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London for July, 1774, shows that I am not the first to raise these questions. It says:
“This unspoken speech, which is attributed to a Right Reverend member of a high Assembly, does equal honor to the understanding and to the heart that dictated it. Why it was not delivered on the occasion for which it was calculated is not declared; but that it was not, is much to be regretted; for we cannot form so injurious opinion of the illustrious audience as to think that a discourse so convincing and persuasive could have passed over without producing some effect. We are even willing to hope it may have some influence now in preparing the minds of men for more conciliatory measures when proper opportunity offers, and such opportunity cannot be wanting whenever we are happily predisposed to make use of it; 'for thus,' says this worthy prelate, ‘as I apprehend, stands the case. They petition for the repeal of an Act of Parliament which they complain of as unjust and oppressive.'” It closes as follows: “I think every candid reader must own that administration has suffered in more instances than one, both in interest and credit, by not chusing to give up points that could not be defended.”
It must be assumed that it was the policy of the bishop and of Franklin to give no one any authority to attribute the speech to either of them. And so faithfully was the bishop's anonymity respected, that in all the answers this pamphlet provoked in England, or at least the only two I have any knowledge of, his name is not alluded to, though one of them is addressed “ To the Bishop of St. A. ..."
In 1792, two volumes, entitled, “ The Works of the Right Reverend Jonathan Shipley, D.D., Lord Bishop of St. Asaph's,” which included the speech under consideration, were published in London by Cadell, the publisher of the five consecutive anonymous copies of the pamphlet.
No particular importance as evidence of authorship attaches to this fact, because this collection was not edited by the bishop or any of his kin, but by Cadell himself, and was not given to the public until four years after the bishop's death. It was manifestly a speculation of the publisher, who says in his brief preface:
“The publisher thinks it right to declare he has no reason to believe any part of them—the pieces in the second volume in which ‘The Speech intended to be spoken' is found—now first appearing in print, was originally intended for public inspection.”
After some amplification of this apology for their publication, he adds in a separate paragraph:
“ These occasional Sermons, and a Speech intended to have been Spoken on the Massachusetts Charter Bill, published at different periods, but now difficult to be met with, are added to this collection.”
The sermons and speech here referred to appear in the second volume. Not a word is given in explanation of the publisher's authority for putting this speech, which the bishop never acknowledged, in a collection of his works. This speech and some occasional sermons are spoken of as “added” to this collection. Why “added?” Why were they not treated like the others, as a legitimate part of the collection ? There was not apparently any good reason for longer suppressing the history of that speech, if he knew it, as he most probably did. And if he
did not, the bishop's son, afterwards Dean of St. Asaph's; his eldest daughter, who maried Sir William Jones, and another daughter, who married Francis Hare-Naylor, and became the mother of Julius and Augustus Hare, must have known its history, if it was known to any mortal besides the bishop and Franklin. Yet neither of these children, one at least a correspondent and warm friend of Franklin, appears to have taken any responsibility for this reprint; and even the publisher makes what reads like an apology for “adding” it to a collection, as though it were not to the manor born, and implying a cloud of some sort upon its title. This resolute and persistent silence of the bishop during his lifetime-he survived the first publication some fourteen years—and of his four children, when this publication went to press four years after his death, and that also of the publisher, and the yet more extraordinary silence of Franklin, affords about the highest grade of circumstantial evidence that the bishop, though he might have allowed himself to be the sponsor, was not the author of the intended speech.
I trust no reader will infer that in claiming for Franklin the substantial authorship of this address I am detracting from the indebtedness of his compatriots on both sides of the Atlantic for his assistance in giving to such a timely and important paper a currency which, without his consent, it could never have attained. What he did was under the circumstances a greater, because a more generous, thing to do than to have written the speech; and, whether he was or was not the author of it, he placed this Republic under obligations which have not yet been discharged.
With this note I send you for the Library a copy of the Works of Bishop Shipley in two volumes, now very scarce, published in London in 1792. In them the reader will have an opportunity of comparing the style of the Bishop with the style of the “Speech Intended to be Spoken " to be found in the second volume. The first volume contains also an admirable portrait of Shipley engraved by Trotter from a painting of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Of this portrait there were two copies, painted by one of the Bishop's daughters—I believe Franklin's correspondent—under the eyes of Sir Joshua and re-touched by him. I hope it may enter into the hearts of their present proprietors to send one of these copies to this library, where the Good Bishop's name is known and admired by a far larger number of people I presume than on the other side of the Atlantic at present.
