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Mr. DEVAUGHN. It is a matter of law and it will take legislation or a ruling by the Joint Committee on Printing to change it. The Public Printer is powerless in this area.

Mr. BENJAMIN. If so, would you at least cooperate with the Joint Committee to determine if the same inquiry that you are making of the congressional office can be made of the agencies, and that the distribution is being made only on those affirmative responses?

Mr. DEVAUGHN. Yes sir.

REVISION OF TITLE 44 Mr. BENJAMIN. Now I might add that the Joint Committee is looking at a revision of Title 44, and I assume that some of the comments that they are entertaining at this time derive from your office?

Mr. BOYLE. Yes.
Mr. BENJAMIN. I would hope that they did.
Mr. DEVAUGHN. Yes, sir.
Mr. BENJAMIN. I ask that you follow up on that.
Mr. BOYLE. Yes, sir, we will.

WEEKLY PRINTING OF BUSINESS CALENDARS

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Mr. BENJAMIN. Representative Edgar has proposed that the congressional business calendars be printed weekly, with daily changes being printed in the form of supplements. The Congressional Research Service has indicated that substantial cost savings might result from such a change.

I believe the figure was probably $600,000 annually.

What is your opinion on possible action in this area? Would you be kind enough to explain it?.

Mr. BOYLE. This is the first it has been brought to my attention.

Mr. Sonntag, have you discussed the business calendars being printed weekly with daily supplements?

Mr. SONNTAG. We talked to Ben Guthrie of the Clerk's Office about it, just mentioned it to him, printing supplements, and we haven't had any response at this time.

Mr. BOYLE. But it has been brought to their attention. I learned that it is one of the possible cost savings that has been brought to the attention of the Joint Committee on Printing.

Mr. SONNTAG. We are printing supplements to the Ways and Means calendar instead of printing their entire calendar once every 2 months. There was a cost savings, and they liked it. This is when we suggested this method for the House Business Calendar.

Mr. BENJAMIN. Would you be kind enough to follow up on Representative Edgar's suggestion and provide for the record the procedure that would have to be followed to accomplish it, and if it is met with a favorable response by your agency, when it could be fully accomplished?

I would also like an analysis of the cost savings. I would prefer relying on your figures than the CRS.

[The information follows:)

This proposal has merit. The business calendar is cumulative and it can range from 24 pages at the start of a session to 296 pages at the end of a session. We estimate that it costs $4,908 to print 4,200 copies of the cumulative calendar each day. Under the proposed method, we estimate that it would cost $533 to print an 8 page supplement for Tuesday thru Friday plus $4,908 to print the cumulative calendar each Monday. Assuming that the Congress is in session 180 days each year, we estimate the savings to amount to $630,000 each year for printing supplements to business calendars. Approval of this suggestion would not require any change in GPO procedures and printing of the supplement could be implemented immediately.

DEPOSITORY LAW LIBRARIES Mr. BENJAMIN. Under Public Law 95-261, libraries of accredited law schools can be designated as depository libraries.

Are any law schools at similarly designated universities receiving materials under the new act?

Mr. BOYLE. Mr. LaBarre.

Mr. LABARRE. Yes, sir. There are some situations in which two depository library designations are held by a single institution, especially since the enactment of Public Law 95–261. Original designations could have been Congressional or by virtue of the institution qualifying because it is a land-grant college. Prior to the enactment of Public Law 95–261, some of our officials were invited to address meetings, conferences, and national conventions of the law school library associations. In each instance, we urged the law schools to advise their State library authority if they were already a depository designee and were seeking designation under Public Law 95-261 as well. However, in certain situations, a law school library is not located contiguously with the rest of the university and it is beneficial to have two designations if the law school is remote from the campus of the parent institution.

Mr. BENJAMIN. Do you have any idea what duplication we would have there?

Mr. LABARRE. I could check it very quickly.

Mr. BENJAMIN. Would you please, and see if there is a problem there?

Mr. LABARRE. What your question really is, the University of Virginia and the University of Virginia Law School-Mr. BENJAMIN. That is right.

Mr. LABARRE. Do thex both have depository libraries and where are they located?

Mr. BENJAMIN. Yes. You say there must have been some justification for it, particularly if they are in different locales.

Let's see how much we are really talking about if you don't mind. Then we can take a further look at it if we find that that figure is large. Mr. LABARRE. Yes, sir, I will furnish that for the record. [The information follows:] We have reviewed 63 newly designated law libraries and find that 42 of these libraries are located near libraries already holding Depository designations. We further reviewed the item selections of those newly designated law libraires and find that these libraries are not only selecting fewer items than those law libraries not located near another Depository but also, are selecting primarily law related materials. It appears that these libraries are cooperating in their item selection practices.

PHOTOCOMPOSITION EDITING SYSTEM Mr. BENJAMIN. Please discuss the continued implementation of your photocomposition editing system during fiscal year 1978 and first quarter of fiscal year 1979.

What specific items are included in your budget for fiscal year 1980 to continue the implementation of this program? What specific requests have been reduced because of prospective savings?

Mr. BOYLE. In the whole area of photocomposition, electronic photocomposition, we started into this with the approval of the Joint Committee on Printing in 1964, I believe it was, to study the state of the art and research the market. We issued a request for proposals in 1966, which resulted in the award of a contract for the installation of the first two electronic cathode-ray-tube photocomposing machines in the entire world. These machines became operational in October of 1967, and they have been operating ever since.

