« PreviousContinue »
ENLISTED COLLEGE TRAINING PROGRAM
Initiated in March 1958, enlisted personnel, on a voluntary basis, have been offered 1 or 2 years of onduty training at a civilian college, enlisting respectively for 3 or 6 years. This training is sponsored by the technical and administrative services according to their needs and is exceedingly selective. To date 306 enlisted personnel have been enrolled with a present active enrollment of 287 studying at 77 schools located in 40 States.
GENERAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The following table illustrates the average participation (enrollments) and total course completions during fiscal year 1959 in the various levels of instruction :
17, 209 30, 128 39, 738 26, 339 10, 412
35, 121 26, 492 40, 215 112, 915 168, 378
Responsive to the parents, clergy, and educators, the Department of Defense has promised “to provide the common services and materials by which departments may assure for members of their commands, educational opportunities in subjects normally taught in civilian academic institutions."
The permanent field facility designed to implement that promise is the United States Armed Forces Institute at Madison, Wis. (USAFI). Policies governing its operation derive from recommendations of the Defense Advisory Committee on Education in the Armed Forces, comprising 15 civilian educators and 7 military representatives, reporting to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (manpower and personnel).
With over 200 correspondence or self-teaching courses, ranging inclusively from elementary to college levels, USAFI implements in part, the promise that any soldier who wants more education (in the formal sense) can get it while in service. The records of all USAFI courses and tests completed are kept (permanently) at USAFI, Madison, Wis. Upon the request of the soldier (or former soldier) these records are referred to schools and other civilian agencies. The Army's general educational development program provides for fulfillment of the remainder of the promise.
Department of Defense augments USAFI by negotiating contracts with as many civilian accredited colleges as possible to provide correspondence courses to military personnel at a very nominal cost to the serviceman.
The provision per se of opportunities for individual study, however, is insufficient as a basis for the Army's program of general educational development. Without a commonder's influence, usually not more than 1 of 30 or 40 men will take advantage on his own time of educational facilities while he is in the service. When 10 percent or more of a command undertakes programed studies and tests designed to raise their educational levels, it usually is because the commander and his full-time civilian education adviser take aggressive personal interest in bringing as many as posisble under accredited or accreditable, and therefore purposeful, instruction. Right now the rate of participation is over 15 percent. Such activity contributes importantly toward the achievement of the Army's personnel quality and prestige objectives as well as to the economy's pool of better educated and skilled manpower. More education frequently enables an individual to qualify for service schooling in a critical skill that has an exact civilian counterpart.
Each individual who comes into active service for more than 120 days is eligible for the following additional education services :
Free advisement and counseling by a professional civilian educator at each installation Army education center.
Free diagnostic and achievement tests.
Free onpost vocational, high school, and college level classes in English, mathematics, history, science, and languages.
Tuition assistance of $7.50 per semester credit hour or $22.50 per Carnegie unit (high school) for classes after normal duty hours in accredited civilian schools.
Installations establish Army education centers as required. Those having a troop strength of 750 and over are required to maintain at least one. In addi. tion, each battalion size unit is entitled to two classrooms in its own immediate area. The Army education center is the powerplant for the general educational development of Army personnel. In it are the personnel, materials, and facilities for advisement, registration, testing, instruction, and study.
Preparatory instruction is for unit personnel whose aptitude area scores are below those required for Army service school attendance, who do not have a complete grammar school education, or who otherwise require review instruction on the adult level as basis for higher level studies. It is essential for career noncomissioned officers and specialists. This comprises classroom instruction in English, arithmetic, history, geography, and science. Most commanders authorize from 120 to 180 hours of instruction on duty time for this purpose.
The Army pays a part of the cost for the after-duty-hour study of officer and enlisted personnel. In continental United States, over 100 colleges and universities are involved. University of Maryland serves our personnel in England, Europe, and the Far East; Florida State University, Panama, and Puerto Rico. Universities of Hawaii and Alaska serve in those areas. All work is in the classroom for residence credit toward a college degree. Compensatory service is required of each officer who receives tuition asisstance. No compensatory service (i.e., no extension of period of service or reenlistment) is required of enlisted personnel.
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS
1. All education and training conducted by the Navy is directed primarily toward meeting needs of the service.
2. With the Armed Forces at current size, retention of ideal proportions of career motivated personnel is a serious problem. We can expect continued high turnover; therefore, the Navy must continue to devote much of its effort to training of replacements for those personnel who choose to leave.
3. Naval personnel must be broadly qualified in many areas to meet the requirements of the present and future Navy.
4. Tab A contains descriptive data concerning officer education and training programs. Tab B contains this type of data concerning enlisted training.
OFFICER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
The Navy has long recognized the difference between education and training in the field of officer professional development. While the two concepts merge, and overlap, to varying degrees, in different categories and in different grades, in peacetime the Navy stresses deep, long-range professional foundations of strong educational connotations, and in mobilization and war, shifts emphasis, perforce, toward training.
