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Within the Air University system are the War College; the Command and Staff College; the Institute of Technology; Headquarters Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officers Training Corps); the Extension Course Institute, USAF; the Research Studies Institute; and the Air University Library.

Air Force officers must be able to solve complex problems of military management, tactics, and strategy having many variable factors. Air University aims to teach the student how to seek solutions ; to develop in the student the ability, the mental know-how, to attack problems in an orderly manner, by logic, by analysis, by applying tested principles at every step. This approach differs from that of Air Training Command, where courses are vocational and are designed to qualify officers and airmen in a wide variety of technical specialties ranging from piloting airplanes to splicing telephone cables. In contrast with training in technical skills, where the aim is the imparting of known facts and approved techniques, in Air University education "approved solutions" are avoided wherever possible, in the belief that their use would narrow the range of the student's thinking and discourage unfettered originality.

A. WAR COLLEGE

(1) The mission of the War College is to prepare senior officers for high command and staff duty with large Air Force units and to promote sound concepts of air power to assure its most effective development and employment.

(2) Since major problems facing high command and staff officers are of such complexity as to require group solution, the instruction is so organized that at least half of the students' scheduled time is spent in seminar work. Lectures, forums, conferences, student presentations, research, thesis preparation, and critiques take up the remainder of the students' scheduled time. The War College does not provide approved solutions to the problems presented to the student body nor attempt to prescribe or suggest in any manner what the solutions should be. Seminar groups are encouraged to arrive at solutions to problems through individual study, analytical reasoning, reflective thinking, and group discussion.

One hundred and sixty-six students attend this academic year course annually.

B. COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE

(1) The mission of the Command and Staff College is to increase the professional competence of Air Force officers for command and staff duties.

(2) The curriculum as a whole is oriented toward a general approach to military education. The philosophy of a general education is supported by studies in the elements of national power, air staff organization, staff planning, command, and basic military doctrine, and exercises in operational employment. The course consists of lectures and seminars. Guests and faculty members give the lectures. Material presented in the lectures is expanded upon and discussed in seminars. Other seminars are devoted to solving simulated command and staff problems. Six hundred students atter this course annually.

C. SQUADRON OFFICER SCHOOL

(1) The Squadron Officer School operates the USAF resident professional school for squadron grade officers and prepares selected officers for the command tasks asociated with squadrons and for the performance of staff duties normally performed by captains and lieutenants.

(2) The Squadron Officer School is concerned with education rather than training and seeks to develop the whole man. In the mental, physical, and spiritual areas the Squadron Officer School tries to guide the young officer toward his maximum potential as a leader in the Air Force. The school offers 3 courses of 14 weeks duration each, to 3,000 officers annually.

D. ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR SCHOOL

The Academic Instructor School has the mission of increasing the effectiveness of selected Air Force instructors. The school offers 6 classes annually to officers, airmen, and civilians for an annual output of over 1,000 students.

E. WARFARE SYSTEMS SCHOOL

The objective of the Warfare Systems School is to increase the technical knowledge of Air Force officers in warfare systems. It provides three resident courses and various briefings. This course has a maximum input of 150 officers annually.

F. EXTENSION COURSE INSTITUTE (1) The Extension Course Institute at Gunter AFB, Ala., is responsible for conducting correspondence type training for the Air Force. Enrollment in ECI is approximately 300,000 students. Participation in ECI courses is open to Air Force officers and airmen both on active duty and reservists, Army, Navy, Marine Corps personnel, CAP members and civilian employees of the Department of Defense.

(2) ECI currently offers a curriculum of 109 courses. Of these, five are general in nature and the balance are specialized, pertaining to Air Force career areas. In all, 29 career areas are represented in the curriculum,

G. THE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (1) The mission is to provide education to meet the technological, scientific, and other professional requirements of the Air Force as follows:

(a) Provision of graduate and undergraduate engineering and graduate management programs at the resident college located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

(b) Administration of the civilian institutions program under which Air Force personnel are educated in a wide variety of professional fields in civilian colleges, universities, hospitals, medical schools, and industrial establishments.

