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what are wanting, and in Each particular hereof Let- There have been likewise some small essays towards me have advice as distinctly and as speedily as may be making pot ashes, and from what I have both beard and Given at London ye 25th day of ye 7th mo. 1689. seen, there is reason to conclude that a design of this was signed

WM. PENN. kind may, with industry, if encouraged, be considerably

advanced. A Letter from the Governor of Pennsylvania to the Lords What may be proper to be proposed as encourage. Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. ments, on all or any of those commodities I have men

tioned, must be left entirely to your lordships, whose "MY LORDS, The regard your lordships have shown for the wel. I great knowledge of the general trading interest of Bri

tain, and of the balance of trade between that kingdom fare of his majesty's colonies on this continent, by giving and those nations from whence such merchandizes are them an opportunity of representing what may be further pecessary for their encouragement in raising naval brought, enables your lordships to judge in this particustores, and other commodities fit for Britain, deserves lar more clearly what may best conduce to the benefit very particular acknowledgments, and I am in behalf of of Great Britain and the good of its colonies.

beg leave to acquaint your lord ships, that the cirthis province to make theirs to your lordships on this

cumstances of this province are so little varied from occasion.

what they were in the year 1731, when I returned an Your secretary's letter on this subject, with its duplicate, did not reach my hands till the latter end of last in that answer appears at this time unnecessary. I am

answer to the queries then sent me, that any alteration month, and before I proceed to answer it by this first

with esteem, conveyance that has since offered for London, I must

My Lords, beg leave to observe to your lordships, that it is the

Your Lordships, whole study of the merchants here to contrive


Most obedient humble servant, making returns to Britain to pay for those great quanti

P. GORDON ties of their manufactures that are daily brought hither, and it is not without the utmost difficulty that they are

Minutes of Council, lib. I. October 31, 1734. able to accomplish it; whatever encouragements therefore are given for such commodities as this country is capable of prr. lucing, fit for returns directly to Britain,

We Widaagli, alias Orytyagh and Auddggy.junkquagh will manifestly tend to increase our importations from Kings or Sachemas of the Susquehannah Indians, and of thence.

the river under that name, and lands on both sides Of naval stores, my lords, this province produces thereof, doe declare, that for and inconsideration of a those two valuable commodities, hemp and iron. The parcel of English goods unto us given by our friend and first has not as yet been raised in any great quantities, brother William Penn, proprietary and governor of the price of labour being high, though many are go- Pennsylvania, and also in consideration of the former ing upon it; but as there are large tracts of land fit much greater costs and charges the said William Pena for that produce, it is to be hoped that a continuance of liath been at in treating about and purchasing the same, the same bounty now given may in time, when wages William Penn, all the said river Susquehannah and all

we doe hereby give, grant and confirm unto the said are lowered by the number of inhabitants, enable us to make considerable returns in it.

the islands therein, and all the lands situate, lying and As to iron, it is generally allowed, that what is pro- being upon both sides of the said river, and next adjoin. duced here is as fine and good as any whatsoever, but ing to the same, extending to the utmost confines of the the great expense that attends works of that kind, in a

lands which are or formerly were the right of the peocountry where labour is so dear, has given no small ple or nation called the Susquehannah Indians, or by damp to these undertakings: on a suitable

what name soever they were called or known, and also ment, I am persuaded, that this province, and some of all lakes, rivers, rivulets

, fountains, streams, trees, woods the adjacent colonies, may be able to import such quan- ries, hawkings, huntings, fishings, fowlings and other

underwoods, mines royal and other mines, mineral quar. abate the necessity Britain lias hitherto lain under of royalties, privileges and powers whatsoever to them or supplying itself therewith on disadvantageous terms any of them belonging, or by them enjoyed, as fully and from foreign nations.

amply in all respects as we or any of our ancestors hare, Flax is likewise found to agree so well with our soil

