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Senator Riksry. W 1:0 hiwtion it will be:
at this point.
STATEMENT OF PHILIP A. DOUGLAS, EXECUTIVE IN

SPORT FISHING INSTITUTE, WASHINGTOX. 20
Mr. DOCGLAS. Jr, Chairman and menters of this veel
Philip A. Douglas, executise karretary of the Sport F.
which is the only privately supported national fish cols In
nization. We are staffed by professional aquatic biologiss cedi
and fully cognizant of the importance of recreating a pc
aquatic environment.

By means of Reorganization Plan No. 2, the Presidente
his rightful authority to organize the executive as he believes
crease administrative efficiency. Whether it will, remains to be
It is now up to us all, citizenry and politicians alike, to see 10 |
the Water Pollution Control Administration starts moring I see
cut, identifiable pattern toward the ultimate objective-clean was

Water pollution control has only recently been accorded adecu
administrative status on paper. Previously, conservationists for
hard over many years to help raise the administrative stature of war
pollution control to that of a major program activity where it co
function in HEW undiluted by the major traditional emphasis in tot
Department on matters of human health. This troublesome asmes
would obviously disappear if the program goes to Interior. Yet the
obvious benefits to human health that will result from a pollution Co-
trol program which improves the quality of the aquatic environment
will by no means be lost by such transfer.

The institute's executive vice president, Richard H. Stroud, in this regard has provided a useful distinction between water pollutionnot necessarily a health hazard-and water contamination-unhealthy-in a talk before the American Society of Civil Engineers Water Resources Engineering Conference in Mobile, Ala., March 1965, entitled “What Is Pollution-To a Conservationist?” He said:

Water pollution is the specific impairment of water quality by domestic, industrial, or agricultural wastes (including thermal and atomic wastes] to a degree which has an adverse effect on beneficial use of water, yet which does not necessarily create an actual hazard to the public health.

He stated, further: Water contamination is merely an aggravated impairment of water quality by those wastes to a degree which creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or the spread of disease.

are somewhat concerned whether, in the Department of the for, there may be an administrative tendency to overburden the pollution control function with other more or less related water

ties and thus dilute the long-sought needed emphasis on the priIn mission to clean up the national water resource. Unfortunately,

we would undoubtedly lose this singleness of purpose in water

tion control for which many conservationists have fought so hard 13:o long to achieve. We believe that water pollution control must is single-minded goal within this new administration unit in In

as it would have been in HEW. In addition, intradepartment
icts of interest should not be allowed to stall the program. There-
, Mr. Chairman, my organization believes that the new Assistant
etary of the Interior for Water Pollution Control, when ap-

ited, must not be shackled with other diverse duties that would Te-act from or divert the mission of this vital Water Pollution Con

Administration. he Water Supply and Water Pollution Control Division, currently sin HEW, is commencing to organize expanded water quality eria research programs designed to protect the most sensitive ies of aquatic life from continuous exposure to various forms of ution. À fine cadre of professionals in hydrobiology, ecology, and sr such specialized fields now comprises the skeleton of the WPCA fessional staff needed to delineate water quality criteria essential for protection and maintenance of aquatic life. They must be induced continue with Interior under the President's Reorganization Plan

2. The Sport Fishing Institute is, therefore, much concerned whether sre will be ample financial incentive to retain these people and to ract new outstanding scientists upon whom America must rely to ve the problems of advanced waste treatment and to determine iter quality criteria for various uses in order to achieve full water llution abatement and control. Research budgets must be adequate, ofessional ratings liberal, and budgetary unity preserved. In this nnection, we have not been favorably impressed by past performance 1 the part of the Department of the Interior in requesting adequate inds for vitally needed research programs, especially true where quatic biological problems have been involved." Therefore, we are luch concerned about the possible implications of what we view as

poor history of administrative and policy support, at top departaental levels, for research programs in aquatic biology, vis-a-vis such seeds in the water pollution control program. We hope that the Congress will watch this aspect closely, as it could “make or "break” the program, as we see it. Reorganization Plan No. 2 provides a starting point—but it must be properly implemented.

