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counties of Mississippi, and you have the Alabama crop. Our bales weigh an av. erage of 490 lbs., those of the Atlantic states 360 to 380.

Then organize a convention to meet annually, through which you will give and receive information by published reports, &c., that must be voluable. Its duties will suggest themselves to the mind of any one who will consider the subject, and I merely desire to raise my voice in support of the proposition.

Our cotton crop, I think, will not vary far from 2,350,000 bales. The fine prospects of July were destroyed in some measure, and I think the figures below will not be far from the mark. Atlantic states,. .

575,000 Florida,

175,000 Mobile,..

.485,000... to...500,000 New Orleans,

1,000,000... to. 1,050,000 Texas, ,


2,350,000 The receipts are largely over those to the same period last year, but last year they held back dissatisfied with prices so much below those of September (100 124c.). This year, in September, the fear of a 3,000,000 bag crop, and the improved prices then over those of April and May last, induced heavy and anxious shipments. Already the receipts are largely falling off.

I may submit a remark here, with regard to slave property, which may be of interest to some. It is known that in Virginia, in 1832, a proposition in one of the branches of her legislature to emancipate slaves in that state, in the usual way, lacked but one vote of being carried. It was a sudden proposition sprung upon the members without consultation with the people. The naked circumstance has induced the impression that slavery was held in that state, Maryland, and Ken. tucky, by rather a slight tenure. 'Upon careful inquiry on the subject, I understand that so far from this being the fact, not one of the members, who voted for that measure have ever been able to be elected to any office by a vote of the people, so uncompromisingly has it been condemned. And as an evidence of the appreciation of this property there, by their extended public works, factories, &c., a likely fellow is worth now in Richmond $ 600, instead of 3,000 being shipped from Baltimore south this year, as was done some years ago, probably 3500400 will cover the number. Light and information is being procured with regard to the condition of slaves, and contrasting their present with their original condition in Africa, or with free negroes any where, or with the corresponding class of laborers in France, England, Ireland, or any other country-their tasks are lighter, their food better, and their situation happier in every particular. And writers have not hesitated in England, of late, to advocate the institution; and the possibility, I suppose, exists of their restoring it in their destroyed colonies in the West Indies. Coincident with the fate of the Virginia politicians, it is a remarkable fact, that Lamartine and other distinguished citisens of France, who fashioned and carried the Republic through its embryo, and who seemed entitled to her highest honors, but who sanctioned the emancipation of slavery in their colonies, have been politically proscribed, and their names are scarcely mentioned. I submit this to show that the value of this property is not deteriorating.

By the improvement in cotton, your lands will be benefited, and I may add that the extraordinary increase of the precious metals, promised from the Califor. nia mines, will enhance inevitably the value of your property, and tend to the swelling of the price of cotton and other articles of produce. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. G. HENRY. 6. COASTS AND KEYS OF FLORIDA. S. R. Mallory, Collector at Key West, thus writes to Professor Bache of the Coast Survey:

" I deem it unnecessary to state the character and extent of the immense and increasing commerce, which passes through the narrow strait between the Florida and the Cuba and Bahama shores, as the published statistics of the Treasury Department upon the subject are familiar to you. In the navigation of this passage, and particularly during the summer months, when the trade winds are light and variable, and the rapidity of the gulf stream is believed to be accelerated, vessels

