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applies, will be unable to comply with a primary standard condition or regional limitation.
“(ii) such a source will not be in compliance with such a condition or limitation, but such condition or limitation cannot be enforced because of a court order restraining its enforcement, or
“(iii) the burning of coal by such a source will result in an increase in emissions of any air pollutant for which national ambient air quality standards have not been promulgated (or an air pollutant which is transformed in the atmosphere into an air pollutant for which such a standard has not been promulgated), and that such increase may cause (or materially contribute
to) a significant risk to public health, he shall notify the Federal Energy Administrator of his finding and certify the period for which such order under such section 2(a) shall not be in effect with respect to such source. Subject to the conditions of the preceding sentence, such certification may be modified from time to time. For purposes of this subsection, subsection (c), and section 2 (a) or (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, a source shall be considered unable to comply with an air pollution requirement (including a primary standard condition or regional limitation) only if necessary technology or other alternative methods of control are not available or have not been available for a sufficient period of time.
“(4) Nothing in this Act shall prohibit a State, political subdivision of a State, or agency or instrumentality of either, from enforcing any primary standard condition or regional limitation.
"(5) A conversion to coal (A) to which a suspension under subsection (b) or a compliance date extension under subsection (c) applies or (B) by reason of an order under section 2(a) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 shall not be deemed to be a modification for purposes of section 111(a) (2) and (4) of this Act.
"(e) The Administrator may, by rule, establish priorities under which manufacturers of continuous emission reduction systems necessary to carry out subsection (c) shall provide such systems to users thereof, if he finds that priorities must be imposed in order to assure that such systems are first provided to sources in air quality control regions in which national primary ambient air quality standards have not been achieved. No rule under this subsection may impair the obligation of any contract entered into before the date of enactment of this section. To the extent necessary to carry out this section, the Administrator may prohibit any State or political subdivision of a State, or an agency or instrumentality of either, from requiring any person to use a continuous emission reduction system for which priorities have been established under this subsection, except in accordance with such priorities.
“(f) No State, political subdivision of a State, or agency or instrumentality of either, may require any person to whom a suspension has been issued under subsection (b) (1) to use any fuel the unavailability of which is the basis of such person's suspension (except that this subsection shall not apply to requirements identical to Federal requirements under subsection (b) (3) or subsection (d) (2)).
“(g) (1) It shall be unlawful for any person to whom a suspension has been issued under subsection (b) (1) to violate any requirement on which the suspension is conditioned pursuant to subsection (b) (3) or any primary standard condition applicable to him.
“(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to fail to comply with any requirement under subsection (c), or any regulation, plan, or schedule thereunder (including a primary standard condition or regional limitation), which is applicable to such person.
“(3) It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any rule under subsection (e).
“(4) It shall be unlawful for any person to fail to comply with an interim requirement under subsection (i) (3);
"(h) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the Administrator to deal with air pollution presenting an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of persons under section 303, of this Act.
“(i) (1) In order to reduce the likelihood of early phaseout of existing electric generating powerplants, any electric generating powerplant (A) which, because of the age and condition of the plant, is to be taken out of service permanently no later than January 1, 1980, according to the power supply plan (in existence on January 1, 1974) of the owner or operator of such plant, (B) for which a certification to
a that effect has been filed by the owner or operator of the plant with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Power Commission, and (C) for which such Commission has determined that the certification has been made in good faith and that the plan to cease operations no later than January 1, 1980, will be carried out as planned in light of existing and prospective power supply requirements, shall be eligible for a single one-year postponement as provided in paragraph (2).
“ (2) Prior to the date on which any powerplant eligible under paragraph (1) is required to comply with any requirement of an applicable implementation plan, such plant may apply (with the concurrence of the Governor of the State in which such plant is located) to the Administrator to postpone the applicability of such requirement to such plant for not more than one year. If the Administrator determines, after considering the risk to public health and welfare which may be associated with a postponement, that compliance with any such requirement is not reasonable in light of the projected useful life of the plant, the availability of rate base increases to pay for the costs of such compliance, and other appropriate factors, then the Administrator shall grant a postponement of any such requirement.
"(3) The Administrator shall, as a condition of any postponement under paragraph (2), prescribe such interim requirements as are practicable and reasonable in light of the criteria in paragraph (2).
“(j) (1) The Administrator may, after public notice and opportunity for presentation of data, views, and arguments in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code, and after consultation with the Federal Energy Administrator, designate persons with respect to whom fuel exchange requirements should be imposed under paragraph (2) of this subsection. The purpose of such designation shall be to avoid or minimize the adverse impact on public health and welfare of any suspension under subsection (b) of this section or conversion to coal to which subsection (c) applies or of any allocation under section 2(d) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 or under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973.
"(2) The Federal Energy Administrator shall exercise his authority under section 2(d) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 and under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973 with respect to persons designated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under paragraph (1) in order to require the exchange of any fuel subject to allocation under such Acts effective not later than forty-five days after the date of such designation, unless the Federal Energy Administrator determines, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, that the costs or consumption of fuel, resulting from requiring such exchange, will be excessive.
