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I enrolled in the carpentry course given at the Edward Bok Vocational Technical School by the school district of Philadelphia. It seemed that I had at last discovered a field in which I was not only interested, but where I actually enjoyed the training. For 2142 years I learned the elements of carpentry with the associated instruction such as blueprint reading, shop mathematics, and shop English. At that time the veterans' program of the school district of Philadelphia was constructing homes for paraplegics and blind veterans, and our classes were transferred to this project. These 10 homes built entirely by veterans gave me most valuable training in the construction field.

After completion of the course I worked with various contractors to gain as much experience as I could. In 1952 I obtained employment with the Philadelphia Board of Public Education as a carpenter's helper, and for the next several years I advanced through the various grades until I became a full-fledged carpenter. I was then selected to work as a draftsman in the office of the building department of the school district. At the present time my work consists of drawings and specifications for new buildings.

While I have long since passed the date for further training under the GI bill, realizing the value of augmenting my abilities, I have enrolled in the Temple Technical Institute where I am studying architectural design and building construction. It is my intention to remain in my present field, advancing as far as I am able. Thanks to the GI bill, the future of my wife and now two daughters looks much brighter than in the days before I entered the service.

I submit this statement not only to further the interests of veterans' training, but to express my appreciation to the Government that has made all this possible for me.


Montpelier, February 23, 1960.
Chairman, Committee on Veterans Affairs,
House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN TEAGUE: I appreciate the invitation to appear before the committee to offer testimony on veterans' education but I am sorry that it will be impossible for me to appear in person.

I am very interested in this matter and I am pleased to submit herewith a a statement favoring the passage of legislation by the House of Representatives with provisions similar to those of S. 1138. I hope that your committee will see fit to recommend passage of such legislation by the House of Representatives. Sincerely yours,

COLA D. WATSON, State Supervisor, Agricultural Education,



As State supervisor of agricultural education in Vermont, I have been in charge of the institutional-on-farm training program in agriculture for veterans in the State since 1946. During the period, 1950 through 1954, I also served as chairman of the committee on veterans' education in agriculture for the American Vocational Association so have had an opportunity to become familiar with the operation and results of the institutional-on-farm training programs for veterans under the provisions of Public Laws 346, 377, 16, 894, and 550 on a national basis.

I appreciate the opportunity to make this statement to your Committee on Veterans' Affairs favoring the passage of legislation by the U.S. House of Representatives to provide readjustment assistance to veterans who served in the Armed Forces between January 31, 1955, and July 1, 1963, similar to that provided by S. 1138. I favor all readjustment assistance to veterans but shall, because of my experience, address my remarks more specifically to the institutional-on-farm training phase of educational and vocational training assistance.

The men and women who unselfishly gave their time and energy to the defense of our Nation by serving in its Armed Forces performed whatever duties were needed and these were seldom in keeping with their plans for the future. We all recognize that their lives were interrupted; their education and training was delayed. Passage of this legislation would allow them to take up where they left off before entering the armed services.

This is not a new, untried program but is an extension of programs that have proven themselves. Several comprehensive studies have been made of the results of institutional-on-farm training for veterans enrolled under the provisions of Public Laws 346, 377, and 16. The most comprehensive of these is a national study made by the AVA Committee on Research in the Education of Veterans and reported in 1952 as AVA Research Bulletin No. 5. The study corered the 2-year period from January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1950, and, on a random sampling basis, included over 5,000 veterans enrolled in the pro gram at that time. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which veterans were becoming established in farming as a result of the training program. The results of the study show that during this period veterans' farms increased in size, rates of production of all major crops and farm animals increased considerably, labor incomes and net worth increased, and many improved agricultural practices were adopted by veterans. Similar studies in various sections of the country have shown the same results. A detailed study of the farm operations for 1949 and 1950 of 190 veterans in Vermont showed significant increases in labor incomes, net worth, productive man work units per farm, productive work units per man, and tons of milk produced per


Few comparable studies have been made of the results of institutional-onfarm training for veterans enrolled under Public Law 550, but similar results can be expected. Examples of outstandingly successful establishment in farming as a result of institutional-on-farm training under Public Law 550 can be cited in any section of the country. I shall cite one that is representative from my own State.

Donald E. Lewis of Woodstock, Vt., was graduated from the 4-year vocational agriculture program at Woodstock High School during which he built up a small herd of purebred Jersey animals on the home farm. Following his release from the service, he purchased the balance of the Jersey herd, rented the 300-acre home farm, and enrolled in institutional on-farm training under Public Law 530 in December 1956. Taking full advantage of this educational opportunity, he applied many improved production and management practices on the farm. In 1957 his exhibits of grass silage, corn silage, and hay all took ribbons at the Vermont Farm Show. In 1958 he was selected as the Vermont Dairyman of the Year. The same year he was also selected as the New England Green Pastures in Winter winner. The latter is a very popular program in which most of the best farmers of New England participate. Success of the farm as a business operation was the main consiedration for both of these recognitions. There can be no doubt that institutional on-farm training has contributed largely to Mr. Lewis' establishment in farming and that he will continue to be one of the outstanding dairy farmers of the Northeast.

