technical safety requirements. The statements for each limit or requirement shows how the numeric value, the condition, or the surveillance fulfills the purpose derived from the safety documentation. The primary purpose for describing the basis of each limit or requirement is to ensure that any future changes to the limit or requirement is done with full knowledge of the original intent or purpose of the limit or requirement.
835.4 Radiological units.
Subpart B-Management and Administrative Requirements
835.101 Radiation protection programs. 835.102 Internal audits. 835.103 Education, training and skills. 835.104 Written procedures.
Subpart C-Standards for Internal and
H. UNREVIEWED SAFETY QUESTIONS 1. The USQ process is an important tool to evaluate whether changes affect the safety basis. A contractor must use the USQ process to ensure that the safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility is not undermined by changes in the facility, the work performed, the associated hazards, or other factors that support the adequacy of the safety basis.
2. The USQ process permits a contractor to make physical and procedural changes to a nuclear facility and to conduct tests and experiments without prior approval, provided these changes do not cause a USQ. The USQ process provides a contractor with the flexibility needed to conduct day-to-day operations by requiring only those changes and tests with a potential to impact the safety basis (and therefore the safety of the nuclear facility) be approved by DOE. This allows DOE to focus its review on those changes significant to safety. The USQ process helps keep the safety basis current by ensuring appropriate review of and response to situations that might adversely affect the safety basis.
3. DOE Guide 424.X, Implementation Guide for Addressing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Requirements, provides DOE's expectations for a USQ process. The contractor must obtain DOE approval of its procedure used to implement the USQ process.
835.201 (Reserved] 835.202 Occupational dose limits for general
employees. 835.203 Combining internal and external
dose equivalents. 835.204 Planned special exposures. 835.205 Determination of compliance for
non-uniform exposure of the skin. 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.208 Limits for members of the public en
tering a controlled area. 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive mate
rial in air.
Subpart D [Reserved) Subpart E-Monitoring of Individuals and
835.401 General requirements. 835.402 Individual monitoring. 835.403 Air monitoring. 835.404 [Reserved] 835.405 Receipt of packages containing ra
Subpart F-Entry Control Program
835.501 Radiological areas. 835.502 High and very high radiation areas.
I. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1. The DOE Management Official for a DOE nuclear facility (that is, the Assistant Secretary, the Assistant Administrator, or the Office Director who is primarily responsible for the management of the facility) has primary responsibility within DOE for ensuring that the safety basis for the facility is adequate and complies with the safety basis requirements of Part 830. The DOE Management Official is responsible for ensuring the timely and proper (1) review of all safety basis documents submitted to DOE and (2) preparation of a safety evaluation report concern
the safety basis for a facility. 2. DOE will maintain a public list on the internet that provides the status of the safety basis for each hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility and, to the extent practicable, provides information on how to obtain a copy of the safety basis and related documents for a facility.
Subpart G-Posting and Labeling 835.601 General requirements. 835,602 Controlled areas. 835.603 Radiological areas and radioactive
material areas. 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.605 Labeling items and containers. 835.606 Exceptions to labeling requirements.
Subpart H-Records 835.701 General provisions. 835.702 Individual monitoring records. 835.703 Other monitoring records. 835.704 Administrative records.
Subpart - Reports to Individuals 835.801 Reports to individuals.
PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION
Subpart A-General Provisions
Sec. 835.1 Scope. 835.2 Definitions. 835.3 General rule.
Subpart J—Radiation Safety Training 835.901 Radiation safety training.
certified by the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission under section 1701 of the Subpart K-Design and Control
Atomic Energy Act; 835.1001 Design and control.
(2) Activities conducted under the au835.1002 Facility design and modifications. thority of the Director, Naval Nuclear 835.1003 Workplace controls.
Propulsion Program, as described in
Pub. L. 98-525; Subpart 1-Radioactive Contamination (3) Activities conducted under the Control
Nuclear Explosives and Weapons Sur835.1101 Control of material and equipment.
ety Program relating to the prevention 835.1102 Control of areas.
of accidental or unauthorized nuclear
detonations; Subpart M-Sealed Radioactive Source (4) Radioactive material transporControl
tation as defined in this part;
(5) DOE activities conducted outside 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control.
the United States on territory under 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive
the jurisdiction of a foreign governsources.
ment to the extent governed by occuSubpart N-Emergency Exposure Situations pational radiation protection require
ments agreed to between the United 835.1301 General provisions.
States and the cognizant government; 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations.
or 835.1303 (Reserved] 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry.