bound from the eastward to Cuba and the south-western Atlantic ports, are compelled to hug the Florida shore, not only to avoid the stream, but to find an anchorage in calm weather, which frequently continues several days, and both on their outward and homeward voyages, they keep the Florida shore aboard, regarding the iron bound coasts of Cuba and the Bahamas as most perilous. The Florida reefs, extending from Cape Florida to the Tortugas, a distance of about two hundred miles, subject to violent storms and the action of wayward currents, have always proved disastrous to navigators in that region. The number of vessels publicly known to strike upon them, including as well those extricated with as without the aid of wreckers, is not less than forty-eight per annum, or one in every seven days nearly; but it is confidently believed, from reliable sources of information possessed by the people of the coast, that many others strike upon the reefs and get off, of which no accounts are published. Twenty-two vessels, averaging about fifty tons each, are stationed at various points along the reefs, and pursue exclusively the business of relieving stranded property. Many of them are owned by the states of Connecticut and New York; they are expensively and substantially built and furnished, manned by strong crews of from ten to fifteen men, and commanded by skillful pilots, who have devoted their lives to the perilous profession of wrecking. These men are rarely heard of, and seem to be known only to those who have received assistance, or life itself, at their hands; and yet it is thought that few vocations are more essential to the commercial interests of our country, and that the Florida wreckers, in character and conduct, may compare favorably with any other class of seamen in the world. They are licensed by the judge of the United States district court for the southern district of Florida, under the act of Congress of the 3d of February, 1847. Their claims for salvage upon the property saved by them, are adjudicated in this court, and they are held to a strict accountability, not only for the property taken into their possession, but for their personal deportment toward the recipients of their services. The value of the property stranded on the reefs and carried into Key West, during the present year, cannot fall short of one million of dollars. During some years it far exceeds this amount, and the value of all the property which strikes upon them may be safely estimated at two millions of dollars per annum. During the year 1846, there were fisıy.five vessels stranded and carried to Key West in distress, the aggregate value of which, with their cargoes, was $1,624,800. The amount of salvage decreed to the wreckers was $108,992, and the total amount of expenditures at Key West by these vessels and cargoes, was $213,423. Of these fifty-five vessels, eleven were owned in New York, twelve in Maine, seven in Massachusetts, two in Connecticut, two in Rhode Island, five in Pennsylvania, one in South Carolina, five in Florida, and ten in foreign countries.

7. THE COTTON TRADE. The Boston Journal gives the subjoined statistics in relation to the Cotton trade. The table shows the amount imported into England during the following periods : Years.

Pounds per year. 1771 to 1795.

1,170.181 1771 to 1780

6,122,717 1771 to 1790.

19,105,547 1791 to 1800.

31,341.373 1801 to 1810

69,372, 179 1811 to 18:20

105,571,546 1821 to 1825

105,687.033 1826 to 1845

..351,700.000 1846.

..588,000,000 1847.

.439,000,000 In twenty years, from 1826 to 1845, of every 10,000 bales worked up: England used....

..5,700 bales. France...

1,700 Holland and the North of Europe.

8:0 Trieste and the South of Europe.

450 United States....

.1,-00 No particular account was kept of the amount used in England from 1705 to 1770. In 1832, the amount used in that country was 277,000,000 lbs., and the United States now use equal to that amount. During the twenty years specified 7

Vol. I.

above, it will be seen that the amount used in France, exceeded that used in this country. The United States now use more than France.

The prices of upland cotton in 1803, in England, was 72 cents per lb.; in Amsterdam, $1,44 per lb., and in Havre, $1,92 per lb.

In the years 1845–6, England used 1,630,000 lbs., at a cost of $167,000,000, and gained in manufacturing, $412,000,000. Of which, exported to foreign countries, $ 359,000,000; used at home, $220,000,000 value. Whole value manufactured in three years, $599,000,000,

The amount of cotton exported from the United States in the year 1836, was valued at $71,284,925, and would have taken more than one hundred tons of gold, at £3 17s. 9d. per oz. to pay for it.

8. SUPPLY OF COTTON 1848-9. The following from the London Economist is deserving the consideration of our planters:

MANCHESTER, April 12, 1849. Sir-As I have made free use of the cotton statistics contained in your last number, I think it but civil to you to send you the result of the calculation,

My inquiry has been to find how far we are likely to be overwhelmed with 2,600,000 bales from America, supposing all other countries to send us the same quantity as last year. The Brazilian and other imports I have taken from Hollinshead, Tetley & Co.'s circular, dated Dec. 29, 1848, and have added 30,000 bales to it for imports into London and Glasgow from those countries. The whole growth of American being taken, requires no addition.

The summary of the whole is, that the whole growth of cotton, at the present rate, will go into consumption, and that the stock at the end of 1849 will be more likely to be reduced than increased. According to the tables in the Economist of April 7, 1849, it appears that

1848–49 1847-'48. The number of bales of cotton taken for consumption in bales. bales.

the U. S. of America, from Sept. 1, 1848 (daie of the

New York cotton statement), to March 13, 1849, is 323,626 against 269,595. America has therefore consumed 323,626 bales in 194

days. If 194 days, 323,626 bales; 7 days, 11,677

bales weekly: Exported from the U. S. of America to all other coun.

tries, omitting Great Britian, between September 1,

1848, and March 13, 1849—194 days. ..... 307,757 against 358,659 If 194 days, 307,757 bales; 7 days, 11,105 bales weekly. Cotton exported from Great Britain to other countries,

between Jan. 1, 1949, and March 31, 1819–90 days. 51,200 against 19,500 If 90 days, 51,200 bales; 7 days, 2,982 bales weekly

export. Consumption of cotton in Great Britain between Jan. 1, 1849 and March 31, 1849—90 days....