1. Five-term college training
(a) Objective: To meet the requirement for baccalaureate level education for officers augmented from Naval Reserve status or integrated from enlisted status into the Regular Navy.
() Scope: Examples of schools utilized are University of South Carolina and Stanford University. Officer students pursue curriculum which are approved by professor of naval science.
(0) Location of training: Conducted at 46 universities, „particularly those which have an NROTC unit provided they have a summer session.
(d) Number of students: 370. 2. General line school
(a) Objective: To broaden the mental outlook and to increase the professional knowledge of line officers in order that they may better perform the duties and meet the responsibilities associated with higher rank.
(0) Scope: This program allows officers to pursue such professional subjects as engineering, seamanship, and navigation. Courses are provided on elective and required basis.
(c) Location of training: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif.
(d) Number of students : 540. 3. Postgraduate education
(a) Objective: To provide advanced education to eligible commissioned officers in order to meet the needs of the service.
(6) Scope: This program permits selected officers to take higher education in certain instances to the doctorate level.
(c) Location of training: At U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif., and at selected civilian institutions.
(d) Number of students : 680. 4. Service colleges
(a) Objective: To provide professional education designed to equip officers for higher command.
(6) Scope: Selected officers obtain professional broadening in both joint and interservice subjects such as strategic planning, logistics, and military-political affairs.
(0) Location of training: Various. Typical are the following schools te which naval officers are sent: Naval War College at Newport, R.I. ; Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Va.; National War College, Washington, D.C.
(d) Number of students : 403. 5. Functional training schools
(a) Objective: To provide instruction in the performance of specialized tasks or functions which are not normal to professional training of officers.
(6) Scope: Examples of this type of training at functional schools are: advanced undersea weapons, deep sea diving; firefighting, guided missiles, and special weapons. Examples of training offered ashore are: antisubmarine war. fare damage control and firefighting, communications, air defense and combat information center, and gunnery. (c) Location of schools:
Functional: Naval Guided Missile School, Dam Neck, Va., and Pomona, Calif.; Naval School, Deep Sea Divers, Washington, D.C.; Naval School, Advanced Undersea Weapons, Key West, Fla.
Fleet: Fleet Training Centers, Newport, R.I., Norfolk, Va., Charleston, S.C., San Diego, Calif., Submarine School, New London, Conn., Fleet Sonar Schools, Key West, Fla., and San Diego, Calif. (d) Number of students : 1,450. 6. Aviation training
(a). Objective: To train selected officers in the techniques and theory of flight.
(b) Scope: Example of training includes flight instruction, areodynamics, navigation, gunnery, and engineering.
(c) Location of schools: Basic instruction taught at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. Advanced instruction taught at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi, Tex.
(d) Number of students : 570.
7. Special technical schools
(a) Objective: To provide special instruction in various technical specialties to meet needs of the service.
(b) Scope: Examples of types of training are: electronics, freight transportation, journalism, photographic interpretation, communication, supply, finance, and oil burning.
(c) Location of training: Various. Schools typical of this area are: Freight Transportation School, Oakland, Calif.; Foreign Language Courses at U.S. Naval Intelligence School, Washington, D.C.
(d) Number of students : 760. 8. Correspondence courses (including USAFI)
(a) Objective: USAFI to provide personnel with off-duty educational opportunities in subjects normally taught in civilian institutions. Other, to provide opportunity for self-study in professional naval subjects.
(0) Scope: Examples of types of education available are a complete coverage of professional subjects, mathematics, English, history, and languages from elementary through college levels.
(c) Location of training: At ship or station of individual enrolled, admin. istered through USAFI, Madison, Wis., and in the case of correspondence courses administered primarily through U.S. Naval Correspondence Course Center, Brooklyn, N.Y.
(d) Number of students : 59,400 (includes 11,000 USAFI participants). 9. Tuition aid
(a) Objective: To permit naval officers to take off-duty courses in nearby accredited colleges, universities, and junior colleges, with the Navy defraying part of tuition cost.
(0) Scope: Examples of types of training are engineering, mathematics, and English normally on junior college and college levels.
(0) Location of training: At or near major continental U.S. naval bases such as University of Washington at Seattle, Wash., and College of William and Mary Extension, Norfolk, Va.
(d) Number of students : 800. (NOTE.—This program has been recently reestablished and is expanding.)
ENLISTED TRAINING Enlisted training is basically technical ; i.e., it develops capability in solving standard types of technical problems. It is also oriented toward developing groups of people, who have similar abilities, to perform tasks that require particular skills. Therefore, enlisted training, dependent upon the degree of skill, intelligence, or judgment required, may be compared to that of civilian trade schools or institutions leading to higher educational levels.