I send also a copy of the broadside to which I have referred. I know nothing of its history, nor even the date of it, nor the place where it was printed. I bought it in London and presume it was printed there and subsequent to the appearance of the Intended Speech in the works of the Bishop published four years after his decease; for it is the only copy of that speech ever printed in England, I believe, in which the Bishop's name is given as the author, except as implied in the second volume of his Works, where it appears without any ostensible sanction from any member of his family or descendants.
Yours very respectfully,
RELATING TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.
Order of Arrangement:
Works ABOUT FRANKLIN.
WORKS PRINTED BY FRANKLIN.
PORTRAITS, ETC., OF FRANKLIN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Boston Public Library. Benjamin Franklin. [List of works by and about him.) (Bulletin Boston Pub. Lib. v. 5, pp. 217–231, 276-284, 420433. Boston, 1883.) Prepared by Lindsay Swift.
Arranged: (i) Works by Franklin in the library; (ii) works by Franklin not in the library: (iii) works relating to Franklin; (iv) works printed by Franklin (both in the library and elsewhere).
Dwight (Theodore F.) Report on the papers of Benjamin Franklin, offered for sale by Mr. Henry Stevens, recommending their purchase by Con. gress. December 20, 1881. [Washington, 1881.] 99 pp., cloth. 8°. (U. S. 47. Cong., I sess., S. mis. doc. 21.)
Contains a reprint of Henry Stevens' "Benjamin Franklin's Life and Writings: a Bibliographical Essay," pp. 3-28; ard pp. 29-95a - List of the documents, official papers, public and private letters, and other papers comprised in the Franklin manuscripts, 1726–1790;
pp. 96-99 are a reprint of Stevens' letter to the secretary of state, stating that he is authorized to sell the Franklin MSS.
Ford (Paul Leicester). Franklin bibliography: a list of books written by or relating to Benjamin Franklin. Brooklyn, 1889. lxxi, 1 l., 467 pp. 8o.
Franklin's own writings are grouped into (i) books and pamphlets, (i) periodicals and serials, (iii) state papers and treaties, (iv) works containing letters of Franklin, (v), pseudonyms, (ví erroneous or doubtful. Followed by a subject index and reference list to Franklin literature, a check list and chronological index, and a general index.
Grolier Club. Catalogue of an Exhibition commemorating the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin at the Grolier Club of the City of New York, January, 1906. [New York: Dé Vinne Press, 1906.] 1 p.1., 100 pp. 12°. Engraved portraits, books, ceramic portraits, medallions, pottery statuettes, manuscripts.
Pennypacker (Samuel W.) Books printed by Benjamin Franklin, books relating to Benjamin Franklin, letters written by Benjamin Franklin. Collected by Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. Catalogue compiled and sale conducted by Stan. V. Henkels, at the book auction rooms of Davis &
Harvey, 1112 Walnut St., Philada., Pa. (Part 1, 14 Dec., 1905.] v, go pp. port., facsim. 8o. (Catalogue no. 943.)
Stevens (Benjamin F.) Letter to the secre. tary of state, stating that the writer is authorized to sell the “ Henry Stevens Franklin collection of manuscripts and books.” Jan. 20, 1881. n. t.-P. [Washington, 1881.] 5 pp. 8°. (46. Cong., 3. sess., Sen. ex, doc. 25.)
Reprinted in Dwight's report on the papers of Benjamin Franklin offered for sale by Henry Stevens.
Stevens (Henry). Benjamin Franklin's life and writings: a bibliographical essay on the Stevens collection of books and MSS. relating to Dr. F. London: The Author, 1881. viii, 40 pp., i facsim., 5 port.
nar. 4° Printed in his Historical Collections, I., and reprinted in T. F. Dwight's “ Report on the papers of Benjamin Franklin." (U. S. 47. Cong., 1. Sess., S. misc. doc. 21.)
Stevens's historical collections. Catalogue of... books... relating chicfly to... America...and .. Franklin collection...sold by auction... July ..1881...pt. 1-2. London: Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge (1881). 2 v. 8o.
United States.—Library of Congress. List of the Benjamin Franklin papers in the library of Congress. Compiled under the direction of Wor. thington Chauncey Ford, chief, division of manuscripts. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905. 322 pp. 8°.
Chronological arrangement in the calendar, followed by alphabetical subject index.