(2) Academic and military prerequisite vary somewhat for each particular program. However, the general basic eligibility criteria and academic prerequisite is as follows:

(a) Be a career officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel or below. (b) Completion of at least 18 months' active duty as an officer.

(c) Officers who do not possess a baccalaureate degree must successfully complete USAFI College level GED tests, and possess at least 30 semester hours of college credit.

(3) In the foreign language training area, officers and airmen are selected to attend in order to satisfy specific Air Force needs. In all other phases of the IT program, officers submit formal applications for attendance. Personnel selected for IT training attend in a full-time duty status on official Air Force orders. They receive full pay and allowances. The Air Force pays all tuition charges, cost of books up to a maximum of $50 and all incidental fees.

(4) Programs :
(a) Resident program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
(1) Training is offered in the following fields :

Astronautical engineering.
Engineering sciences.
Aeronautical engineering.
Electrical engineering.
Nuclear engineering.
Industrial administration.'
Engineering administration.'
Applied comptrollership."
Civil engineering (base and staff personnel entering are engineers

but need training in service operations).
Advanced logistics.

Engineering management." (2) Officer input into this program was 392 in fiscal year 1959. (b) Civilian institutions program.

(1) During fiscal year 1939, instruction was provided at 78 civilian col. leges (exclusive of short courses, training with industry, and medical) and universities in the following fields:

i No further enrollments will be made in the resident program in these courses. courses are being transferred to civilian institution.

The

Engineering.
Bio and physical sciences.
Arts and social sciences.
Management.
Academy instructors and special research instructors.
Meteorology.

Medical.
(2) Officers attending civilian institutions can earn college degrees pro-
vided they meet the degree requirements of the institutions attended and
the program pursued is degree worthy.

(3) Officers input into this program was 1,085 in fiscal year 1959, exclusive of medical personnel. (c) Foreign language training.

(1) Intensive foreign language training against Air Force requirements is provided for both officers and airmen to qualify them to perform their duties more efficiently.

(2) Instruction is accomplished primarily in civilian institutions. Some students are trained at Government-operated schools.

(3) Personnel who attended civilian institutions may earn college degrees provided they meet the degree requirements of the institution concerned.

(4) Input in fiscal year 1959 was 135 officers and 1,298 airmen. (d) Training-with-industry program.

(1) The Air Force industrial-training program has been developed to train selected officers either in the management or in the operational aspects of industrial operation.

(2) The primary objective of the management program is to improve Air Force contractor relationships by acquainting officers with the characteristics of American industry, and the specialized procedures, skills, and processes which contribute to the high degree of efficiency. The operational program, on the other hand, prepa res officer engineers to assume responsibilities on specific aircraft weapons systems under development.

(3) Officer input into this program was 110 in fiscal year 1959.

H. AIRMAN EDUCATION AND COMMISSIONING PROGRAM

The airman education and commissioning program began in fiscal year 1960. The quota is a maximum of 388 active duty airman in the program, or 194 each fiscal year. The Air University's Institute of Technology establishes the academic eligibility requirements for the program based upon the academic fields of study specified by Headquarters USAF, and on a maximum period of 2 years for the airmen to qualify for a baccalaureate degree.

AIR FORCE EDUCATION SERVICES PROGRAM

VOLUNTARY OFF-DUTY PROGRAM

The education services program provides continuing academic, vocational, and military career educational opportunities at all levels. Participation is voluntary and is available to all officers and airmen on extended active duty.

Provisions are made for an education services office on every Air Force installation to provide counseling, enrollment, and testing services. As of September 30, 1959, there were 21 officers, 387 airmen, and 213 civilian education advisers working full-time in the education services program. A. U.S. Armed Forces Institute (USAFI)

1. More than 200 correspondence courses are available to military personnel stationed anywhere in the world. The courses range in academic level from the elementary grades through second year college. There is wide coverage of subject matter fields. While USAFI does not award academic credit, these courses are widely accepted for credit by high schools and institutions of higher learning. USAFI forwards notification of course completion to schools upon request. The cost of an original enrollment is $5. Additional enrollments are free of charge as long as courses are successfully completed.