Each young naval enlistee is given a period of recruit training, during which he learns the basic fundamentals required of a man-o-warsman, and concurrently he transitions from civilian to sailor. Since this training is entirely oriented to this transition, it will be omitted from this discussion.
Technical training either in formal school or on the job commences immediately after recruit training. Of our 62 naval enlisted ratings, 58 require that at least some of the input be from technical schools.
1. Basic technical (cla88 A)
(a) Odjective.-To provide basic technical knowledges and skills required to prepare enlisted personnel for apprentice and lower petty officer rates.
(0) Eramples of courses.-Electronic technician, machinery repair, storekeeper, journalist, personnelman.
(c) Location of schools.--U.S. Naval Training Centers at Great Lakes, Ill. ; San Diego, Calif.; Bainbridge, Md.; U.S. Naval Schools Command, Treasure Island, Calif. ; Newport, R.I.; and Norfolk, Va.
(d) Number of students.—20,400. 2. Adranced technical (class B)
(a) Objective. To provide advanced technical knowledges and skills required to prepare enlisted personnel for the higher petty officer rates.
(0) Examples of courses.--Construction mechanic, electrician mate, photographers.
(c) Location of schools.-.U.S. Naval Schools, Construction, Port Hueneme, Calif.; U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. ; Naval Air Technical Training Unit, Pensacola, Fla.
(d) Number of students.—2,930. 3. Special schools (class C)
(a) Objective.-To train enlisted personnel in a particular skill or technique which, in general, is not peculiar to any one rating.
(b) Eramples of courses.-Camera repair, supply, oxygen repair.
(c) Location of school8.--Naval Air Technical Training Unit at Pensacola, Fla.; and Lakehurst, N.J.; U.S. Naval Schools Command, Newport, R.I.; U.S. Naval Training Center, San Diego, Calif.; U.S. Naval School, Compressed Gases, Portsmouth, Va.
(d) Number of students.--3,760.
4. Functional schools
(a) Objective.-To provide training in the performance of specialized tasks or functions which are not normal to rating training of enlisted personnel.
(b) Eramples of course8.-Assembly and maintenance of advanced undersea weapons, guided missiles, mines, special weapons, nets; deep sea and salvage diving; firefighting; operation and operational maintenance of various kinds of shipboard equipment.
(c) Location of schools.- Various. Typical are the following functional and fleet schools to which naval enlisted personnel are sent :
Functional: Naval Guided Missiles Schools, Dam Neck, Va., and Pomona, Calif.; Naval Schools, Mine Warfare, Yorktown, Va.; Naval School, Deep Sea Divers, Washington, D.C.
Fleet: Fleet Training Centers, Newport R.I., Norfolk, Va., Charleston, S.C., San Diego, Calif., Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Fleet Air Defense Training
Centers, Dam Neck, Va., and San Diego, Calif. (d) Number of students.-700. 5. Correspondence courses (including USAFI) (a) Objective.
USAFI: To provide personnel with off-duty educational opportunities in subjects normally taught in civilian institutions.
Other: To provide opportunity for self-study in professional naval subjects. (b) Eramples of course8.—Complete coverage of professional subjects, Eng. lish, history, and languages from elementary through college levels.
(e) Location of schools.--At ship or station of individual enrolled, administered through USAFI, Madison, Wis., and in the case of correspondence courses administered through U.S. Naval Correspondence Course Center, Brooklyn, N.Y.
(d) Number of students.-352,400 (includes 44,000 USAFI participants). 6. On ship or base (off-duty training)
(a) Objective.—To broaden enlisted personnel's general knowledge.
(d) Number of students.-- Estimated 5,000. 7. Tuition aid program
(a) Objective.--To permit personnel to take off-duty courses in nearby accredited colleges, universities, and junior colleges with the Navy defraying part of the tuition cost.
(0) Eramples of courses.---Courses are available in engineering, mathematics, and English normally on junior college and college levels.
(c) Location of training.--At or near major continental U.S. naval bases such as University of Washington at Seattle, Wash., and College of William and Mary Extension, Norfolk, Va.
(d) Number of students.--7,200.
NOTE.—This program has been recently reestablished and is expanding. 8. Enlisted adranced school program
(a) Objective.- To provide a program of advanced technical education and training for enlisted personnel to provide the systems analysts required to operate and maintain the increasingly complex technical equipment for naval ships and aircraft.
(b) Erample of courses.-A 4-year college level electrical engineering course combined with 8 years obligated service.
(c) Location of training.-Purdue University.
(d) Number of students.-54 (fiscal year 1957, first year this program; expanding.)
AIR FORCE EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS
Air University provides a coordinated program of professional education for officers of the U.S. Air Force within one integrated school system. This program is planned to equip officers with the knowledge and skills necessary for assuming progressively more important assignments in command and staff positions.