Fossilized Second Language Grammars: The Acquisition of Grammatical Gender
John Benjamins Publishing, Jan 1, 2005 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 288 pages
This monograph is a theoretical and empirical investigation into the mechanisms and causes of successful and unsuccessful adult second language acquisition. Couched within a generative framework, the study explores how a learner's first language and the age at which they acquire their second language may contribute to the L2 knowledge that they can ultimately attain. The empirical study focuses on a group of very advanced L2 speakers, and through a series of tests aims to discover what underpins their near mastery of grammatical gender and other grammatical properties. The book explores an account of persistent selective divergence based on the idea that child and adult learners are fundamentally similar, except that in adults the L1 plays the role of a fairly rigid filter of the linguistic input. The impossibility of representing the new target language other than by using the building blocks of the previously established L1 is argued to be the main reason why near but not totally native like language representations are formed and become established in adult L2 learners.
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Competing theories of NSNNS ultimate attainment differences
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acquired adjectives adult L2 learners adult SLA agreement in contexts Anticanonical areas assume assumptions bilingual canonical Chapter Chomsky clitic cognitive critical period discussion Distributed Morphology endstate evidence example F]ll feminine Figure French fucsia functional features gen L1 gen Ll group gender agreement gender assignment gender clues gender features gender marker grammatical gender hypothesis 1.5 interaction interpretation investigated L1 and L2 L1 gen speakers L1 group L1 Spanish L1 speakers L2 acquisition L2 grammar language learning lexical items linguistic main effects marking masc masculine morphemes morphology morphophonological nativelike nativelike knowledge NNSs nominal classification noun class nouns NS/NNS null hypothesis options Orwell's problem parameter Past Tense PFFs phonological predictions Pron pronouns proposal Psycholinguistic scores Second Language Acquisition Section semantic sentences significant subjects subset syntactic clues syntax Table targetlike task Test items Tsimpli ungrammatical uninterpretable Universal Grammar variable verbs wh-movement word