- Library Committee. [Report from the joint committee on the letter from the secretary of state transmitting the report of Theodore F. Dwight on the Franklin papers.) n. t..p. (Washington, 1882.] 7 pp. 8°. (47 Cong., 1. sess., Sen. rpt., 504.)
Rolls and Library Bureau. Arrangement of the papers of Madison, Jefferson, Hamilton, Monroe and Franklin. Washington, 1894. 138 pp. 4°. Bull. no. 5.)
Arranged chronologically, by date of composition. Franklin (Benjamin). Philadelphia, May 2, Franklin (Benjamin). [Easton ? Pa.,] Dec. 1746. To Orders two sets of Popple's Maps 29. 1755. Instructions to Major (William] Parof North America, also the statutes at large, for the sons, to raise a company for the defence of Easton, Assembly. A.L.S. Endorsed. 1 page. 4°. EM.4699 post sentinels, and scout the neighboring country;
I page. Fo.
Manuscripts, cont'd. Major Parsons is also to see that the companies of Capts. Martin and Craig perform their duty. A. D. Draft. Endorsed. I page.
MYERS Franklin (Benjamin). Philadelphia, Apr. 12, 1753. To Rev. Jared Eliot. Case of pride in a young woman mentioned by the Tatler; cause he has had for vanity: the “ Grand Monarch of France” sends express thanks to Mr. Franklin, "for the useful Discoveries in Electricity, & Application of the pointed Rods to prevent the terrible Effects of Thunderstorms." P. S. May 3, 1753, on the properties of the air, etc. A. L. S. En. dorsed. 2 pp. Fo.
EM. I 20 This letter, with slight variations, is printed in Franklin's Writings (Sparks), vol. 2, p. 284; (Bigelow), vol. 6, p. 160.
Franklin (Benjamin), and Hunter (William). Dec. 24, 1754. Appointment of Thomas Vernon as deputy postmaster for the town of Newport, R. I. D. S., B. Franklin, Wm. Hunter. Printed form filled in. Endorsed.
EM. 5233 Franklin (Benjamin). Bethlehem, [Penn.,] Jan. 12, 1756. To Captain Vanetta, Upper Smithfield. He is directed to raise a company of thirty men to protect his township; they are to be posted as follows: eight at his own house, eight at Lieutenant Henshaw's, six with a sergeant at Fishhock, and the same number at Henry Cortracht's; men are to be enlisted for one month; he is to keep a record of their time, and a journal; forty dollars will be paid for the scalp of every hostile Indian; he is to give warning of incursions, keep order among his men, and do no injury to the inhabitants whom it is his duty to protect. A. L. S. Endorsed.
EM. 836 Franklin (Benjamin). London, Jan. 3, 1760. To Sir Alexander Dick. He is returned to his house here, after a tour of 1500 miles; he remembers with particular pleasure the time he spent in Scotland; incloses a Philadelphia newspaper, by which Sir Alexander may see that the Edinburgh infirmary has been imitated in that part of the world, and that the tragedy of Douglas has been played at the theatre there; another paper shows the method of advertising letters that remain in the post office. A. L. S. 2 pp. Fo.
LENOX Franklin (Benjamin), and Hunter (William). July 11, 1760. Appointment of Thomas Machreth as deputy postmaster. Printed form filled in. D. S. I page. 4o.
An extra-illustrated copy of Parton's Franklin. p. 330.
Franklin (Benjamin). Two letters on smoky chimneys, 1762-1785. Half morocco. F°. EM. F
With printed title-page by “Thos. Addis Emmet, M.D., New York, 1890," and portrait. The first letter is to Sir Alexander Dick, Jan. 21, 1762; the second is to Dr. Ingenousz, Aug. 28, 1785. The latter is printed in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1786, and in Bigelow's Works of Franklin, vol. 9 (N. Y., 1888), p. 205.
Franklin (Benjamin). Philadelphia, Dec. 11, 1763. To Sir Alexander Dick. He sends assurances of friendship, from himself and from his son, who is happy in his government and in his mar: riage; his daughter joins in thanks for the Scottish songs; she sings them to her harpsichord, and he plays them on his harmonica; praises their simple beauty; sends a few American airs, a book of poetry, etc. A. L. S. 2 pp. Fo.
Franklin (Benjamin). London, June 2, 1765. To Sir Alexander Dick. Acknowledges congratulations on his return to Britain; the slip for Dr. Morgan he sent to America; is unable to give Mr. Swinton the information desired; states all that he knows concerning the rights to the lands of Peter Sonmans in the Jerseys; recommends Samuel Bard, who is studying physic at Edinburgh. A.L.S. 2 pp., I leaf with endorsement. Fo.