, also all the right, title, interest, possession, claim and

could, might or ought to have had, held or enjoyed: and that it is not to be doubted, but a very considerable pro- demand which we or any of us, or the said nation, or gress may soon be made in this commodity, of which great quantities are imported from other

nations into any in right of the same have or hereafter can or may Britain, and your lordships are so sensible of the con- confirm unto the said William Penn the bargain and sale

claim to have in the same. And we do hereby ratify and stant demand there is for it, that if large supplies can be of the said lands made unto Col. Thomas Dongan now furnished by his majesty's colonies, no manufacture may Earl of Limerick and formerly governor of New York, better deserve an encouragement, or contribute more to whose deed of sale to the said Gov. Penn we have seen. discharge the debt incurred by the importation of Bri. To have and to hold the said river, land and premises tish goods. The mulberry tree is likewise so natural to our soil, their rights, members and appurtenances, unto the said

hereby granted and confirmed, with their and every of growing wild in the rich lands, and the silk worm thrives William Penn, his heirs and assigns forever. In witness so well, that there is a distant prospect of some advances whereof we have for ourselves and nation hereunto sett towards a silk manufacture, which as it affords employ.

our hands and seals, the thirteenth day of September ment for the weakest hands, would be of the utmost ad


bis vantage. Some amongst us have shown how practica

WIDAAGH X ORYTYAGH. ble a design of this kind is by making some small quan

mark. tities, not interior, as I am informed, in goodness and fineness to the best from France or Italy, but persons

bis are wanting to lead us into the way of winding it from

ANDAGGY X JUNKQUAGH, the balls, which I understand to be the most difficult

mark part of the work: but as in time this difficulty may be Sealed and delivered in the presence of surmounted, I cannot but recommend likewise a manu

Edw. Antill

David Powel facture of this kind, as deserving the greatest encour

L.S. Hen. Tregeny James Logan agement, since by the promoting it a valuable addition

Edward Singleton. may be made to the trade of Great Britain.

Min. Coun. Aug. 2, 1735.






Indeed we have had some small differences with the (A Treaty with the Indians of the six nations was held Englislı, and during these misunderstandings, some of

their young men would, by way of reproaclı, be every at Lancaster, at which were present Governor Thomas,

now and then telling us, that we sliould lav perished if of Pennsylvania, and Commissioners from Virginia and Maryland. The Indians conceived that Virginia and they had not come into the country and furnished us

with swords, and hatchets and guns, and her things Maryland had encroached upon their lands, particularly

necessary for the support of life.

But we always gave upon the Potowmack, (by them called Cohongoroutas) them to understand that they were mistakeli, that we which formerly belonged to the Susquehannah Indians, lived before they came amongst us, and as well or betbut were now claimed by the Six Nations by right of ter, if we may believe what our forefathers told us. We conquest

. One of the Maryland commissioners, in ex: bad then room enough and plenty of deer, which was those lands, said, “Our great king of England and his easily cauglit, and though we had not knives, hatchets,

or guns, such as we have now, yet we had knives of subjects have always possessed the province of Mary, stone, and hatchets of stone, and bows and arrows, and iland, free and undisturbed from any claim of the six na. these served our uses as well then as the English unes do tions for above 100 years past, and your not saying any

We are now straitned and sometimes in want of thing to us before, convinces us that you thought you deer, and lyable to many other inconveniences since the had no pretence to any lands in Maryland; nor can we

English came among us, and particularly from that pen yet find out to what lands, or under what title you make and

ink work that is going on at the table [pointing to your claim.”—To which Canassatego, an Onondago the Secretary3] and we will give you an instance of this. chief, replied as follows.)