411,814 against 326,429 If 90 days 411,814 bales; 7 days, 32,030 bales weekly consumption.

Bales. Weekly consumption of cotton in the U.S. of America.....

11,677 Weekly exports from America to other countries, omitting Great Britain. 11,105 Weekly exports from Great Britain to other countries....

3,982 Weekly consumption of Great Britain.....

32,030 Weekly consumption....


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Import into London from other places, omitting the United States suppose......

30,000 Total supply of cotton for 1849.

2,900,090 On the supposition that the present rate of consumption should be

maintained in England, America, and on the Continent of Europe,

for the remainder of the year 1849, the requirement would be... 3,057,288 The estimated growth of cotton available for the year 1849, is... 2,900,090 Deficiency in bales......

157,198 I am, sir, yours, very respectfully,


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I. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS. 1. Southern Quarterly Review, Charleston, Vol. XV, $5.00 per annum, 2. North American Review,


LXVIII, 5.00 3. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, New York,


5.00 4. Southern Literary Messenger, Richmond,


5.00 5. Western Journal,

St. Louis,

JI, 3.00 6. “ Plough, Loom and Anvil," Philadelphia,

II, 3.00 7. Banker's Magazine,


III, 3.00 8. New Orleans Medical Journal,

v, 5.00 9. Charleston

IV, 4.00 10. Silliman's Journal,

New Haven,

5.00 11. Western Journal of Boatmen, Cincinnati,

I, 2.00 12. Rail Road Journal,

New York,

XXII, 5.00 13. Mining Journal,


II, 3.00 14. Ethnological Journal,

London, 15. Literary World,

New York,

3.00 16. Simmond's Colonial Magazine, London,

6.00 17. Republication Foreign Reviews, New York, 18. Monthly Laro Reporter,


I, 3.00 19. Franklin Institute Journal,

XLVII, 5,00 These leading periodicals are all on our exchange list, and are regularly received. The Southern Quarterly is now under the editorial charge of that accomplished gentleman and scholar, William Gilmore Simms of South Carolina, and already exhibits the evidences of his ability. For the honor of the South we wish the work perpetual. The North Anterican needs no eulogium from our hands, occupying the prominent position and fame that it does. Mr. Hunt's Magazine continues to win golden opinions in Europe as well as in our own country; and among its ablest papers are those from the pen of Thomas P. Kettell, Esq., of New York. We always read the Literary Messenger with the liveliest interest. In its character it is almost alone in our country. Mr. Thompson has done great credit to the literature of the South. In the last number, Lieut. Maury contributes an excellent paper iipon the projected routes to the Pacific ocean. The Western Journal at St. Louis continually improves in appearance, size and matier; and from its location has the widest field. Skinner of the Plough, Loom and Anvil, is a veteran in agricultural matters and has done as much good in their behalf as any other man in the Union. Though we like not the theory of his work, there are hundreds and thousands who do, and should sustain it liberally : audi alteram partem in any case. We have often commended the Banker's Magazine as deserving the support of the bankers and liberal minded merchants throughout the Union. Dr. Hester has lately becomie sole editor of the Nero Orleans Medical Journal, and is continually adding to its interest. We congratulate our neighbor on his success, Dr. Fenner is one of his most constant and valuable contributors, and was one of the founders of the Jourual. The Charleston Medical Journal seems to lose nothing in ability or interest. Every person interested in the progress of science will of course read Silliman's Journal. The old series of fifty volumes should fill a niche in every respectable library. The Boatman's Magazine is a new enterprise by Mr. Embree, and the object is to disseminate knowledge about our Western boats, boatmen, and navigation. The Rail Road Journal, formerly conducted by Mr. Minor, has passed into the hands of H. V. Poor, who spares no labor in elevating its character. The important interest of mines and miners is well represented in the Mining Journal. The Ethnological Journal, con. ducted hy Luke Burke, Esq., is one of the profoundest publications in any country, relating to the physical history of Man and the Races. We have inteuded, for some time, paying our re

pects to the Messrs. Duyckinck, who have succeeded Mr. Hoffman in the Literary World. They have made it one of the most interesting publications in the world to men of letters, and deserve the most abundant success. In it we get a faithful record of all the late publications in every country. Somehow or other, of late, our exchange with Simmond's Colonial Magazine has been stopped. We desire greatly lo renew it, from the value we set upon that admirable statistical journal of the British colonies. We may say the same of Messrs. Leonard, Scott & Co.'s New York republication of Blackwood, Edinburgh, London Quarterly and Foreign Reviews. They have not been received by us for some time. The subscription price for the four works is but $10 per annum, about one-third of the English price.

