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when such securities are issued without the approval or consent of the States having jurisdiction over subsidiary public-utility companies; when such securities are issued upon the basis of fictitious or unsound asset values having no fair relation to the sums invested in or the earning capacity of the properties and upon the basis of paper profits from intercompany transactions, or in anticipation of excessive revenues from subsidiary public-utility companies; when such securities are issued by a subsidiary publicutility company under circumstances which subject such company to the burden of supporting an overcapitalized structure and tend to prevent voluntary rate reductions:

(2) when subsidiary public-utility companies are subjected to excessive charges for services, construction work, equipment, and materials, or enter into transactions in which evils result from an absence of arm's-length bargaining or from restraint of free and independent competition; when service, management, construction, and other contracts involve the allocation of charges among subsidiary public-utility companies in different States so as to present problems of regulation which cannot be dealt with effectively by the States;

(3) when control of subsidiary public-utility companies affects the accounting practices and rate, dividend, and other policies of such companies so as to complicate and obstruct State regulation of such companies, or when control of such companies is exerted through disproportionately small investment;

(4) when the growth and extension of holding companies bears no relation to economy of management and operation or the integration and coordination of related operating properties; or

(5) when in any other respect there is lack of economy of management and operation of public-utility companies or lack of efficiency and adequacy of service rendered by such companies, or lack of effective public regulation, or lack of economies in the

raising of capital. (c) When abuses of the character above enumerated become persistent and wide-spread the holding company becomes an agency which, unless regulated, is injurious to investors, consumers, and the general public; and it is hereby declared to be the policy of this title, in accordance with which policy all the provisions of this title shall be interpreted, to meet the problems and eliminate the evils as enumerated in this section, connected with public-utility holding companies which are engaged in interstate commerce or in activities which directly affect or burden interstate commerce; and for the purpose of effectuating such policy to compel the simplification of public utility holding-company systems and the elimination therefrom of properties detrimental to the proper functioning of such systems, and to provide as soon as practicable for the elimination of public-utility holding companies except as otherwise expressly provided in this title.

DEFINITIONS

Sec. 2. (a) When used in this title, unless the context otherwise requires

(1) "Person” means an individual or company.

(2) "Company” means a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a business trust, or an organized group of persons, whether incorporated or not; or any receiver, trustee, or other liquidating agent of any of the foregoing in his capacity as such.

(3) “Electric utility company” means any company which owns or operates facilities used for the generation, transmission, or distribution of electric energy for sale, other than sale to tenants or employees of the company operating such facilities for their own use and not for resale. The Commission, upon application, shall by order declare a company operating any such facilities not to be an electric utility company if the Commission finds that (A) such company is primarily engaged in one or more businesses other than the business of an electric utility company, and by reason of the small amount of electric energy sold by such company it is not necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that such company be considered an electric utility company for the purposes of this title, or (B) such company is one operating within a single State, and substantially all of its outstanding securities are owned directly or indirectly by another company to which such operating company sells or furnishes electric energy which it generates; such other company uses and does not resell such electric energy, is engaged primarily in manufacturing. (other than the manufacturing of electric energy or gas) and is not controlled by any other company; and by reason of the small amount of electric energy sold or furnished by such operating company to other persons it is not necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that it be considered an electric utility company for the purposes of this title. The filing of an application hereunder in good faith shall exempt such company (and the owner of the facilities operated by such company) from the application of this paragraph until the Commission has acted upon such application. As a condition to the entry of any such order, and as a part thereof, the Commission may require application to be made periodically for a renewal of such order, and may require the filing of such periodic or special reports regarding the business of the company as the Commission may find necessary or appropriate to insure that such company continues to be entitled to such exemption during the period for which such order is effective. The Commission, upon its own motion or upon application, shall revoke such order whenever it finds that the conditions specified in clause (A) or (B) are not satisfied in the case of such company, Any action of the Commission under the preceding sentence shall be by order. Application under this paragraph may be made by the company in respect of which the order is to be issued or by the owner of the facilities operated by such company. Any order issued under this paragraph shall apply equally to such company and such owner. The Commission may by rules or regulations conditionally or unconditionally provide that any specified class or classes of companies which it determines to satisfy the conditions specified in clause (A) or (B), and the owners of the facilities

operated by such companies, shall not be deemed electric utility companies within the meaning of this paragraph.