Our Brother Onas, a great while ago came to Albany to “Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

buy the Sasquahannah lands of us, but our brother, the

Governor of New Yorke, who, as we suppose, had not a When you mentioned the affair of the land yesterday, good understanding with our brother Onas, advised us you went back to old times, and told us you had been not to sell him any lands,

for he would

make an ill use in possession of the province of Maryland above one of it, and pretending to be our good friend, he advised parison to the length of time since our claim began us, in order to prevent Onas's or any other person's im

posing upon us, and that we might always have our land Since we came out of the ground? For we must tell you when we should want it, to put it into his hands and that long before one hundred years, our ancestors came told us he would keep it for our use, and never open his out of this very ground, and their children have remain- hands but keep them close shut and not part with any ed here ever since, you came out of the ground in a of it, but at our request. Accordingly we trusted him country that lies beyond the seas; there you may have a and put our land into his hands, and charged him to

just claim, but here you must allow us to be your elder keep it safe for our use, but some time after he wert brethren, and the lands to belong to us long before you away to England, and carryed our land with him, and knew any thing of them. It is true that above one there sold it to our brother Onas for a large sum of hundred years ago the Dutch came here in a ship, and money, and when at the instance of our brother Onas, brought with them several goods, such as awls, knives, we were minded to sell him some lands, he told us that hatchets, guns, and many other particulars which they he had sold the Sasquehannah lands already to the Govgave us, and when they had taught us how to use these ernor of New Yorke, and that he had bought them

from were so well pleased with them, that we tyed their ship how the Governor of New Yorke had deceived us, be to the bushes on the shoar, and afterwards liking them very generously paid us for our lands over again. still better the longer they stayed with us, and thinking

Though we mention this instance of an imposition put the bushes too slender, we removed the rope and tyed upon us by the governor of New Yorke, yet we must do it to the trees, and as the trees were lyable to be blown the English the justice to say, we have had their hearty down by high winds, or to decay of themselves, we, assistances in our wars with the French, who were no from the affections we bore them, again removed the

and tyed it to a strong and big rock, [here the in- sooner arrived among us than they began to render us terpreter said, they mean the Oneida country) and not uneasy and to provoke us to war, and we have had seves content with this

, for its further security we removed ceived assistance from the English, and by their means the rope to the big mountains, [here the interpreter

we have alwise been able to keep up our heads against says they mean the Onondago country] and there we

their attacks. tyed it very fast, and sowed Wampum about it, and to make it still more secure, we stood upon the wampum, deeds interpreted to us, and we acknowledge them to

We now come nearer home. We have had your and sat down upon it, to defend it, and to prevent any be good and valid, and that the Conestogoe or Sasquehurt coming to it, and did our best endeavours that it hannah Indians had a right to sell those lands unto you, might remain uninjured forever. During all this time, for they were then theirs, but since that time we have the

lands and solicited us from time to time to grant conquered them, and their country now belongs to us, them parts of our country, and to enter into league and of the lands comprized in those deeds; they are the cocovenant with us, and to become one people with us.

bongoroutas lands. Those we are sure you have not After this the English came into the country, and as we were told, became one people with the Dutch.- possessed one hundred years; no, nor above ten years.

And we made our demand so soon as we knew your About two years after the arrival of the English, an English Governor came to Albany, and finding what people were settled in those parts. These have never great friendship subsisted between us and the Dutch, I been sold, but remain still to be disposed of, and we are he approved it mightily and desired to make as strong a

well pleased to hear you are provided with goods, and league, and to be upon as good terms with us as the do assure you of our willingness to treat with you for Dutch were, with whom he was united, and to become those unpurchased lands. In confirmation whereof, we one people with us, and by his further care iir looking present you with this belt of wampum. what had passed between us, he found that the rope 16. June 26, 1744.

Which was received with the usual ceremony, which tyed the ship to the great mountain was only fastened with wampuin which was liable to break and rot, and to perish in a course of years.

He therefore told us, that he would give us a silver chain, which would be Gachadow, speaker for the Indians, in answer to the much stronger and last forever,. This we accepted and Commissioner's speech at the last meeting, with a strong fastened the ship with it, and it has lasted ever since.-- voice and proper action, spake as follows:




Brother Assaraquoa, (the gov. of Virginia.]