(6) Background radiation, radiation APPENDIX A TO PART 835-DERIVED AIR CON
doses received as a patient for the purCENTRATIONS (DAC) FOR CONTROLLING RA
poses of medical diagnosis or therapy, DIATION EXPOSURE TO WORKERS AT DOE or radiation doses received from parFACILITIES
ticipation as a subject in medical reAPPENDIX B TO PART 835 [RESERVED]
search programs. APPENDIX CTO PART 835-DERIVED AIR CON
(c) Occupational doses received as a CENTRATIONS (DAC) FOR WORKERS FROM
result of excluded activities and radioEXTERNAL EXPOSURE DURING IMMERSION
active material transportation, as listIN A CONTAMINATED ATMOSPHERIC CLOUD APPENDIX D TO PART 835-SURFACE CONTAMI
ed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of NATION VALUES
this section, shall be considered when APPENDIX E TO PART 835_VALUES FOR ESTAB determining compliance with the occu
LISHING SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCE AC pational dose limits at $$ 835.202 and COUNTABILITY AND RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
835.207, and with the limits for the emPOSTING AND LABELING REQUIREMENTS
bryo/fetus at $835.206. Occupational AUTHORITY: 42 U.S.C. 2201; 7191.
doses resulting from authorized emerSOURCE: 58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, unless
gency exposures and planned special otherwise noted.
exposures shall not be considered when
determining compliance with the dose Subpart A-General Provisions
limits at 88 835.202 and 835.207.
[58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 $835.1 Scope.
FR 59679, Nov. 4, 1998] (a) General. The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards,
8835.2 Definitions. limits, and program requirements for (a) As used in this part: protecting individuals from ionizing Accountable sealed radioactive source radiation resulting from the conduct of means a sealed radioactive source havDOE activities.
ing a half-life equal to or greater than (b) Erclusion. Except as discussed in 30 days and an isotopic activity equal paragraph (c) of this section, the re to or greater than the corresponding quirements in this part do not apply value provided in appendix E of this to:
part. (1) Activities that are regulated Airborne radioactive material or airthrough a license by the Nuclear Regu- borne radioactivity means radioactive latory Commission or a State under an material dispersed in the air in the Agreement with the Nuclear Regu- form of dusts, fumes, particulates, latory commission, including activities mists, vapors, or gases.
Airborne radioactivity area means any (iv) Radon and its progeny in conarea, accessible to individuals, where: centrations or levels existing in build
(1) The concentration of airborne ra- ings or the environment which have dioactivity, above natural background, not been elevated as a result of current exceeds or is likely to exceed the de or prior activities; and rived air concentration (DAC) values (v) Consumer products containing listed in appendix A or appendix C of nominal amounts of radioactive matethis part; or
rial or producing nominal amounts of (2) An individual present in the area radiation. without respiratory protection could Bioassay means the determination of receive an intake exceeding 12 DAC- kinds, quantities, or concentrations, hours in a week.
and, in some cases, locations of radioALARA means “As Low As is Reason active material in the human body, ably Achievable,” which is the ap- whether by direct measurement or by proach to radiation protection to man analysis, and evaluation of radioactive age and control exposures (both indi- materials excreted or removed from vidual and collective) to the work force the human body. and to the general public to as low as Calibration means to adjust and/or deis reasonable, taking into account so- termine either: cial, technical, economic, practical, (i) The response or reading of an inand public policy considerations. As strument relative to a standard (e.g., used in this part, ALARA is not a dose primary, secondary, or tertiary) or to a limit but a process which has the ob- series of conventionally true values, or
tive of attaining doses as far below (ii) The strength of a radiation the applicable limits of this part as is source relative to a standard (e.g., prireasonably achievable.
mary, secondary, or tertiary) or conAnnual limit on intake (ALI) means ventionally true value. the derived limit for the amount of ra Contamination area means any area, dioactive material taken into the body accessible to individuals, where remov. of an adult worker by inhalation or in- able surface contamination levels exgestion in a year. ALI is the smaller ceed or are likely to exceed the removvalue of intake of a given radionuclide able surface contamination values in a year by the reference man (ICRP specified in appendix D of this part, but Publication 23) that would result in a do not exceed 100 times those values. committed effective dose equivalent of Contractor means any entity under 5 rems (0.05 sievert) or a committed contract with the Department of Endose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) ergy with the responsibility to perform to any individual organ or tissue. ALI activities at a DOE site or facility. values for intake by ingestion and in Controlled area means any area to halation of selected radionuclides are which access is managed by or for DOE based on Table 1 of the U.S. Environ- to protect individuals from exposure to mental Protection Agency's Federal radiation and/or radioactive material. Guidance Report No. 11, Limiting Values
Declared pregnant worker means a of Radionuclide Intake and Air Con
woman who has voluntarily declared to centration and Dose Conversion Factors
her employer, in writing, her pregfor Inhalation, Submersion, and Inges
nancy for the purpose of being subject tion, published September 1988. This
to the occupational dose limits to the document is available from the Na
embryo/fetus as provided at $ 835.206. tional Technical Information Service,
This declaration may be revoked, in Springfield, VA.
writing, at any time by the declared Background means radiation from:
pregnant worker. (i) Naturally occurring radioactive Derived air concentration (DAC) materials which have not been techno means, for the radionuclides listed in logically enhanced;
appendix A of this part, the airborne (ii) Cosmic sources;
concentration that equals the ALI di(iii) Global fallout as it exists in the vided by the volume of air breathed by environment (such as from the testing an average worker for a working year of nuclear explosive devices);
of 2000 hours (assuming a breathing