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Though these treaties were, in substance, the same as the preliminary articles of peace, still there were some differences, which, though not of a very important nature, were nevertheless beneficial to the country, and marked the attention of his Majesty's Ministers to the interests even of individuals, as well as of the public; ftipulations were inade in the definitive treaty with France, in favour of the British fubjects who held lands, &c. in the ceded island of Tobago, whose interests seemed to have been overlooked in the preliminary articles; and the gum trade, of so much consequence to the nation, was much more satisfactorily secured than it was by the preliminary treaty. He did not mean, in mentioning these circumstances, to cast any reflection on the late Administration ; bis object was only to shew that the prefent Ministers attended even to the inost minute interests of this country. The fpeech recommended to the serious attention of the House, the present state of the affairs in India ; this was surely an object well worth the consideration of Para liament : our possessions in the East were now become the brightest and most valuable gein in the British diadem, and consequently they ought to be the objects of the greatest care; how they became the

property of England would astonish the world; that a company of merchants should conquer the greatest and most valuable part of the Mogul empire, was an event in itself so extraordinary, that it stood unparallelled in the annals of the world. The wisdom of Parliament should exert itself to secure conquests so unexpectedly acquired, and which contained resources to which this country might look with fingular satisfaction. He trusted that the wildoin of that Administration, who so properly brought forward the subject to the notice of Parliament, would suggest such a scheme for the government of India, as would lecure the advantages of the e territories, and restore our name to its former brilliancy in the East. The speech touched upon the state of public credit, and of the revenue; this surely was a subject, than which scarce any could be more important, or with more propriety be recommended to the House by his Majesty. Delivered as we were from the calamities of an unfortunate war, it would well become Parliament to deliberate on the means most likely to restore public credit, and maintain it. Our honour as a nation was concerned in preserving inviolate the faith pledged to the creditors of the public; and this could be best done by making such arrangements as should appear moft adviseable to check



A T the growing evil of smuggling, and consequently to raise the revenue to such a degree, that it should be found not only sufficient to defray all the expences of the different establishments that must necessarily be kept up, but also to produce an overplus that might be applied towards the extinction of some part of the national debt. The honour of the British nation, even in the midst of the most serious reverses of fortune, had not beep Tullied : the late war, which he was happy to say was now finally terminated, had been remarkably unfortunate to us; but still it served to place the British character for martial deeds in the highest point of view; no nation was ever involved in a more arduous struggle ; and no nation ever maintained one with so much firmness and so much valour; the deeds achieved by British arms during this war, would be recorded in the book of fame; and while intrepidity, virtue, and patriotism should be revered ainong men, the names of the illustrious chiefs who had signalized themselves in the war would never be forgotten. The consequences however of the struggle would still be felt; the deficiencies of the taxes laid on to supporı it must be made good; and even now that we were at peace with all the world, we must impose fresh burdens on ourselves : the funded and unfunded debt must be provided for; the public faith was pledged ; and he made no doubt but the Houte would heartily concur with his Majesty's wishes, in finding out means, which, while they should maintain the faith, and uphold the credit of the nation, might be as little burdensome as possible to the people. Such were the great objects of the King's speech; the address that he mould have the honour to move, would pledge no man to any thing more than to agree with his Majesty in the importance of these objects, and to assure him that the House would give them the most serious confideration; the address had no retrospect to any measures of former Minifters; and it had a prospect only to such as every member must be convinced were absolutely necessary. His Lordship concluded by moving,

" That an humble address be presented to his Majesty, to congratulate him on the birth of a princess, and the safe recovery of his most amiable Confort; and to thank him for the paternal care and satisfaction he expressed in having concluded the definitive treaties with the courts of France and Spain, and with the United States of America : also for hava ing ratified the preliminary articles with the States General of the United Provinces, and the assurance he has given


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that there is no doubt but that all those powers agree with him in a sincere inclination to keep the calamities of war at a great distance.

" Afsuring his Majesty that we will give every assistance in our power to maintain and improve the valuable advan{ages derived from our Iudian possessions, and to promote and secure the bappiness of the native inhabitants of those provinces.

" That the security and encrease of the revenue in the manner least burdensome to his subjects, will be amongst our first obje&ts; and as in many parts it has essentially fuffered by dangerous frauds that have prevailed, and alarming outrages that have been committed; and although exertions have not been wanting to repress the daring spirit, yet no pains shall be spared to enquire into its true caules, and to provide such remedies as may be found wanting for the accomplishment of purposes in which the material interests of this nation are so deeply concerned.