some of the inhabitants living near the place where the The world at the first was made on the other side vault is proposed to be built attending, and representing of the great water different from what it is on this side, to the Board that the same would become a nuisance, as may be known from the different colours of our skin by the smell of the oil; the Board after some debate and of our flesh, and that which you call justice may not proceeded to vote whether a vault should be built unbe so amorijst us: you have your laws and customs and der the meal market or not—which was carried in the afso have we. The great king might send you over to firmative. But whether the said vault shall be made conquer the Indians, but it looks to us that God did not use of by the wardens for the purpose they desire, or let approve of it; if he had, he would not have placed the out by this Board for some other public use, is referred to sea where it is, as the limits between us and you,

the consideration of the Board at some future time. We then desired a letter might be sent to the Cataw. bas and Cherokees to desire them to come and confirm vault should be built under the whole meal market

It being afterward put to the vote whether the said the peace. It was long before an answer came: but we carried in the negative. met' the Cherokees and confirmed the peace, and sent

It being then put to the vote whether the said vault some of our people to take care of them, until they re should he built under one-half of the meal market-car. turned to their own country.

ried in the negative. The Catawbas refused to come, and sent us word that October 2d. - John Stamper, Esq. elected Mayor. we were but women; that they were men, and would be Thomas Willing and Daniel Benezet, chosen Aldermen. always at war with us. They are a deceitful people: November 27.--The Mayor delivered to the Board a our brother Assaraquoa is deceived by them, we don't letter from Richard Peters, Esq. Secretary of the Problame him for it; but we are sorry he is so deceived. — vince in the following words, viz. “Sir, I have it in Ib. June 30, 1744.

command from the proprietaries before I close with Mr.

Brown for a lease of the island opposite to the city, to ANNALS OF PHILADELPHIA.

acquaint the corporation with it. It is surmised that

the carrying out wharfs there, as well as other things 1759-May 28.–The Recorder informed the Board, which may be done by the lessee may be injurious that Mr. John Relfe and Lieutenant Clarke were some to the navigation of the river, especially if the island years ago indicted in the Mayor's Court and convicted continues to grow as it has done of late. You will be of having given and accepted a challenge, for which of pleased to communicate this to the Common Council, fence they were fined the sum of £20 each. That John who I understand is to meet to-day, and desire it may be Relfe having paid his fine, had complained that no steps taken into immediate consideration, that proper clauses had been yet taken to compel Lieutenant Clarke to do may be inserted in the lease now applied for to prevent the like. Wherefore the Recorder recommended it to any injury being done to the navigation of the river, or the Board to consider, whether the said Clarke's fine to the port.” should be exacted, or both fines remitted.

The Board on consideration unanimously Resolved, Year's rent of Dock Landing, £40–Rent for the Blue | That the Secretary be directed to get proper clauses in Anchor Landing from 23d October to 23d July, 1758, serted in any lcase he may make of the island opposite £26.

to this city to prevent the erecting any wharfs on the June 2.—The Board on considering the matter pro- western side of it, or doing any act that may tend to inposed by the Recorder at the last meeting respecting jure the navigation or obstruct or change the course of Lieutenant Clarke's fine, Resolved to suffer the matter the channel of the river. to remain in its present state for some time; and do think January 3, 1760.--The public wharf and ground near that whenever Lieutenant Clarke shall come to this town the Drawbridge leased at the rate of £60 per annum. the proper step be taken to recover his fine.

May 27.--On the petition of Samuel Austin setting The Board having taken into consideration a proposal forth that he bad erected a commodious building near formerly made for the increasing the number of stalls in Arch street wharf for the reception and entertainment of the markets, and being of opinion that the same would market people and others, coming from the Jersey greatly tend to the accomodation of the country people shore to this city, and was about making a slip for the and butchers, as well as be of general utility to the inha- more convenient landing of passengers and their horses; bitants of this city, They do appoint Alderman Stamper, and praying this Board to grant him their license to keep Henry Harrison, Wm. Bingham, and Wm. Rush, a com- a public ferry at the place aforesaid, for the transporting mittee to provide materials and to agree with workmen passengers from this city for New Jersey, under such to erect a number of stalls at the west end of those al terms and yearly rents as should

seem reasonable to this ready erected to the westward of the Court House, to Board-It is considered by the Board, that the number extend as far as Third street: and the committee are re- of people crossing Delaware river to and from this city quested to get the same completed as soon as possible. having of late much increased, the erecting another ferry For their trouble in which, this Board will make them a may tend to the ease and convenience of such people. reasonable allowance.