At this point we have the original two machines plus another surplus machine we picked up for spare parts. We have acquired an additional three modern, high speed, photocomposing machines that produce at the same speed, the same quality, as the original two. We installed in 1975 a prototype text-editing system which has now grown to three high-speed photocomposing machines, and 124 terminals. We use former hot metal typesetters retrained to keyboard on terminals into computers gathering the data, exactly the same system that was installed in House Information Systems. We are completely compatible with the House and the Senate using the same system and the same software.

In fiscal 1977, for the first time we produced more pages in photocomposed composition through these systems than we set in hot metal, and last year we surpassed that figure by producing 1.8 million pages of photocomposition. We are phasing out our hot metal operation, so that our 168 linotype machines will probably be down to close to zero by 1984, I believe that is our target date.

Mr. SAYLOR. That is correct.

PUBLICATIONS SET HOT METAL Mr. BOYLE. We still last year set almost 1 million pages in hot metal. The entire Congressional Record is still set hot metal for several reasons. We completely phased the daily Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations from hot metal to photocomposition. We are doing our conversion a bit at a time. We are far beyond the half-way point. Each year we will have more photocomposition and less hot metal at a reduced cost.

DISPOSITION OF LINOTYPE MACHINES Mr. BENJAMIN. What do you do with the linotypes?

Mr. BOYLE. The linotypes will be sold. All the linotypes are beyond their amortization period.

Mr. BENJAMIN. Have you started selling yet? Mr. BOYLE. No, sir, but I can tell you right now what they sell for in the market.

Mr. BENJAMIN. I would appreciate that.

Mr. BOYLE. Around $200. You can buy them anywhere in the country. There are warehouses full of them. They sell for the value of the cast iron in them. So the amount of photocomposition is increasing. The computer operation of keying this data into the computer and storing it is increasing. The cost saving is not so

country. There Around $200. Preciate that.

much in the original keystroking, the cost saving is in the automatic makeup and the automatic justification and hyphenation the computer does to it plus providing the capability to pull it back out of storage and reset it for differently formatted products, pull out certain parts of it, and use the stored data in information retrieval and research.

SETTING BILLS For instance, all the bills this year will be in a computer data base. We will be able to reset a bill with amendments by just pulling it out of the computer data base, hit the necessary keystrokes to change the information, run it back through the photocomposing machine without picking up any type or touching it manually.

When a bill passes both Houses and is enrolled, it had been necessary to reset it entirely in a different format and proofread it at least two times to be able to print the enrolled bill for the signature of the President.

ELIMINATION OF KEYBOARDING We will now be able to literally push a button and pull it out of the typesetting system with complete elimination of the keyboarding and proofreading. Most of the savings are in the advantages the computer provides and not in the keyboarding itself because we are still paying the same type of people, the same amount of money to hit the keystrokes. However, they can do it faster on the terminal system.

The most important part of the project, and the goal that we set in 1964, when we actually got started in this program, was to try and eliminate the rekeying of data that had already been keyed elsewhere. Our goal, and it is happening right now, it is happening in the Congress and it is happening in the agencies, is to stop rekeyboarding on a very expensive hot metal machine or a keyboard in the GPO when you should have captured the keystrokes at the computer in the process of originally drafting the data.

Much of the data that we get from the Federal agencies, and we are getting over 1 million pages a year, is never keystroked and proofread again in the GPO. We take the data which had been stored in the process of drafting an article, and that is the same thing that is being done on the bills that are keyed in the House and the Senate Office of the Legislative Counsel. It is the same thing we are doing on many hearings, where the reporter in the past couple of years has furnished scannable copy which we insert into our scanner, and come back out through the typesetting machine without rehitting the keystrokes. So the savings are considerable, not only cost savings, but savings in time and improvements in service.

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SAVINGS ATTRIBUTABLE TO PHOTOCOMPOSITION

Mr. BENJAMIN. For the change in fiscal year 1978 and the first quarter of fiscal year 1979 can you identify for the record the pluses and minuses because of the change?

Mr. BOYLE. Yes, sir, we can identify each of our categories and show how much savings that were accomplished or estimated to be accomplished in each of the categories for fiscal 1978, fiscal 1979, and 1980, to show you.

Mr. BENJAMIN. And the increases. Mr. BOYLE. And the increases. Mr. BENJAMIN. Would you do that? Mr. BOYLE. We will furnish that for the record. We probaby have it right now but not in a handy form. Mr. BENJAMIN. You can modify it. Mr. BOYLE. We will put it in some kind of a form. [The information follows:]

SAVINGS (COST AVOIDANCE) THROUGH THE USE OF AUTOMATED
ELECTRONIC PHOTOCOMPOSITION PROCESS IN LIEU OF HOT METAL PROCESS

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Note A - These categories were deleted from the Congressional,

Appropriation. However, cost avoidances have continued each year for the Federal Government.

REDUCTION IN NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

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Mr. BENJAMIN. Please outline the kinds of changes you have made in machinery and manpower as a result of automated printing.

You have just taken care of the machinery, as far as I am concerned.

The manpower comes to what? Mr. BOYLE. Our total manpower in the GPO operations? Mr. BENJAMIN. As I recall, I think your opening statement said 1,000 less. Mr. BOYLE. 1,000 less in the last 3 years.

Mr. BENJAMIN. And this is the lowest force you have had since 1967, if I recall.

Mr. BOYLE. Yes.

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