(4) “Gas utility company” means any company which owns or operates facilities used for the distribution at retail (other than distribution only in enclosed portable containers, or distribution to tenants or employees of the company operating such facilities for their own use and not for resale) of natural or manufactured gas for heat, light, or power. The Commission, upon application, shall by order declare a company operating any such facilities not to be a gas utility company if the Commission finds that (A) such company is primarily engaged in one or more businesses other than the business of a gas utility company, and (B) by reason of the small amount of natural or manufactured gas distributed at retail by such company it is not necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that such company be considered a gas utility company for the purposes of this title. The filing of an application hereunder in good faith shall exempt such company (and the owner of the facilities operated by such company) from the application of this paragraph until the Commission has acted upon such application. As a condition to the entry of any such order, and as a part thereof, the Commission may require application to be made periodically for a renewal of such order, and may require the filing of such periodic or special reports regarding the business of the company as the Commission may find necessary or appropriate to insure that such company continues to be entitled to such exemption during the period for which such order is effective. The Commission, upon its own motion or upon application, shall reroke such order whenever it finds that the conditions specified in clauses (A) and (B) are not satisfied in the case of such company. Any action of the Commission under the preceding sentence shall be by order. Application under this paragraph may be made by the company in respect of which the order is to be issued or by the owner of the facilities operated by such company. Any order issued under this paragraph shall apply equally to such company and such owner. The Commission may by rules or regulations conditionally or unconditionally provide that any specified class or classes of companies which it determines to satisfy the conditions specified in clauses (A) and (B), and the owners of the facilities operated by such companies, shall not be deemed gas utility companies within the meaning of this paragraph.

(5) “Public-utility company” means an electric utility company or a gas utility company.

(6) "Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission. (7) “Holding company” means

(A) any company which directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, 10 per centum or more of the outstanding voting securities of a public-utility company or of a company which is a holding company by virtue of this clause or clause (B), unless the Commission, as hereinafter provided, by order declares such company not to be a holding company; and

(B) any person which the Commission determines, after notice and opportunity for hearing, directly or indirectly to exercise (either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons) such a controlling influence over the management or policies of any publicutility or holding company as to make it necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that such person be subject to the obligations, duties, and liabilities imposed in this title upon holding

company. The Commission, upon application, shall by order declare that a company is not a holding company under clause (A) if the Commission finds that the applicant (i) does not, either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons, directly or indirectly control a public-utility or holding company either through one or more intermediary persons or by any means or device whatsoever, (ii) is not an intermediary company through which such control is exercised, and (iii) does not, directly or indirectly, exercise (either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons) such a controlling influence over the management or policies of any public-utility or holding company as to make it necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that the applicant be subject to the obligations, duties, and liabilities imposed in this title upon holding companies. The filing of an application hereunder in good faith by a company other than a registered holding company shall exempt the applicant from any obligation, duty, or liability imposed in this title upon the applicant as a holding company, until the Commission has acted upon such application. Within a reasonable time after the receipt of any application hereunder, the Commission shall enter an order granting, or after notice and opportunity for hearing, denying or otherwise disposing of, such application. As a condition to the entry of any order granting such application and as a part of any sàch order, the Commission may require the applicant to apply periodically for a renewal of such order and to do or refrain from doing such acts or things, in respect of exercise of voting rights, control over proxies, designation of officers and directors, existence of interlocking officers, directors and other relationships, and submission of periodic or special reports regarding affiliations or intercorporate relationships of the applicant, as the Commission may find necessary or appropriate to ensure that in the case of the applicant the conditions specified in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) are satisfied during the period for which such order is effective. The Commission, upon its own motion or upon application of the company affected, shall revoke the order declaring such company not to be a holding company whenever in its judgment any condition specified in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) is not satisfied in the case of such company, or modify the terms of such order whenever in its judgment such modification is necessary to ensure that in the case of such company the conditions specified in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) are satisfied during the period for which such order is effective. Any

action of the Commission under the preceding sentence shall be by order.

(8) “Subsidiary company” of a specified holding company means

(A) any company 10 per centum or more of the outstanding voting securities of which are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote, by such holding company (or by a company that is a subsidiary company of such holding company by virtue of this clause or clause (B)), unless the Commission, as hereinafter provided, by order declares such company not to be a subsidiary company of such holding company; and

(B) any person the management or policies of which the Commission, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines to be subject to a controlling influence, directly or indirectly, by such holding company (either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons) so as to make it necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or consumers that such person be subject to the obligations, duties, and liabilities imposed in this title upon subsidiary com

panies of holding companies. The Commission, upon application, shall by order declare that a company is not a subsidiary company of a specified holding company under clause (A) if the Commission finds that (i) the applicant is not controlled, directly or indirectly, by such holding company (either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons) either through one or more intermediary persons or by any means or device whatsoever, (ii) the applicant is not an intermediary company through which such control of another company is exercised, and (iii) the management or policies of the applicant are not subject to a controlling influence, directly or indirectly, by such holding company (either alone or pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with one or more other persons) so as to make it necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or cons mers that the applicant be subject to the obligations, duties, and liabilities imposed in this title upon subsidiary companies of holding companies. The filing of an application hereunder in good faith shall exempt the applicant from any obligation, duty, or liability imposed in this title upon the applicant as a subsidiary company of such specified holding company until the Commission has acted upon such application. Within a reasonable time after the receipt of any application hereunder, the Commission shall enter an order granting, or, after notice and opportunity for hearing, denying or otherwise disposing of, such application. As a condition to the entry of, and as a part of, any order granting such application, the Commission may require the applicant to apply periodically for a renewal of such order and to file such periodic or special reports regarding the affiliations or intercorporate relationships of the applicant as the Commission may find necessary or appropriate to enable it to determine whether in the case of the applicant the conditions

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