They do, therefore, grant the prayer of the petitioner. September 11.- The Mayor informed the Board, That He paying a yearly rent of thirty pounds to this corpora: the collector of the provincial tax had demanded of him tion, and performing such covenants as shall be thought the tax laid on the estate of the corporation rated £476, reasonable and proper to be inserted in his lease. which appearing to be a sum higher than the income of 16th September. -Rent of the vendue stall under the this Board the mayor and Alderman Shoamaker the Court House for 3 years, ending July, 1758, £25 per Treasurer are desired to attend the commissioners and annum-Rent of Schuylkill ferry £175 per annum assessors, and lay an account of such income before them from 1758 to 1760, £200-Rent of Francis Rawle's ferty and endeavour to procure an abatement.

to Jersey, for 3 years ending March, 1759, at £30 per That the Wardens of the city were attending, to make annum. “Note that before building of the new stalls, some proposals to them—it is ordered that they be de- there were 31 stalls westward of the Court House, besired to walk in; and they now attending, do propose, sides one taken up by a fire engine, which were usually that as this Board are erecting new stalls to the west- let at £3 per annum each. Rent of the potter's field, . ward of the Court House, and a place is much wanted ending November 1759, at £10. Rent of "new wharf for storing oil for the use of the city lamps, it would be built at the charge of the corporation near the Draw. very convenient for them, if the Board would order a bridge,” £30. vault to be built under the meal market for that pur- October 7.-The Recorder proposed that as the profits pose.

of the office of the Mayor of this city has of late fallen 12th Sept.—The Board resuming the consideration of short of the expenses attending the office, and as it is the proposal made yesterday by the city wardens and not reasonable the person who executes so troublesome

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an office, should be a loser by it, a sum of money be al- Shenango

262 lowed to the succeeding mayor out of the fund of this Fallow field

212 corporation, which proposal was agreed to by a majority Fairfield

131 of the Board. And the sum of £100 was voted for the Mayor, who shall be chosen for the ensuing year.

Taxables, 2989 Benjamin Shoemaker elected Mayor.

Increase in 6 years, 1000. October 6, 1761.-Henry Harrison and Samuel Rhoads elected Aldermen.

Strength of the Second Brigade 16th division PennsylvaSamuel Mifflin elected Mayor, but being sick he de- niu militia, taken from the company rolls of 1828: clined, and was fined £40-and Jacob Duchee was cho

31st regiment,

1098 78th do.

1383 February 16, 1762.–Public wharf and ground at the

104th do.

1119 Drawbridge, rented for £60.

107th do.

563 It is agreed that Mr. Chew and Mr. Shippen be de

102d do.

778 sired to consider the right of this corporation to the ends

607 of the public wharfs, to report their opinion to this Board Warren county battalion

1st battalion Crawford County Volunteers, 290 thereupon; and that those gentlemen be allowed proper



do. fees for that service.

do. 229 1st do. Erie County


312 Oct. 5.—Mathew Clarkson having presented to the Board a ground plot of the city of Philadelphia, which

6379 he designs to publish, with a dedication to this Corporation--The Board on consideration thereof do agree to

Crawford Messenger: give the said Mathew Clarkson, the sum of ten pistoles towards defraying the expenses of the plate: on condi- PLUVIOMETRICAL OBSERVATIONS, tion nevertheless, Thet the public squares laid down in the original plan of the city, be so described, that the Made at West Chester, (25 miles west of Philadelphia;) claim of the inhabitants of the said city thereto may not

by Wm. Darlington, M. D. be prejudiced.

From Silliman's Journal for April, 1828.--p. 29. Daniel Benezet elected Mayor. March 14, 1763.-Repairs and improvements ordered,

West Chester, Penn. January 7; 1828. viz.