To thank his Majesty for having made a reduction in all his establishments as low as prudence will admit; and to assure his Majesty, that his faithful Commons participate with him in the fatisfaction he feels in its being a step towards the relief of his subjects; and to assure his Majesty, that he may rely on that fortitude which has hitherto fupported this nation under many difficulties, and for bearing those which the present exigencies require, and which are so neceflary for the support of the national credit,

“ To affure his Majesty, that it is our earnest desire to direct all our deliberations to the honour of his crown, the safety of his dominions, and the prosperity of his people.”

Sir Francis Balett feconded the motion. He said he had very little to add to what the noble Lord had said upon the subject. He congratulated the House on the happy circumftance of having the definitive treaties concluded, and upon his Majesty's affurane in his most gracious speech that all the late belligerent powers agreed with him in the sincerity of their wishes to keep the calamities of war at a great distance. He enlarged on the blessings of peace; and said, that on its long continuance depended the future welfare and prosperity of the kingdom. In compliance with custom, he would make a few remarks on the address, which was an answer to the King's speech : first, it called upon the House to thank his Majesty for having concluded the definitive treapies; to this no one could have an objection, as the treaties


Sir Francis

were in substance the same as the preliminary articles, which had been figned during the last fefsion of Parliament; he faid nothing of the merits or demerits of these articles; but having been once figned, the public faith was pledged, and it of course became necessary to sign definitive treaties ; and the alterations the latter contained were so much for the better, that he was sure that to this part of the address there could not be a diffentient voice. The state of India was recommended from the throne, and the House was called upon to thank his Majesty for this recommendation. He bclieved that the great importance of our possessions in India appeared so obviously to every member, that the House could not enter too soon upon that great business. They were become our laft and best resource; and, if properly governed, might become the great support of the finances of this country. He made no doubt but his Majesty's Ministers would bring forward such a system of government for that quarter of the world, as would be found productive of the most solid advantages to the state. Hitherto India had been looked upon as the place, where the ambitious man could gratify his most unbounded wishes to accumulate wealth, and where the luxurious spendthrift might best repair a shattered fortune ; the unfortunate inhabitants became a prey to both, and might well deteft a government that could countenance such proceedings. For the safety therefore of these invaluable poffeffions, it would be neceffary to pay the greatest attention to the interest and happiness of the native inhabitants ; this was an object to which the addrets would bind the House to turn their thoughts; and surely no man, who understood the interest of his country, and wished to promote it, would feel any objection to bind himself on such an occasion. The state of the revenue was another great object of confideration : the frauds committed by smugglers were now grown to such an enormous height, that the interposition of the legislature was become absolutely necessary. During the war, the sinuggling veisels lwarıned on the coast; the Huinber was full of them; they carried to the enemy intelligence of the sailing and arrival of our Thipping, and did us inconceivable damage. These vessels were manned principally by natives of Great Britain and Ireland: he could speak of the mischief they did, better than many other gentlemen, because living in a maritime county, he had opportunities of being frequently a witness to the proceedings of the smugglers. He remembered that a smuggling vessel having been carried into a Cornish port during the war; he found that though she was French, there were, out of 40 hands on board, 25 men who were subjects of Great Britain. To check the progress of the growing evil of smuggling, ought to be an object near the heart of every man who wished to encrease the revenue, and support public credit; and therefore he was sure that, to that part of the address which promised that the House would seriously attend to that object, there could not possibly be any oppofition. The nation had juft been freed froin a war, which hạd been truly calamitous; but still its honour had been most gloriously maintained; the distinguished characters of the war would never be forgotten; the names of Rodney, and other gallant commanders, both by sea and land, whenever mentioned, must keep up the memory of British glory, nobly won in the most hazardous war in which any nation had ever been engaged. Our calamities had been great, and our expences enormous; it would be our duty to avail ourselves as much as poslible of the happy return of peace, to put our finances in such order, and raise public credit to such a height, as would enable us to recover our itation of respectability in the scale of Europe, as a formidable nation : post varios ca. fus, poft tot naufragia portum ; we had after the calamities of war got into the baven of peace; it would be the duty of Parliament to second the wishes of his Majesty, in adopting such measures as should be found most likely to preserve the credit of the nation, and maintain its faith. He concluded by saying, that if the noble Lord who had preceded him, had thought proper to apologize to the House for having taken up their time, it was much more necessary for him to make an apology for having remained so long upon his legs, when he had nothing to offer which had not been anticipated by the noble Lord.

Sir Joseph Mawbey caught hold of the post tot naufragia portum, quoted by Sir Francis, and took from it an opportunity to speak his sentiments of the coalition. He said, that if the portum meant the coalition, he could not thank his Majesty for bringing us into such an haven of peace, for he detested the coalition. It was not an haver of peace; but on the contrary, a port more to be dreaded than the Bishop and his Clerks (a set of rocks)-it was made up of such heterogeneous matters; and he never could have confidence in the ineasures of a ministry, one half of which had for twelve years together shewn their incapacity to govern. He paid.


Sir Joseph

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