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gations as he may direct the Administrator to undertake, and upon consideration of the Administrator's resulting reports and recommendations, shall find and declare that an extension of the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, to any office or position in the agencies of the Government is necessary to the more efficient operation of the Government, he may by Executive order extend the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, to any such office or position not at the time subject to such provisions: Provided, That in the case of any federally owned and controlled corporation organized under the laws of any State, Territory, or possession of the United States (including the Philippine Islands), or the District of Columbia, the President is authorized to direct that such action be taken as will permit the compensation of such offices or positions to be fixed in accordance with the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, consistently with the laws of any such State, Territory, or possession or the District of Columbia, or with the charter or articles of incorporation of any such corporation.

(b) Whenever the President, upon report and recommendation by the Administrator, shall find and declare that one or more offices or positions to which the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and extended, is applicable, may not fairly and reasonably be allocated to the professional and scientific service, the subprofessional service, the clerical, administrative, and fiscal service, the custodial service, or the clerical-mechanical service, as described in the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, he may by Executive order prescribe and define such additional classification services and grades thereof as he may deem necessary and shall describe, and fix the ranges of compensation for, the grades of such services within the limits of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, so that they shall be comparable, as nearly as may be, with the grades in said Act, as amended, for offices or positions that are comparable as to duties, responsibilities, qualifications required, and other conditions of employment.

(c) Whenever the President, upon report and recommendation by the Administrator, shall find and declare that the rates of the compensation schedules of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, are inadequate for any offices or positions under such Act, as amended and extended, he may by Executive order establish necessary schedules of differentials in the rates prescribed in such compensation schedules, but the differential in the compensation of any such office or position shall not exceed 25 per centum of the minimum rate of the grade to which such office or position is allocated under such compensation schedules: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection shall be applicable only to such offices or positions having the following characteristics:

Offices or positions which are located at stations that are isolated, remote, or inaccessible when compared with stations at which offices or positions of the same character are usually located, or which involve physical hardships or hazards that are excessive when compared with those usually involved in offices or positions of the same character, or which are located outside the States of the United States and the District of Columbia : Prorided further, That nothing herein contained shall preclude the Administrator from taking the factor of isolation, hardship, hazard, or foreign service into consideration in allocating a given class of offices or positions to a service and grade under the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, if such factor is uniformly involved in each office or position in the class, in which event no differential is authorized under this section.

(a) Except as Congress may otherwise provide by law, the power granted to the President by this section shall not only apply to the following:

(i) Offices or positions in the Postal Service the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approred February 28, 1925 (43 Stat. 1033), as amended:

(ii) Offices or positions of teachers, librarians, school-attendance officers, and employees of the community-center department under the Board of Education of the District of Columbia, the compensation of which is fired under an Act of Congress approved June 4, 1924 (43 Stat 367), as amended :

(iii) Offices or positions in the Metropolitan Police, in the fire department of the District of Columbia, and in the U'nited States Park Police, the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved July 1, 1930 (46 Stat. 839);

(iv) Commissioned officers and enlisted personnel in the military and naval services and the Coast Guard, and commissioned officers in the Public Health Service, and the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved June 10, 1922 (42 Stat. 625), as amended;

(v) Offices or positions in the Government Printing Office the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 658);

(vi) Offices or positions of foreign service officers in the Foreign Service of the United States the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved May 24, 1924 (43 Stat. 140), as amended ;

(vii) Offices or positions of clerks in the Foreign Service of the United States the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved February 23, 1931 (46 Stat. 1207);

(viii) Offices or positions of commercial attachés, assistant commercial attachés, trade commissioners, and assistant trade commissioners in the Foreign Commerce Service of the Department of Commerce, the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved March 3, 1927 (44 Stat. 1394), as amended;

(ix) Offices or positions of verifiers-openers-packers, clerks, guards, inspectors, station inspectors and laborers, in the Customs Service of the Treasury Department the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 955), as amended;

(x) Offices or positions of inspectors in the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Labor the compensation of which is fixed under an Act of Congress approved May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 954), as amended ;

(xi) Offices or positions the duties of which are to serve as an officer or member of the crew of a vessel ; and

(xii) Offices or positions the duties of which are to perform the work of an apprentice, helper or journeyman in a recognized trade or craft, or other skilled mechanical craft, or the work of an unskilled, semiskilled, or skilled laborer, except that whenever such offices or positions involve work in the regular custody, operation or maintenance of a Government building or other Government property, or work which is subordinate, incidental, or preparatory to work of a professional, scientific, or technical character, the President, upon a finding that the characteristics and working conditions of such offices or positions render them substantially the same as comparable offices or positions in the District of Columbia included within the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, may by Executive order extend the provisions of such Act to include them.