2. Forty-four cooperating colleges and universities provide more than 6,400 correspondence courses through USAFI. These courses are on the high school and college levels and are available anywhere in the world. The student upon successful completion receives correspondence credit for bis work directly from

the college or university concerned. The military services pay the cost of lesson service for such courses. The student pays an enrollment fee and for the textbooks and materials used.

3. USAFI provides testing services on the elementary, high school, and first year college level. These permit the serviceman to progress at an accelerated rate, depending on his ability and past experiences. USAFI tests are widely accepted by civilian schools for academic credit. This is especially true of the general educational development (GED) tests used to measure achievement for both high school equivalency and first-year college levels. During fiscal year 1959 there were 38,462 high school GED tests and 20,435 college GED tests administered to Air Force personnel.

4. During fiscal year 1959 there were 46,481 airman and 5,448 officer enrollments in USAFI correspondence courses. There was an overall decrease of 18,117 from fiscal year 1956. The decrease in correspondence courses appears to be due to the dramatic increase in enrollments in civilian school classes during the same period. B. Group study classes

1. Group study classes are organized on Air Force installations when needed and when there are 10 or more military personnel who desire to enroll. They range from elementary school through second-year college levels.

2. USAFI and BCI texts and end of course tests are recommended for use when available. When these materials are used, concurrent enrollment in the USAFI or ECI course is required. The credit earned is accepted by civilian schools for credit in approximately the same manner as are USAFI correspondence courses. During fiscal year 1959 there were 98,676 airman and 6,528 officer enrollments in group study classes. C. Civilian school classes

1. Air Force personnel attend night classes offered on or near Air Force installations by accredited high schools, colleges, and universities. These classes are offered both in the United States and overseas. During calendar year 1959, a total of 124 high schools and 321 institutions of higher learning offered night classes which were attended by Air Force personnel. This program is preponderantly at the college level.

2. The following colleges and universities offer on-base night courses in oversea areas:

(a) University of Maryland, Europe ; north Africa ; Near East; Far East (Japan, Korea, Okinawa, Guam, and Foremosa) ; North Atlantic (New Foundland, Greenland, Iceland, Bermuda, and the Azores).

(b) Florida State University, Puerto Rico and Panama Canal Zone.
(c) University of Hawaii, Hawaii.
(d) University of the Philippines, Philippine Islands.
(e) University of Alaska, Alaska.

3. Approximately 90 percent of these college-level classes provide full degreegranting credit transferable in the same manner as credits earned on the school campuses. The remainder provide "extension" credit, ordinarily transferable in limited quantities.

4. In fiscal year 1959, there were 86,919 airman and 28.063 officer enrollments in these classes. During fiscal year 1959, 74 airmen and 276 officers earned college degrees during off-duty time. In addition, 13,456 diplomas or certificates of equivalency were earned and 2,186 elementary certificates were attained. D. Final semester temporary duty

1. Air Force personnel who have acquired sufficient academic credits so they can complete degree requirements within 6 months or less are eligible to apply for final semester temporary duty at the college of their choice. Officers and airmen who are approved for this program draw full pay and allowances while attending school, but pay their own costs of tuition, books, supplies, and fees. During fiscal year 1959, 91 airmen and 431 officers earned degrees through the final semester temporary duty program. E. Participation rates

New enrollments, tests administered, and diplomas and degrees earned in the education services program are shown in tab A. Total participation figures are recorded by fiscal years. New enrollments and degrees and certificates earned during fiscal year 1939 only are shown in tab B. Total participation figures are divided into officer and airman categories.

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NOTE-- Records indicate the following percentages of enrollment:

USAFI: 10,5 percent officers, 89.5 percent airmen: group study classes, 6.2 percent officers, 93.8 percent airmen; civilian school classes, 24.4 percent officers, 75.6 percent airmen,

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USAF MILITARY AND TECHNICAL TRAINING The USAF military and technical training requirements are accomplished through an integrated training program of formal and on-the-job training conducted or supervised by Air Force commands and other governmental agencies. Training requirements are developed and directed primarily toward meeting the needs of the service.

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