“? (k) (1) The Administrator shall study, and report to Congress not later than six months after the date of enactment of this section, with respect to
"(A) the present and projected impact of fuel shortages and fuel allocation programs on the program under this Act;
"(B) availability of continuous emission reduction technology (including projections respecting the time, cost, and number of units available) and the effects that continuous emission reductions systems would have on the total environment and on supplies of fuel and electricity;
“(C) the number of sources and locations which must use such technology based on projected fuel availability data;
"(D) a priority schedule for installation of continuous emission reduction technology, based on public health or air quality;
"(E) evaluation of availability of technology to burn municipal solid waste in electric powerplants or other major fuel burning installations, including time schedules, priorities, analysis of pollutants which may be emitted (including those for which national ambient air quality standards have not been promulgated), and a comparison of health benefits and detriments from burning solid waste and of economic costs;
“(F) evaluation of alternative control strategies for the attainment and maintenance of national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides within the time for attainment prescribed in this Act, including associated considerations of cost, time for attainment, feasibility, and effectiveness of such alternative control strategies as compared to stationary source fuel and emission regulations;
"(G) proposed priorities, for continuous emission reduction systems which do not produce solid waste, for sources which are least able to handle solid waste byproducts of such systems;
“(H) plans for monitoring or requiring sources to which this section applies to monitor the impact of actions under this section on concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the ambient air; and
“(I) steps taken pursuant to authority of section 110(a) (3) (B) of this Act.
"(2) Beginning January 1, 1975, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register, at no less than one-hundred-and-eighty-day intervals, the following:
“(A) A concise summary of progress reports which are required to be filed by any person or source owner or operator to which subsection (c) applies. Such progress reports shall report on the status of compliance with all requirements which have been imposed by the Administrator under such subsection. "(B) Up-to-date findings on the impact of this section upon
“(i) applicable implementation plans, and
“(ii) ambient air quality.” SEC. 4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REVISIONS.
(a) Section 110(a) of the Clean Air Act is amended in paragraph (3) by inserting “(A)” after “ (3)" and by adding at the end thereof the foilowing new subparagraph:
“(B) As soon as practicable, the Administrator shall, consistent with the purposes of this Act and the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, review each State's applicable implementation plans and report to the State on whether such plans can be revised in relation to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources) without interfering with the attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standard within the period permitted in this section. If the Administrator determines that any such plan can be revised, he shall notify the State that a plan revision may be submitted by the State. Any plan revision which is submitted by the State shall, after public notice and opportunity for public hearing, be approved by the Administrator if the revision relates only to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources), and the plan as revised complies with paragraph (2) of this subsection. The Administrator shall approve or disapprove any revision no later than three months after its submission.”
(b) Subsection (c) of section 110 of the Clean Air Act is amended by inserting “(1)” after “(c)”; by redesignating paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) as subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), respectively, and by adding at the end thereof the following new paragraph:
“(2) (A) The Administrator shall conduct a study and shall submit a report to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Public Works of the United States Senate not later than three months after date of enactment of this paragraph on the necessity of parking surcharge, management of parking supply, and preferential bus/carpool lane regulations as part of the applicable implementation plans required under this section to achieve and maintain national primary ambient air quality standards. The study shall include an assessment of the economic impact of such regulations, consideration of alternative means of reducing total vehicle miles traveled, and an assessment of the impact of such regulations on other Federal and State programs dealing with energy or transportation. In the course of such study, the Administrator shall consult with other Federal officials including, but not limited to, the Secretary of Transportation, the Federal Energy Administrator, and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality.
“(B) No parking surcharge regulation may be required by the Administrator under paragraph (1) of this subsection as a part of an applicable implementation plan. All parking surcharge regulations previously required by the Administrator shall be void upon the date of enactment of this subparagraph. This subparagraph shall not prevent the Administrator from approving parking surcharges if they are adopted and submitted by a State as part of an applicable implementation plan. The Administrator may not condition approval of any implementation plan submitted by a State on such plan's including a parking surcharge regulation.
*(C) The Administrator is authorized to suspend until January 1, 1975, the effective date or applicability of any regulations for the management of parking supply or any requirement that such regulations be a part of an applicable implementation plan approved or promulgated under this section. The exercise of the authority under this subparagraph shall not prevent the Administrator from approving such regulations if they are adopted and submitted by a State as part of an applicable implementation plan. If the Administrator exercises the authority under this subparagraph, regulations requiring a review or analysis of the impact of proposed parking facilities before construction which take effect on or after January 1, 1975, shall not apply to parking facilities on which construction has been initiated before January 1, 1975. “(D) For purposes of this paragraph,
"(i) The term 'parking surcharge regulation' means a regulation imposing or requiring the imposition of any tax, surcharge, fee, or other charge on parking spaces, or any other area used for the temporary storage of motor vehicles.
“(ii) The term “management of parking supply' shall include any requirement providing that any new facility containing a given number of parking spaces shall receive a permit or other prior approval, issuance of which is to be conditioned on air quality considerations.
"(iii) The term 'preferential bus/carpool lane' shall include any requirement for the setting aside of one or more lanes of a street or highway on a permanent or temporary basis for the
exclusive use of buses or carpools, or both. “(E) No standard, plan, or requirement, relating to management of parking supply or preferential bus/carpool lanes shall be promulgated after the date of enactment of this paragraph by the Administrator pursuant to this section, unless such promulgation has been subjected to at least one public hearing which has been held in the area affected and for which reasonable notice has been given in such area. If substantial changes are made following public hearings, one or more additional hearings shall be held in such area after such notice." SEC. 5. MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS.
(a) Section 202(b) (1) (A) of the Clean Air Act is amended by striking out “1975” and inserting in lieu thereof "1977"; and by inserting after “(A)" the following: “The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during model