SEC. 218. The President is authorized, after suitable investigation by the Administrator which shall include consultation with representatives of the heads of Executive departments and independent agencies in or under the jurisdiction of which the offices or positions hereinafter designated are located, and upon a finding that such action is necessary to the more efficient operation of the Government, to exclude, by Executive order, from the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended and extended under this Act;

Offices or positions on work which is financed jointly by the United States and a State, Territory, or possession of the United States (including the Philippine Islands), or political subdivision thereof, or cooperating persons or organizations outside the service of the Federal Government, the pay of which is fixed under a cooperative agreement with the United States; offices or positions none or only part of the compensation of which is paid from funds of the United States; offices or positions filled by inmates, patients, students, or beneficiaries in Government institutions; offices or positions outside the States of the United States and the District of Columbia filled by natives of Territories or possessions of the United States (including the Philippine Islands) or foreign nationals; emergency or seasonal offices or positions in the field service, or other field offices or positions the duties of which are of purely temporary duration or which are required only for brief periods at intervals; and offices or positions filled by persons employed locally on a fee, contract, or piecework basis who may lawfully perform their duties concurrently with their private profession, business, or other employment, and whose duties require only a portion of their time, where it is impracticable to ascertain or anticipate the proportion of time devoted to the service of the Federal Government.

SEC. 219. When any extension of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, becomes effective under part 5 of this title:

(a) The allocations of officers or positions to services, grades, and classes shall be made as set forth in section 4 of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and in accordance with a uniform procedure to be prescribed by the Administrator; and

(b) The initial compensation of the incumbents of the offices or positions to which the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, are extended under part 5 of this title, shall be fixed in accordance with sectian 6 of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, except that if an officer or employee is receiving compensation in excess of the maximum rate prescribed for the appropriate grade no change by reason of this fact shall be made in his existing compensation so long as he continues to occupy the same office or position, but the office or position shall be correctly allocated and when it becomes vacant the compensation attached thereto shall be brought within the compensation schedule, in accordance with existing law.

Sec. 220. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the promotion of an officer or employee from an office or position in one class to a vacant office or position in a higher class at any time in accordance with civil service laws, and when so promoted the officer or employee shall receive compensation according to the schedule established for the class to which he is promoted.

PART 6. REVISION OF SALARIES FOR HIGHER OFFICES AND POSITIONS

SEC. 221. Section 13 of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, is amended to change the salary rates and definitions of certain grades therein, to read as follows:

"PROFESSIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICE

“Grade 7 in this service which may be referred to as the head professional grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to perform, individually or with trained assistants, under administrative direction, and with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of exceptional difficulty, importance, and responsibility requiring extending professional, scientific, or technical training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and marked attainments in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration; or to serve as head of a major professional or scientific organization; or to serve as assistant head of a major professional or scientific bureau or commensurate organization; or to serve as consulting specialist and to furnish for final executive action expert critical advice on professional, scientific, or technical problems or policies of exceptional importance; or to perform professional or scientific work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $6,600, $7,000, and $7,500, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

"Grade 8 in this service, which may be referred to as the chief professional grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to perform, individually or with trained assistants, under general administrative direction, and with exceptionally wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of outstanding difficulty, importance, and responsibility requiring extended professional, scientific, or technical training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and exceptional attainments in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration; or to serve as the head of a professional or scientific bureau or commensurate organization which, considering its size, the kind, scope, variety, and degree of importance of the work with which it is charged, and the scope and complexity of its problems of direction and administration, is one of the major bureaus of the Government; or to serve as assistant head of one of the largest and most important professional or scientific bureaus or commensurate organization; or to serve as professional consultant to a department head or a commission or board and to furnish for final executive action expert critical advice on professional, scientific, or technical problems or policies of outstanding difficulty and importance; or to perform professional or scientific work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $8,000, $9,000, and $10,000, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

“Grade 9 in this service, which may be referred to as the special professional grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to serve as the head of a professional or scientific bureau or commensurate organization which, considering its size, the kind, scope, variety, and the degree of importance of the work with which it is charged, and the scope and complexity of its problems of direction and administration, is one of the largest

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and most important bureaus of the Government; or to perform professional or scientific work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $12,000$13,500, and $15,000, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

CLERICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND FISCAL SERVICE “Grade 13 in this service which may be referred to as the chief administrative grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to act as assistant head of a major administrative organization; or to act as administrative head of a major subdivision of such an organization; or to supervise the design and installation of office systems, methods, and procedures; or to perform work of similar importance, difficulty, and responsibility.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $5,600, $5,800, $6,000, and $6,200, and $6,400, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

"Grade 14 in this service, which may be referred to as the executive grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to perform, under administrative direction, and with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of exceptional difficulty, importance, and responsibility along specialized or administrative lines requiring extended training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and marked attainments in specialized or administrative work; or in case professional or scientific training is not required, to serve as assistant head of a major bureau or commensurate organi. zation; or to serve as consulting specialist and to furnish for final executive action expert critical advice on specialized, administrative, or fiscal problems or policies, or exceptional importance.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $6,500, $7,000, and $7,500, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