Franklin (Benjamin). London, Jan. 11, 1772. To Sir Alexander Dick. His last expedition convinced him that he grows too old for rambling; it is uncomfortable to part with friends one hardly expects to see again; this, with other hindrances, prevented him from calling at Prestonfields, sends his best wishes. A. L. S. I page.
4o. Franklin (Benjamin). London, Mar. 9, 1773. To William Cooper (Boston). Acknowledges letter of Dec. 8 with copy of the proceedings of townmeeting, also other copies for distribution, which he delivered as directed; he had the pamphlet reprinted in order to make their grievances more generally known. A. L. S.
I page, I leaf with endorsement. Fo.
Franklin (Benjamin). London, Feb. 2, 1774. To Thomas Cushing, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and William Phillips (Boston). He communicated to Lord Dartmouth their letter of Dec. 21, containing an account of the proceedings relative to the tea; he is concerned at the destruction of private property; it is impossible to justify this to most people in England; he hopes the general court will make reparation before compulsive measures are thought of here; the friends of America do not want to give any pretext for the war that is threatened; voluntary separation will set them right. A. L. S. Endorsed. 3 pp. Fo.
Printed in R. Frothingham's Joseph Warren, Boston, 1865, p. 315; in Colonial Soc. of Mass. Publications, vol. 5, P. 57; and in Bulletin of the N. Y. Public Library, vol. 1, p. 244. The letter of Dec. 21, 1773, from the committee of the house of representatives to Benjamin Franklin, is among the Lee MSS. in the Harvard University Library. It is printed in Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections, 4th series, vol. 4, p. 377.
Franklin (Benjamin). London, Sept. 3, 1774. To Thomas Cushing (Boston). He has been advised to postpone his return to America until the results of the congress should arrive; the coolness and temper of American proceedings and the unanimity of the colonies are disappointing to their enemies; the tone of public conversation begins to turn in their favor; if the non-consumption agreement should become general the ministry must be ruined; from their successors, a great constitutional charter may be hoped for. Contemporary copy. 3 pp. 4o.
Franklin (Benjamin). London, Oct. 6, 1774. To Thomas Cushing [Philadelphia). Sudden dissolution of parliament. probably in order to hold a new election before ferment arises here over advices supposed to have been received from Boston; if the congress resolves on non-consumption of manufactures, the ministry must go out; he is grieved to hear of mobs and violence; the electors of London and some other places have directed their candi. dates to endeavor to repeal the acts against America; he sends copies of the Bishop of St. Asaph's intended speech, which had an extraordinary effect when printed; he thinks an accommodation will be
2 pp. Fo.
Manuscripts, cont'd. brought about when the measures of the congress are known, but anxious lest an affray between the soldiers and the people may make a breach that cannot be healed. A. L. S. Endorsed. 3 pp. Fo.
BANCROFT Franklin (Benjamin). London, Oct. 10, 1774. To Thomas Cushing [Philadelphia). Wilkes was elected Lord Mayor by a great majority, and it is thought that he will carry the elections of London members pledged to repeal the acts against America; the ministry will still have a majority for its measures in the new parliament, because most of the members are bribing or purchasing to get in, and will sell their votes to the ministers to reimburse themselves; if America would save for three years the money she spends on fineries, she might buy the whole parliament; some of the ministerial people begin to blame Hutchinson and Gage. A. L, S.
2 pp., I leaf with endorsement. 4°.
Franklin (Benjamin). Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1775. To Gen. (Philip] Schuyler (Ticonderoga). He has obtained permission from the committee of safety to send what powder remains in their magazine to Gen. Schuyler: requests a supply of lead from the quantity taken at Ticonderoga. A. L. S. 2 pp., I leaf with endorsement. 4°. SCHUYLER
Printed in Lossing's Schuyler, vol. 1 (N. Y., 1860), p. 382. Enclosed in the above is a copy of a letter of same date to the Committee of Albany.
Pennsylvania, Province.-Committee of Safety. Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1775. To the Committee of Albany. With this they send 2,400 Ib. of gunpowder for the use of Gen. Schuyler; they request that the wagon be returned with a load of the lead that was captured at Ticonderoga. By order of the Committee, B. Franklin, Prest. Copy, certified by John Bay Secry. Endorsed.