The main question, as we see it, is not so much whether the WPCA i should be in HEW or in Interior. The important questions are

whether, how soon, and how aggressively water pollution control will get underway. Water pollution control has been in a hiatus for several months, due to the uncertainty of its administrative affiliation. The President has made his move on that problem. The main task, now, is to get on with the job. Time and the pollution tide wait for nobody.

Udall that the program's impetus will be kept going, I think perhaps we would not quarrel with the President as to where he desires his program to be, as long as it has the forceful direction that we intend it to have.

Senator RIBICOFF. Thank you very much, Mr. Kimball. You have been of great help.

Mr. Penfold, please.

Mr. PENFOLD. Mr. Chairman, Philip A. Douglas, executive secretary of the Sport Fishing Institute, who had planned to be here today, is ill and his office asked that I hand his statement in.

Senator RIBICOFF. Without objection it will be placed in the record at this point.

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STATEMENT OF PHILIP A. DOUGLAS, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY,

SPORT FISHING INSTITUTE, WASHINGTON, D.C. Mr. Douglas. Mr. Chairman and members of this committee, I am Philip A. Douglas, executive secretary of the Sport Fishing Institute, which is the only privately supported national fish conservation organization. We are staffed by professional aquatic biologists, competent and fully cognizant of the importance of recreating a pollution-free aquatic environment.

By means of Reorganization Plan No. 2, the President has invoked his rightful authority to organize the executive as he believes will increase administrative efficiency. Whether it will, remains to be seen. It is now up to us all, citizenry and politicians alike, to see to it that the Water Pollution Control Administration starts moving in a clearcut, identifiable pattern toward the ultimate objective-clean waters.

Water pollution control has only recently been accorded adequate administrative status on paper. Previously, conservationists fought hard over many years to help raise the administrative stature of water pollution control to that of a major program activity where it could function in HEW undiluted by the major traditional emphasis in that Department on matters of human health. This troublesome aspect would obviously disappear if the program goes to Interior. Yet the obvious benefits to human health that will result from a pollution control program which improves the quality of the aquatic environment will by no means be lost by such transfer.

The institute's executive vice president, Richard H. Stroud, in this regard has provided a useful distinction between water pollutionnot necessarily a health hazard—and water contamination-unhealthy-in a talk before the American Society of Civil Engineers Water Resources Engineering Conference in Mobile, Ala., March 1965, entitled "What Is Pollution-To a Conservationist?" He said:

Water pollution is the specific impairment of water quality by domestic, industrial, or agricultural wastes (including thermal and atomic wastes] to a degree which has an adverse effect on beneficial use of water, yet which does not necessarily create an actual hazard to the public health.

He stated, further:

Water contamination is merely an aggravated impairment of water quality by those wastes to a degree which creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or the spread of disease.

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We are somewhat concerned whether, in the Department of the Interior, there may be an administrative tendency to overburden the water pollution control function with other more or less related water activities and thus dilute the long-sought needed emphasis on the primary mission to clean up the national water resource. Unfortunately, then, we would undoubtedly lose this singleness of purpose in water pollution control for which many conservationists have fought so hard

for so long to achieve. We believe that water pollution control must i be a single-minded goal within this new administration unit in In

terior—as it would have been in HEW. In addition, intradepartment conflicts of interest should not be allowed to stall the program. Therefore, Mr. Chairman, my organization believes that the new Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Water Pollution Control, when appointed, must not be shackled with other diverse duties that would detract from or divert the mission of this vital Water Pollution Control Administration.

