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(i) Enrollees as notaries. No enrolled attorney or agent as notary public shall take acknowledgments, administer oaths, certify papers, or perform any official act in connection with matters in which he is employed as counsel, attorney, or agent, or in which he may be in any way interested before the Treasury Department. Under the provisions of this paragraph an enrolled person who is a notary public is prohibited from taking any acknowledgment, oath, or certification as a notary public in connection with any tax return, protest, or other document which he has prepared or in the preparation of which he has assisted. (26 Op. Atty. Gen. 236)

(j) Unimpaired status required. It shall be incumbent upon each enrolled person (1) who is authorized to practice as a certified public accountant or as a public accountant to maintain unimpaired his right to practice as a certified public accountant or public accountant; (2) who is admitted to practice before any court to maintain unimpaired his right to practice before such court; and (3) who is enrolled or admitted to practice before another department or agency of the Government to maintain unimpaired his standing before such department or agency.

(k) Certain partnerships prohibited. No enrolled person shall maintain a partnership for the practice of law, accountancy, or other related professional service with a person who is under disbarment from practicing before the Treasury Department or any other Government department or agency, or with an unenrolled person who is neither an attorney legally practicing law nor a certified public accountant or a public accountant legally practicing accountancy.

(1) Practice by corporations prohibited. No enrolled person shall be connected with an accounting corporation either as officer, employee, or stockholder; nor shall any enrolled person, while employed as an officer, employee, attorney, or agent of any corporation, practice before the Treasury Department on behalf of such corporation as the representative of the officers, employees, directors, stockholders or members, customers or clients, of such corporation, except as permitted by $ 10.5. The term "corporation” as used in this paragraph and elsewhere in this part shall be deemed to include associations, joint stock companies, and insurance companies. Nothing contained herein shall prevent an enrolled person from being employed by agricultural cooperative associations, on a nonprofit basis and not subject to Federal income taxes, to represent before the Treasury Department the groups or units constituting membership of such associations, Provided That individuals may not be so represented.

(m) Clients of unenrolled persons. No enrolled person shall represent before the Treasury Department clients of an unenrolled person who is neither an attorney nor an accountant regularly engaged in the practice of accountancy nor a customhouse broker, or who to the knowledge of the enrolled person solicits business, obtains clients, or otherwise conducts his practice in a manner forbidden under thé regulations in this part to enrolled persons.

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(n) Assistance from unenrolled persons. No enrolled person shall in any Treasury Department matter knowingly and directly or indirectly:

(1) Employ or accept assistance from any unenrolled person whose application for enrollment shall at any time have been denied for a cause involving moral turpitude, or from a person who has been disbarred from practice before any department or agency of the Government or before any court of record, or who is under suspension from practice before any such department, agency, or court, or who has been deprived of his certificate as a certified public accountant or public accountant, or whose name after the effective date hereof has been stricken from the roll of attorneys and agents authorized to represent claimants before the Treasury Department in the course of disbarment proceedings against him, or

(2) Accept employment as associate, correspondent, or sub-agent, from, or share fees with, any such person, or any person who is not an attorney or a public accountant regularly engaged in the practice of accountancy, or who is not a licensed customhouse broker.

(0) Preparation of financial statements. Each enrolled person shall exercise due diligence in preparing financial statements for clients and in certifying to the correctness of the same.

(p) Diligence as to accuracy. Each enrolled person shall exercise due diligence to ascertain the correctness of any information which he imparts to a client with reference to any Treasury Department matter, and no enrolled person shall withhold information relative to any such matter from a client who is entitled to the information.

(q) Moneys received in trust. Each enrolled person shall promptly pay over to the Government when due all sums received for the payment of any duty, tax, or other debt or obligation owing to the Government, and shall promptly account to clients for funds received for them from the Government, or received from a client in excess of the charges properly payable in respect of the client's business.

(r) Endorsement of client's checks. No enrolled person shall without authority of his client endorse or accept any Government draft, check, or warrant drawn to the order of such client.