It is our intention regularly to notice our exchanges, as a matter which must be of interest to every reader of the Review.


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2. LATE ADDRESSES. 1. Address before Mechanics' Institute, New York,

Hon. Z. Pratt, 1849. 2

Franklin Library Society, 3

at the Dedication of the Athenaum, Baltimore, on
* Commerce, Literature and Art."

Brantz Mayer, Esq. 4. before Young Men's Library Association, Cincinnati, 0.Cincinnati and her Destiny."

Governor Bebb, 5 New England Society of Louisiana,

Hon. S. Thacher. 6.

State Agricultural Society, South Carolina. Hon. R. F. W. Allsion, on the opening University of Mississippi.

Hon. Jacob Thompson. 8.

Inaugural, as President Univer. of Mississippi, Geo. Fredk. Holnies. 9. before Cincinnati Mercantile Society.

Elwood Fisher. All who know Mr. Pratt, are acquainted with the strong practical character of his mind, and the interest he lakes in everything tending to advance the condition of the working classes, He is one of the most prominent and useful men in the State of New York. It is our intention to make some extracts from Mr. Mayer's eloquent production. Giovernor BEBB is enthusiastic about the destinies of Cincinnati. We shall exhibit hereafter many of his views,

Our ac quaintance with Judge THACHER dates from his visit here last season1, to deliver his address. The prevalence of a fearful epidemic, at the lime, was unfortunate. The address is a vindication of New England. Mr. Allston is one of the most liberal agriculturists of Carolina, and is the author of one of the ablest memoirs upon RICE, yet given to the world. Our friend Gro. Fred, HOLMES, whom we have known for many years as an erudite scholar, will preside well over the Mississippi University. His inaugural is an admirable paper, and has been extolled in the highest terms, by the Southern Literary Messenger, which we indorse. Mr. Fisher's address is a triumphant vindication of the South from the aspersions of the abolitionists and others, and shows that this portion of the Union is, if anything, the most prosperous. guments are powerful, and are well sustained. Hundreds of thousands copies of the address have been printed, and we shall suon present it to our readers.

3. REPORTS, ETC., TO CONGRESS. 1, Vattemare's International Exchanges. 2. Secretary of Treasury, 1848. 3. Coast Survey in regard to Florida, 1848. 4. Professor Bache on Coast Survey, 1848. 5.

Weights and Measures, 1848. 6. Col. Abert on Commerce Western Lakes. 7. T. Butler King on Pacific Steamers. 8. J. D. Westcott on Everglades of Florida. 9. Aaron H. Palmer, Memoir regarding East India Commerce." 10 Geological Survey of Missouri. 11. Fremont and Emory's Explorations. 12. Report Commissioner of Patents on Steam Explosions and Patent Laws.

On several occasions we have called attention to Mr. Vattemare's system of Exchanges between governments, of products in literature, arts, science, &c. It has obtained favor in most of the States. We intend an effort to get our next Legislature to unite in the muvement, Mr. Walker's closing report, as Secretary of the Treasury, is one of the most interesting public documents for a long time We were pl'ased to see the triumphant vindication of Prof. Bache, in the last Congress, from the attacks of Mr. Benton and others. The speech of Jeffer. son Davis of Mississippi, in this respect, was powerful and irresistible. PROF. lache's works are an h nor to the science of our country. We wisb we had time to analyze the reports now. The one on weights and measures will serve us niuch in the preparation of an article on that interesting subject From the report of Col. Abert on Western Lakes, we shall hereafter extract largely, as we have referred in the present number of the Review to the dis. tinguished labors of Mr. King, regarding our Pacific commerce, etc. Mr, Westcott, on the Everglades of Florida, is at hoine. His labors make almost a volume, from whicb we shall

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