There has been a great revolution in the agricultural field in this country in the past few years. A young man can no longer take two horses and a plow and go out to earn a living from the soil. Science and mechanization have changed the structure of farming. Farms are increasing in size and complexity of management. Even though some fewer farmers will be needed in the future to produce the food and fiber needed by our ever-increasing population, those who have this responsibility must have had sound, thorough agricultural training. The opportunity for young men in farming is excellent because of the relatively high average age of today's farmers. A majority of the young men who are established in farming today are products of institutional on-farm training in agriculture.

Time is of the essence to our youth. They have been left a rich heritage, but to enter and contribute to our vast economy, they must be prepared with all of the education and training they can possibly achieve. On the other hand, our high cost of living makes it necessary for them to assume productive work as soon as possible. The youth who are first trained for the work that best suits their capabilities and interests constitute a priceless asset for America's economic and social security.

Federal legislation which entitles a veteran to a period of education or training equal to 11/2 times the duration of his service on active duty between Janu.

1 Eaton, E. O., unpublished thesis, 1952, “A Study of 190 Farm Veterans Enrolled in the Institutional-on-Farm Training Program in the State of Vermont,” Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

ary 31, 1955, and July 1, 1963, is highly commendable because, in order to achieve their prescribed objectives, many programs of education or training will require all of the time allowed. Institutional on-farm training is such a program.

In final analysis, the strength and security of any nation is, to a large measure, dependent on: the ability of its agriculture to efficiently produce the food and fiber needed by its populace and industry; the technically trained manpower to support an automated industry; and an educated populace capable of maintaining and expanding our national economy, security, and democratic ideals.

If after 2 to 4 years in the armed services a young man finds that, because of responsibilities, he must go immediately to work without training, we have lost a potential farmer, scientific agriculutralist, engineer, technician, or scientist. Where are all these traned workers going to come from to maintain our national welfare? A program that will assure educational opportunity to our veterans holds great promise of meeting these needs. Furthermore, when one's educational program is interrupted by a period of time in the armed services, his experience and contacts during this period of time are such that his career objectives may well be altered unless there is an opportunity for him to readily resume his educational program where he left off upon entering the service.

Vocational educators throughout the country have a deep concern and interest in the potential that well educated veterans have for the future welfare of our Nation and democratic ideals. This interest is evidenced by the resolution adopted by the American Vocational Association, the professional organization of vocational educators throughout the country, meeting in Chicago, Ill., on December 10, 1959. The resolution is as follows:

"Whereas the education of veterans provided through Federal legislation has greatly helped veterans to become self-supporting contributing citizens; and

"Whereas these benefits have been limited to those inducted into the Armed Forces prior to February 1, 1955: Be it hereby

Resolved, That the AVA continue to support Federal legislation to extend educational benefits to all those veterans who have served honorably in the Armed Forces and who were inducted into the service on or after February 1, 1935; and be it further

Resolved, That the proposed educational benefit legislation for the said cold war veterans be similar in content to the educational benefit legislation extended to Korean conflict veterans under Public Law 550 and that this proposed legislation be the direct grant, not a loan type of scholarship."

We, in vocational education, have great confidence in the legislative branch of our Government. We know that this great body will make every effort to pass legislation that will best serve the individual citizen and the Nation as a whole. We strongly urge your enactment of legislation that will provide education and training benefits to veterans who serve in the Armed Forces of this country between January 31, 1955, and July 1, 1963.

Mr. DORN. Next I would like to submit and have inserted in the record a letter addressed to the chairman of this committee from Wendell P. Butler, superintendent of public instruction, Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Education, which is dated February 24, 1960. (The information follows:)



Frankfort, February 24, 1960. Hon. OLIN E. TEAGUE, Chairman, Veterans' Affairs Committee, House Office Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. TEAGUE: It has come to my attention that your Veterans' Affairs Committee will hold hearings on legislation to extend the education and training benefits to those people who entered the service after the January 31, 1955, delimiting date.

These men have served and are serving in all the troubled areas of the world. They have trained with the most dangerous weapons and vehicles of war. Some of the places could become hot-war spots in a moment's notice. These men have had no choice but to serve, since the compulsory military law is in effect.

The training programs under the GI bill have increased the educational and skill levels of our people and have helped boost our economy to an alltime high. I must join with the many outstanding individuals and groups in our State and urgently request that your committee act immediately in bringing this legislation into position for enactment in this Congress. Sincerely yours,


Superintendent, Public Instruction. Mr. DORN. The chairman has received a letter from Mr. Marcus V. McWaters, president, Louisiana Vocational Association.