Sır: About five years ago I sent you a statement of The slip at the north end of the town to be regulated pluviometrical observations made at this place, which is and some earth dug up at the end of the wharf.

inserted in the 6th volume of the Journal of Science. The dock at Arch street to be dug out.

My original design was, to note the quantity of rain and The slip at the Blue Anchor to be regulated, and snow which should fall annually, for a series of years, sufsome earth dug out from the end of the pier.

ficiently extended to afford data for a tolerable estimate A pier to be carried out from Market street wharf, of the character of our climate, so far as those phenomeabout 28 or 30 feet wide, and 50 feet long.

na are concerned. I proposed to myself a period of ten May 27.-It being considered by the Board, That the years, as probably sufficient for that object: and as the the salary heretofore allowed to the Recorder of the city term is now completed, I offer the result for insertion in was too small, and by no means adequate to the servfces the Journal-if you should deem it worthy a place. My or dignity of that station. It was therefore unanimously former communication contained the observations of the resolved, That the Recorder's salary should be raised the first half of the term proposed, -the present one from £25 to £75 per annum.

gives those of the last five years, with an additional co

lumn showing the average results for the whole pcriod: COMMERCE OF PITTSBURG.

Synopsis of Pluviometrical Observations. Number of steamboats which have left Pittsburg since 1st November last, 54—whose whole tonnage amounts

Averg. Averg. to 7680 tons.

1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 of last of last Number of arrivals and departures from 1st November

5 years. 10 yrs. to 1st July, 567 —whose whole tonnage amounts to 33,890 tons.

January, 4.1 5.01 2.5 1.4 2.9 3.2

2.8 From the foregoing it will be seen that 54 steamboats February, 11.7 4.95 4.7 2.5 14.5 3.67 3.485 have arrived at and departed from Pittsburg within the March, 6.9 3.5 5.7 5.3 12.5 4.78 4.09 last 8 months, and making in that time in all 568 arrivals April, 1.9 5.3 1.4 3.8 13.8 3.26 3.38 and departures.


4.05 2.5 2.8 0.7 3.5 2.71 4.555 In the number of the steamboats leaving our city, we June, 2.15 6.00 5.8 8.1 3.95 5.2 4.4 include 12 new boats built in our city or its neighhour- July, 6.00 6.9 2.5 12.55 4.5 4.49 4.425 hood-some of them of the largest class, and not yield- August,

5.25 5.4 6.1 (2.6 6.3 5.13 4.475 ing in point of model, swiftness, and comfort, to any boats September, 5.00 6.2 2.4 4.2 0.8 3.72 4.11 in the world. Pittsburg Gaz.

October, 2.5 2.00 2.1 5.2 16.5 3.66 3.73

November, 2.55 2.3 0.9 2.4 5.5 2.73 3.615 TAXABLE INHABITANTS IN CRAWFORD CO. December, 9.3 3.95 5.4 1.2 4.7

4.91 3.855. From an official source. 1828.

Inches, 151.4154,1 42.3|40.549451 47.461 46.92 Borough

236 Mead


It thus appears that the average quantity of water Wayne

174 which fell annually for the last ten years, was 46.92, or Randolph

98 nearly forty-seven inches. The greatest quantity in any Oil Creek

152 one year was 54.1 inches, (viz. in 1824) and the least Bloomfield

108 39.3 inches, (in 1822)—making a difference of almost 15 Rockdale

271 inches; the one being a year of unusual wet, the other Venango


of distressing drought. Cussewago


The most rain which has fallen in one day for the last Beaver


10 years, was 4 inches. Conneautt


The quantity of snow during the last 5 years was as Sadbury











8 3



May, June,

9 9 8

6 8 8


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In 1823 the total depth 30. equal to 3. of water. Yet it has almost constantly shown more than the pub. 1824


lished accounts from Washington city, Albany and Phi1825


ladelphia. I find nevertheless that my statement agrees 1826 14.