Franklin (Benjamin), and others. Montreal, May 6, 1776. To Gen. [Philip] Schuyler. Gen. [Benedict] Arnold has ordered Col. [Moses] Hazen to relieve Col. [Nathaniel] Buell in the command at St. John's and Chambly; Hazen's knowledge of French and influence over the people induced the commissioners to concur in his appointment; the army before Quebec is victualled only up to the 15th or 20th; nothing can be procured here except flour; the army is without surgeons; Dr. [Samuel] Stringer's assistance is much wanted. L. S., B. Franklin, Samuel Chase, Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. In the handwriting of John Carroll. 2 pp., I leaf with endorsement. 4°.
SCHUYLER Franklin (Benjamin), and others. Montreal, May 10, 1776. To Philip Schuyler, Lake George. Col. [Donald] Campbell brought word that five ships of war arrived at Quebec on the 6th; their forces before the town were obliged to retreat in the utmost haste with loss of cannon, stores, etc.; the army is on its way to the mouth of the Sorel, where it intends to make a stand; they shall probably have to abandon Canada, except St. John's; a reinforcement will only increase their distress, an immediate supply of provisions is absolutely necessary; the vessels at Ticonderoga should be fitted out for this purpose; more bateaux should be built in which to withdraw the troops, as those now on the St. Lawrence will probably be destroyed or fall into the enemy's hands; they do not know what force the enemy brought into Quebec. L. S., B Franklin, Samuel Chase, Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. In the handwriting of John Carroll. Endorsed. 3 pp. 4°.
SCHUYLER Franklin (Benjamin). St. John's, May 12, 1776. To Philip Schuyler, Fort George. Encloses a letter from the other two commissioners to himself, in answer to a few lines he wrote after learning that the regiments coming into Canada brought only ten days' provisions; (John) Paterson's he left at La Prairie, no boats to take them over; with the utmost difficulty he got a conveyance here; necessity of forwarding provisions hither; will proceed today, seeing no probability of the others joining him. A. L. S. I page, I leaf with address and endorsement. Fo.
SCHUYLER Somewhat mutilated.
Franklin (Benjamin). New York, May 27, 1776. To Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll (Canada). Announces the return of himself and John Carroll; they left Mr. and Mrs. Walker at Albany: have received and forwarded a letter from Congress; a prize with 75 tons of gunpowder and 1,000 carbines on board has been carried into Boston; German auxiliaries coming; Congress has advised the erecting of separate governments; his health is feeble; Mr. Carroll has taken friendly care of him. A. L. S.
F'. On the back is a letter from John Carroll, of May 28, 1776, to the same persons, giving news of Generals Washington, Gates, Mifflin, and Ward; thinks the commissioners should not leave Canada without permission of Congress, but wishes they might be in Maryland to help in forming the new government; impertinence of Mr. and Mrs. [Thomas] Walker. A. L. S.
EM. 1598 Franklin's letter is printed in his Writings (Sparks) vol. 8, p. 183; (Bigelow) vol. 6, p. 13.
SCHUYLER Enclosed in Franklin's letter to Schuyler of same date.
Pennsylvania, Province.-Committee of Safety. Philadelphia, Aug. 26, 1775.
To P[eter] V[an] B[rugh] Livingston and the Provincial Congress of New York. They have ordered a ton of gunpowder to be forwarded to New York, according to request of 16th inst. A. L. S., B. Franklin, Presidi. I page. 4°. Printed in Force's Archives, 4. series, vol. 3, p. 436.
Franklin (Benjamin). Philadelphia, Mar. II, 1776. To Gen. (Philip] Skuyler (sic, Albany). Congress having appointed himself and two others as commissioners to go to Canada, they will set out this week; this previous notice may enable preparations to be made for expediting their journey; a friend will make a fourth in their party. A. L. S. I page, I leaf with endorsement. 4°.
SCHUYLER Printed in Sparks's Works of Franklin, vol. 8 (Boston, 1850), p. 179, Bigelow's vol. 6 (N. Y., 1888), p. 7.
Franklin (Benjamin). At Mr. Wyng's, Apr. 17, 1776. To Gen. [Philip] Schuyler (Fort George, N. Y.) They are all concerned to hear of Schuyler's indisposition; they purpose staying here, as he advised in his note; returns papers, and desires (Samuel] Chase to send back his mare; they have sent forward Chase's bed and portmanteau. A. L. I page, i leaf with endorsement. 4°. SCHUYLER
The signature has been cut off.