Without objection, this letter, which is dated February 24, 1960, will be made a part of the record. (The letter follows:)


Hammond, La., February 24, 1960. Hon. OLIN E. TEAGUE, Chairman, House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House Office Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN TEAGUE: The Louisiana Vocational Association vigorously supports legislation to authorize education and training benefits for veterans who first entered the military service after January 31, 1955. It is our understanding that hearings on this important legislation will begin shortly before the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

Our organization is made up of over 1,000 teachers, supervisors, directors, and other school officials in vocational education, who work in the public schools of Louisiana. As such we have had an opportunity to observe the wonderful results achieved through the education and training program for veterans of World War II and of the Korean conflict. Many thousands of well-trained personnel have been adied to the available labor force in Louisiana as a result of these programs. We feel that as long as our national policy dictates a continued military draft that those who are required to serve should be, in part, compensated for the disruption of their educational and employment goals and plans. We know of no programs that could more effectively do this and at the same time serre the needs of the Nation than a continuation of the education and training program similar to that provided for World War II and Korean veterans.

We trust that you will continue to support this legislation and that final enactment will be realized during the present session of Congress. Sincerely yours,

MARCUS V. McWATERS, President. Mr. Dorn. The chairman of the committee has received a letter dated February 23, 1960, from Severo Martinez of the Employment Security Commission, New Mexico State Employment Service.

Without objection, this letter will be made a part of the record. (The letter follows:)


Santa Fe, N. Mex., February 23, 1960.
Chairman, Veterans' Affairs Committee,
House Office Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SENATOR TEAGUE: I am writing to urge your support on Senate bill 1138, the cold war veterans' bill, which you are aware will affect numerous ex-service men that have had service subsequent to January 31, 1955.

I have been approached by numerous interested personnel by virtue of my po sition as manager of the local State employment service office, post commander of VFW Post 2951, and as commanding officer of a National Guard unit in this area. We strongly urge your support of this bill. Yours very truly,

SEVERO MARTINEZ. Mr. Dory. The chairman has received a letter dated February 23, 1960, from Paul Breit, director of the Los Angeles Institute of Industrial Science.

Without objection, this letter will be made a part of the record. (The letter follows:)


Los Angeles, Calif., February 23, 1960. Congressman OLIN TEAGUE, House Veterans Affairs Committee, Congressional Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SIR: We note with interest that a bill extending veteran benefits to cold war vets is now in committee and soon to be taken into consideration.

In this period of emphasis on the necessity of encouraging our younger people to greater endeavor in education, I should like to lend my voice to the many who are urging greater educational opportunities for the younger generation.

Aside from the many immediate tangible benefits which would accrue from such a program, we want to point out the justice of affording educational opportunities to young people, many of whom because of time devoted in the armed services were not able, later on, to resume their education. We strongly feel that such individuals should be encouraged to resume training for civilian life and to increase their educational background.

We urge that bill s. 1138 be sent to the House and that appropriate legislative action be taken. Yours truly,

PAUL BREIT, Director. Mr. Dorn. The chairman has received a letter dated February 23, 1960, from Adele Margulies, registrar of the California Institute of Tool Engineering

Without objection, this letter will be made a part of the record. (The letter follows:)


Los Angeles, Calif., February 23, 1960. Congressman OLIN TEAGUE, House Veterans' Affairs Committee, Congressional Building, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SIR: It has come to my attention that bill s. 1138 is now in committee and is soon coming up for consideration.

As registrar in a trade technical school, I cannot help but be cognizant of the great benefits which have derived from educational opportunities which were extended to war veterans who entered training into the armed services prior to January 1955. Many of these people are now in responsible positions throughout industry and are enjoying the fruits of an educational background which might not have been possible except for veteran training rights which had been extended to them.

It is for this reason that I feel that others who have entered the services since January 1955 are being unduly discriminated against, in that they also have devoted part of their youth to the services of their country.

In the interests of fair play I hope that you will do your utmost to see that this bill will be passed. Yours very sincerely,

ADELE MARGULIES, Registrar. Mr. Dorn. The chairman has received a telegram dated February 25, 1960, from Robert De Marta, Daly City, Calif.

Without objection, this telegram will be made a part of the record. (The telegram follows:)

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., February 25, 1960. Congressman OLIN E. TEAGUE, House Office Building, Washington, D.O.:

Drafted in armed services in 1957, served to 1959. Now attending morning college. Working 40 hours week afternoons and weekends to support self, wife and two children. Study time and income inadequate. Please support Yarborough Senate bill 1138 to help veterans prepare themselves for useful citizenship.


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