remarkably with one presented by Mr. Jefferson, in his 1827



Notes on Virginia, which shows an average of 47.038

inches, in a series of five years, just balf a century prior Snow, 81.5

8.6 water. to my observations, viz. from 1772 to 1777. As stateThe water which féll in the form of snow is included ments of this description are of no value, unless made in the table of rain. The quantity of snow for the last with fidelity and accuracy, I thought it due to the occa10 years was 194 inches, or about 16 feet; averaging sion, to make these few additional remarks. nearly 20 inches a year. The deepest snow in that time

W. D. was 18 inches; which fell on the 7th of January 1821. The usual depths have been from 2 to 4 or 5 inches. It

The Borough of Reading, according to the late assess. is quite certain, I think, that the quantity of snow, in this ment, contains property to the amount of $1,698,885; region, is much diminished within half a century; and bitants, within its bourids; of which 172 are single free

there are 771 dvelling houses, and 1,126 taxable inhaindeed within the last thirty years. The same remarks may be made, respecting its duration after it has fallen: men, and 165 are Hatters. It is one of the oldest towns both which circumstances are probably owing in a great the agent of whose heirs, during the past week collected

in Pennsylvania, having been laid out by William Penn, measure to the clearing of the forests, and the extended and bore off quit rents to the amount, it is supposed, of cultivation of the country.

10 or 12,000 dollars, though in all probability, as much The number of days of falling weather (including rain more yet remains to be paid. Reading poper, 1826. and snow) is exhibited in the following table.

1757, 130 dwellings, 41 stables

and out houses, and Aver. Aver.

106 families of 378 persons. 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 of last of 10

Votes of Assembly. 5 yrs. years.

In 1820, 4332 inhabitants. Per Census. January,

3 7 4


Number of dwellings in the City and Liberties of Philo10 6 7 7 7 March

delphia in various years.
8 12

8 April

8 8 In 1683

80 10

6 9

10 9

2076 July,


2300 August,

11 10



2969 September, 11 10

7 7

44747 October, 5

6 5

5460 November,

5 6

6000 December, 10 6 8 4 15 9 9


6651 1801

11200 100 95 79 81 81 87 90


13461 1810

15,8141 The average of ten years shows about 90 days in the

* Penn's letter says upwards 1000 houses in 16904 year of falling weather; or nearly one day in four. It † 22769 houses. must not however, be inferred that we bask in sunshine

# In Mulberry ward

920 three days out of four. On an average of the year, it is Upper Delaware

234 probable there is nearly one other day in four which is North Ward

417 dull and cloudy, although without any appreciable High

186 quantity of rain.


358 I am, &c.



147 Professor Silliman.


105 Lower Del.

120* P. S. To the above from Silliman's Journal for July, Dock . 1828, page 379. Since the foregoing was written I have seen in the 'Register of Pennsylvania,' a statement of the

3318 rain as it fell at and near Philadelphia, for a number of Northern Liberties to 2d St. bridge ycars past; by which it appears, that the quantity was

at Stacey's run

553 much less than I have made it: so much less, indeed, Southwark to north side of Love Lane 603 that it would warrant a suspicion that there must be some inaccuracy in one, or both of the accounts. The

4474 statement in the Register,' makes the average of the last five years only 36. 30 inches: whereas my account gives an average of 47.46 inches. It is hardly probable

Ipo The Index and Title Page for the first there could be that much difference in the quantity, in volume will be probably issued next week. two placesso near each other, (not exceeding 25 miles) and yet I am unable to account for the discrepancy:My rain guage was a tin vessel, accurately made, six Printed every Saturday morning by William F. Gedinches deep and six inches square; being an exact cube, des, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at open at top: and as the guages commonly used are in the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, subscripverted cones, I should suppose mine would have exhi- tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per bitel a rather less quantity than those, on account of it's annum-payable in six months after the commencement allowing more evaporation, especially during light rains of publication and annually, thereafter, by subscribers in warm weather. I cannot well perceive how such resident in or near the city-or where there is an agent. a guage as mine could catch more rain than actually fell. Other subscribers pay in advance.

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