The Water Supply and Water Pollution Control Division, currently within HEW, is commencing to organize expanded water quality criteria research programs designed to protect the most sensitive species of aquatic life from continuous exposure to various forms of pollution. A fine cadre of professionals in hydrobiology, ecology, and other such specialized fields now comprises the skeleton of the WPCA professional staff needed to delineate water quality criteria essential for the protection and maintenance of aquatic life. They must be induced to continue with Interior under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 2.

The Sport Fishing Institute is, therefore, much concerned whether there will be ample financial incentive to retain these people and to attract new outstanding scientists upon whom America must rely to solve the problems of advanced waste treatment and to determine water quality criteria for various uses in order to achieve full water pollution abatement and control. Research budgets must be adequate, professional ratings liberal, and budgetary unity preserved. In this connection, we have not been favorably impressed by past performance on the part of the Department of the Interior in requesting adequate funds for yitally needed research programs, especially true where aquatic biological problems have been involved. Therefore, we are much concerned about the possible implications of what we view as a poor history of administrative and policy support, at top departmental levels, for research programs in aquatic biology, vis-a-vis such needs in the water pollution control program. We hope that the Congress will watch this aspect closely, as it could "make" or "break” the program, as we see it. Reorganization Plan No. 2 provides a starting point-but it must be properly implemented.

The main question, as we see it, is not so much whether the WPCA should be in HEW or in Interior. The important questions are whether, how soon, and how aggressively water pollution control will get underway. Water pollution control has been in a hiatus for several months, due to the uncertainty of its administrative affiliation. The President has made his move on that problem. The main task, now, is to get on with the job. Time and the pollution tide wait for nobody.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to present these views to your committee.

Senator RIBICOFF. You may proceed, Mr. Penfold.

STATEMENT OF J. W. PENFOLD, CONSERVATION DIRECTOR, IZAAK

WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA

Mr. PENFOLD. I am J. W. Penfold, conservation director of the Izaak Walton League of America. The league is a nationwide organization of citizens dedicated to the conservation and wise use of America's natural resource wealth-its soils, woods, waters, and wildlife. Since its founding nearly 45 years ago there has been no natural resource problem to which the league has given greater attention than to cleaning up and preventing the pollution of our lakes and streams.

It can be truthfully stated that the league was organized because a small group of dedicated outdoorsmen became disgusted at the rate at which waters were being lost to human uses because of municipal and industrial dumping of wastes. They decided it was time to call a halt. It was just about 40 years ago that the league made the first nationwide survey of water pollution at the request of the Outdoor Recreation Commission established by President Coolidge. The findings were appalling. And local leadership in the Izaak Walton League helped develop public support for construction of some of the first modern municipal sewage treatment works in the Nation.

Through the 1930's and 1940's the league, through its magazine and other educational materials, by speeches of its officers at hundreds of meetings and conferences, by appearances at public hearings called by committees of Congress, committees of State legislatures and municipal bodies, urged adopting of public policies and programs to abate pollution and achieve once again clean water. There were solid results, but it was a slow process.

The league supported the weak Taft-Hartley Act of 1948—but it was a beginning. The league vigorously supported Public Law 660 in 1956, and appropriations to implement it fully in subsequent years; it supported the acts to strengthen and make it more effective in 1961 and in 1965.

I cite these few items, among many others, not in any sense of selfapprobation—the condition of America's waters today permits none of us to feel smug_but to point out the keen interest and concern of the Izaak Walton League over the years in America's No. 1 natural resource problem-water pollution.

There seems little need to elaborate on the problem itself—it is ubiquitous, no section of the Nation has escaped it, no section of the Nation can, so to speak, sweep it under the rug and face the future with confidence. The leadership of the Nation has responded to the growing demand of the people, and has declared it to be national policy to enhance our lakes and streams, our estuaries and coastal waters. The Nation can no longer afford, if it ever could, to lose the usability of waters for all purposes because of filth. Today, we proclaim our refusal to be strangled by the wastes of civilization. Said the President.

The President has now proposed that the Federal Water Pollution Control Agency as a unit be transferred from the Department of

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