"Grade 15 in this service, which may be referred to as the senior executive grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to perform, under general administrative direction, and with exceptionally wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of outstanding difficulty, importance, and responsibility along specialized or administrative lines, requiring extended training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and exceptional attainments in specialized or administrative work; or, in case professional or scientific training is not required, to serve as the head of a bureau or commensurate organization which, considering its size, the kind, scope, variety, and the degree of importance of the work with which it is charged and the scope and complexity of its problems of direction and administration, is one of the major bureaus of the Government; or to serve as assistant head of one of the largest and most important bureaus or commensurate organizations; or to serve as consultant to a department head or a commission or board and to furnish for final executive action expert critical advice on specialized, administrative, or fiscal matters of outstanding difficulty and importance.

“The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $8,000, $9,000, and $10,000, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.

"Grade 16 in this service, which may be referred to as the special executive grade, shall include all classes of positions the duties of which are to serve, in case professional or scientific training is not required, as the head of a bureau or commensurate organization which, considering its size, the kind, scope, variety, and degree of importance of the work with which it is charged, and the scope and complexity of its problems of direction and administration, is one of the largest and most important bureaus of the Government; or to serve as the highest ranking career executive officer of a department (including any managerial agency of the Government; or to perform work of special difficulty, importance and responsibility.

"The annual rates of compensation for positions in this grade shall be $12,000, $13,500, and $15,000, unless a higher rate is specifically authorized by law.”

SEC. 222. (a) The compensation of the officers designated below shall be as follows:

Heads of Executive departments $20,000 per annum;
Undersecretaries of Executive departments, $15,000 per annum;
Assistant Secretaries of Executive departments, $12,000 per annum;

For the purposes of this Act, the Solicitor General shall be deemed to be the Undersecretary of the Department of Justice, and the First Assistant Postmaster General, the Undersecretary of the Post Office Department. The Assistant to the Attorney General, the Assistant Atorneys General, the Assistant Solicitor General, and the Second, Third, and Fourth Assistant Postmasters General shall be deemed to be Assistant Secretaries of their respective departments.

(b) The salaries of the heads of independent agencies shall be fixed by the President at a rate not higher than the maximum rate of the grade to which their respective positions are allocated by the Administrator.

PART 7. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SEC. 223. All laws in force on the effective date of section 202 of this title referring to the United States Civil Service Commission, the three offices of Civil Service Commissioner, or any other offices of such Commission, are amended in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

SEC. 224. The President is authorized to promulgate such rules, and the Administrator and the Board to prescribe such regulations, as may be necessary to enable them to exercise their respective functions under the provisions of this Act.

TITLE III

AUDITING AND ACCOUNTING AGENCIES

PART 1. DECLARATION OF POLICY

SECTION 301. The necessity for providing an effective means of auditing and accounting more in keeping with the needs of the Congress and the Executive in the discharge of their respective obligations under the Constitution (a) to appropriate monies from the Treasury; and (b) to take care that the laws relating to the expenditure of and the accounting for public monies are faithfully executed, is hereby recognized. Accordingly, it is hereby declared to be the policy of the Congress to establish (1) a joint committee of the Congress to consider reports of an auditing agency and report thereon to the Congress; (2) an auditing agency responsible to the Congress through which the Congress will be currently informed of all settlements and expenditures deemed by the auditing agency to have been improperly or improvidently made; and (3) an accounting agency responsible to the Executive through which the Executive can exercise a more effective control over appropriations and assume full responsibility for the final determination of the availability and the faithful expenditure of appropriations, and the final determination of amounts due to and from the Government, and the collection and settlement thereof.

PART 2. THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTS

Sec. 302. (a) There is established a joint congressional committee to be known as the Joint Committee on Public Accounts (referred to in this Title as the "Joint Committee"), to be composed of 24 members as follows:

For members, two from the majority party and two from the minority party of, and chosen by, each of the following committees: In the Senate, the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, the Committee on Appropriations, and the Committee on Finance; in the House of Representatives, the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, the Committee on Appropriations, and the Committee on Ways and Means.

(b) No person shall continue to serve as a member of the joint committee after he has ceased to be a member of the Committee by which he was chosen,

(c) A vacancy in the Joint Committee shall not affect the power of the remaining members to execute the functions of the joint committee, and shall be filled in the same manner as the original selection, except that in case of a vacancy during an adjournment or recess of the Congress for a period of more than two weeks, the members of the joint committee who are members of the Committee entitled to fill such vacancy may designate a member of such Committee to serve until his successor is chosen by such Committee.

SEC. 303. The Joint Committee shall elect a Chairman and a Vice Chairman from among the members of the joint committee, and shall have the power to appoint and fix the compensation of a clerk and such experts and clerical, stenographic, and other assistance, as it deems advisable.

SEC. 304. (a) The members of the joint committee shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as Members of the

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