(s) Use of influence forbidden. No enrolled person shall attempt to influence the action of any official or employee of the Treasury Department in any Treasury Department matter by the use of threats, false accusations, duress, or by the offer of any special inducement or promise of advantage, or by the bestowing of any gift or favor or other thing of value.

(t) Production of records. No enrolled person shall neglect or refuse to produce records or evidence in any matter before the Treasury Department upon proper and lawful demand by a duly authorized agent of the Department, unless the attorney or agent has reasonable grounds to believe and does believe that the said demand is of doubtful legality; or shall otherwise interfere, or attempt to interfere, with any proper and lawful efforts by such Department or agent to procure such information.

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(u) Attempting to obtain information. No enrolled person shall procure, or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, from Government records or other Government sources information of

any

kind which is not made available by proper authority.

(v) Solicitation and advertising, direct or indirect, prohibited. No enrolled attorney or agent shall in any manner whatsoever solicit, directly or indirectly,

or by implication, employment from persons not clients or friends in matters before the Treasury Department or in matters related thereto. Among other things the following shall be deemed to be prohibited by this paragraph:

(1) The publication of articles or the delivery of addresses on Federal tax questions by an enrolled person over the radio or elsewhere in connection with which the name of the firm of which he is a member, associate, or employee, or the address of the writer or speaker is given either by the writer, speaker, announcer, or publisher, provided that nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the publication, by periodicals admitted to second-class mailing privileges, of such information concerning contributors of articles as is usually published in such periodicals.

(2) The mailing of circulars, letters, pamphlets, or other printed or written matter to persons not clients or friends of such enrolled person which contain no direct solicitation of employment but which do include the name and a description of the practice and address of such enrolled person.

(3) Advertising in one or more of the following forms: (i) Signs, printing, or other advertising matter, indicating previous connection with the Treasury Department; (ii) representation, orally, in writing, or in any other manner, of special influence with the officials or employees of the Treasury Department through acquaintance or otherwise; (fii) the use of any title or other description of the attorney or agent or his practice which tends to suggest some connection with the Treasury Department of the United States, and any title or description containing the words "United States” shall be presumed to carry such suggestion, except that there is no objection to the use of the words "Enrolled to practice before the United States Treasury Department”; (iv) distribution of bulletins, circulars, pamphlets, or so-called “tax services," to persons who are not clients or friends of the attorney or agent containing decisions or rulings of the Treasury Department, United States Board of Tax Appeals, or courts on Federal tax matters, or comment thereon by the attorney or agent; (v) distribution to persons not clients or friends of the practitioner of circulars or pamphlets advertising any business, educational, or social institution, or organization, which circular or pamphlet contains a card or advertisement of the practice of such attorney or agent.

(4) The following kinds of advertising will not be deemed to constitute a violation of subdivision (v):

(i) Letterheads, professional cards, and the customary professional insertions in professional, telephone, and city directories, or in news, papers, trade or professional journals, or other publications admitted to second-class mailing privileges, provided they set forth only the name and address of the attorney or agent or the name of the firm of

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which he is a member or with which he is associated, a brief description of the nature of his practice, to wit, whether he practices as an attorney or accountant, and, if desired, any field of practice or seryice in which such attorney or agent may specialize;

(ii) The distribution by former officers or employees of the Government of cards briefly stating the fact of their former official status and announcing their new association: Provided, The cards are addressed only to personal or business acquaintances; And provided further, That such cards are distributed only once and within a reasonable time after severance of official connection with the Government and within 30 days after the formation of a new association.

(w) Preparation of documents by enrollees. Each enrolled person shall exercise due diligence in preparing or assisting in the preparation of, approving, and filing returns, documents, affidavits, and other papers relating to Treasury Department matters, and in otherwise representing clients before the Treasury Department; and no enrolled person shall unreasonably delay the prompt disposition of matters before the Treasury Department by neglecting to answer correspondence, by unreasonably delaying the filing of closing agreements, by filing frivolous claims for refunds, or otherwise.

(x) Duty to request name to be stricken upon accepting employment with the United States. It shall be the duty of every enrolled person who becomes an officer or employee of the Treasury Department to request that his name be stricken from the roll and to surrender to the Committee his enrollment card for cancelation; and it shall be the duty of every other enrolled person who becomes a judge of any court of record or an officer or employee (1) of the United States, (2) of any corporation owned wholly by the United States, (3) of the District of Columbia, or (4) of any State or subdivision thereof whose duties disclose facts or information applicable to Federal tax matters, to request the Committee on Enrollment and Disbarment to place his name on the inactive list of Treasury Department practitioners during the period of such incumbency.

(y) Fees; agreements. No enrolled person shall exact from his client a manifestly unreasonable fee, whether contingent or otherwise, in any matter before the Treasury Department. The reasonableness of a fee in any case is within limits a matter of judgment and depends upon all the facts and circumstances thereof, including the complexity and difficulty of the case, the amount of time and labor required for its proper preparation and presentation, the amount involved, and the professional standing and experience of the attorney or agent.

A wholly contingent fee agreement shall not be entered into with a client by an enrolled person unless the financial status of the client is such that he would otherwise be unable to obtain the services of an attorney or agent. Partially contingent fee agreements are permissible where provision is made for the payment of a minimum fee, substantial in relation to the possible maximum fee, which minimum fee is to be paid and retained irrespective of the outcome of the proceeding. Such minimum fee need not be paid in advance, if provision for its payment is made irrespective of the outcome of

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the case. The payment of or agreement to pay a nominal minimum fee will not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph.

Whenever an enrolled attorney or agent shall enter into a contract to represent a client before the Treasury Department on a wholly or partially contingent basis, he shall file with the Committee a signed statement to that effect, containing the terms of the contract as they relate to compensation.

When a power of attorney is filed with the Treasury Department it shall be the duty of the attorney or agent filing the same to file therewith a statement as follows:

(Place)

(Date)

(have ) This is to certify that I (have not) entered into a contingent or partially contingent fee agreement for the representation before the Department of in the matter of

under the terms of a power of attorney filed with the Treasury Department on

and (in case a contingent or partially contingent fee agreement has been made) that a report of such fee agreement (has ) been made to the

(has not) Committee on Enrollment and Disbarment.

This requirement shall not be applicable to powers of attorney wherein the authority granted is limited to the filing of tax or information returns. [As amended Sept. 7, 1937, 2 F.R. 1842]

(z) Duty to observe canons of ethics. Each enrolled person shall conduct his practice in an ethical and professional manner and it shall be the duty of each enrolled attorney to observe the canons of ethics as adopted by the American Bar Association and of each enrolled agent to observe the ethical standards of the accounting profession. Among other forms of unethical and unprofessional conduct the following will be deemed to constitute such conduct: The use of intemperate and abusive language, the making of false accusations or statements knowing them to be false, or the circulation of malicious and libelous matter in connection with Treasury practice.** CROSS REFERENCE: For Internal Revenue regulations, see 26 CFR Chapter I.

10.3 Necessary qualifications for enrollment-(a) Proof of qualifications. Applicants for enrollment to practice before the Treasury Department are required by statute to show that they are of good character and in good repute, possessed of the necessary qualifications to enable them to render such claimants valuable service, and otherwise competent to advise and assist such claimants in the presentation of their cases" (sec. 3, 23 Stat. 258; 5 U.S.C. 261). The burden is upon applicants to establish clearly their right to enrollment by showing that they possess (1) a good character and reputation, (2) an adequate education, and (3) a knowledge of the laws and regulations relating to tax matters and other subjects which they expect to handle before the Department and of the rules and regulations governing practice before the Department. Accountants, not certified or certified through waiver, will not be enrolled unless they are able to present to the Committee on Enrollment and Disbarment convincing evidence, by passing a prescribed examination, that they possess the educational background, technical knowledge, and

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**For statutory and source citations, see note to § 10.1.

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