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Sec. 165. Contract Practices.
CHAPTER 15. COMPENSATION FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY ACQUIRED
CHAPTER 16. JUDICIAL REVIEW AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE
Sec. 181. General.
CHAPTER 18. ENFORCEMENT
Sec. 221. General Provisions.
CHAPTER 19. MISCELLANEOUS
Sec. 241. Transfer of Property.
ergy and Conforming Amendments to Certain Other Laws. Sec. 303. Information and Assistance to Congressional Committees.
CHAPTER 1. DECLARATION, FINDINGS, AND PURPOSE
SECTION 1. DECLARATION.–Atomic energy is capable of application for peaceful as well as military purposes. It is therefore declared to be the policy of the United States that
a. the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to make the maximum contribution to the general welfare, subject at all times to the paramount objective of making the maximum contribution to the common defense and security; and
b. the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to promote world peace, improve the general welfare, increase the standard of living, and strengthen free compe
tition in private enterprise. Sec. 2. FINDINGS.—The Congress of the United States hereby makes the following findings concerning the development, use, and control of atomic energy:
a. The development, utilization, and control of atomic energy for military and for all other purposes are vital to the common defense and security.
b. Repealed by Public Law 88-489, Aug. 26, 1964.
c. The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material affect interstate and foreign commerce and must be regulated in the national interest.
d. The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material must be regulated in the national interest and in order to provide for the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the public.
e. Source and special nuclear material, production facilities, and utilization facilities are affected with the public interest, and regulation by the United States of the production and utilization of atomic energy and of the facilities used in connection therewith is necessary in the national interest to assure the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the public.
f. The necessity for protection against possible interstate damage occurring from the operation of facilities for the production or utilization of source or special nuclear material places the operation of those facilities in interstate commerce for the purposes of this Act.
g. Funds of the United States may be provided for the development and use of atomic energy under conditions which will provide for the common defense and security and promote the general welfare.
h. Repealed by Public Law 88-489, Aug. 26, 1964.
i. In order to protect the public and to encourage the development of the atomic energy industry, in the interest of the general welfare and of the common defense and security, the United States may make funds available for a portion of the damages suffered by the public from nuclear incidents, and may limit the liability of those persons liable for such losses.
Sec. 3. PURPOSE.—It is the purpose of this Act to effectuate the policies set forth above by providing for
a. a program of conducting, assisting, and fostering research and development in order to encourage maximum scientific and industrial progress;
b. a program for the dissemination of unclassified scientific and technical information and for the control, dissemination, and declassification of Restricted Data, subject to appropriate sa feguards, so as to encourage scientific and industrial progress;
c. a program for Government control of the possession, use, and production of atomic energy and special nuclear material, whether owned by the Government or others, so directed as to make the maximum contribution to the common defense and security and the national welfare, and to provide continued assurance of the Government's ability to enter into and enforce agreements with nations or groups of nations for the control of special nuclear materials and atomic weapons;
d. a program to encourage widespread participation in the development and utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes to the maximum extent consistent with the common defense and security and with the health and safety of the public;
e. a program of international cooperation to promote the common defense and security and to make available to cooperating nations the benefits of peaceful applications of atomic energy as widely as expanding technology and considerations of the common defense and security will permit; and
f. a program of administration which will be consistent with the foregoing policies and programs, with international arrangements, and with agreements for cooperation, which will enable the Congress to be currently informed so as to take further legislative action as may be appropriate.
CHAPTER 2. DEFINITIONS Sec. 11. DEFINITIONS.— The intent of Congress in the definitions as given in this section should be construed from the words or phrases used in the definitions. As used in this Act:
a. The term “agency of the United States” means the executive branch of the United States, or any Government agency, or the legislative branch of the United States, or any agency, committee, commission, office, or other establishment in the legislative branch, or the judicial branch of the United States, or any office, agency, committee, commission, or other establishment in the judicial branch.
b. The term “agreement for cooperation" means any agreement with another nation or regional defense organization authorized or permitted by sections 54, 57, 64, 82, 91c., 103, 104, or 144, and made pursuant to section 123.
c. The term "atomic energy" means all forms of energy released in the course of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.
d. The term "atomic weapon” means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device.
e. The term “byproduct material” means (1) any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material, and (2) the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content.
f. The term “Commission" means the Atomic Energy Commission.
g. The term "common defense and security” means the common defense and security of the United States.
h. The term “defense information” means any information in any category determined by any Government agency authorized to classify information, as being information respecting, relating to, or affecting the national defense.
i. The term “design” means (1) specifications, plans, drawings, blueprints, and other items of like nature; (2) the information contained therein; or (3) the research and development data pertinent to the information contained therein.
j. The term "extraordinary nuclear occurrence” means any event causing a discharge or dispersal of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material from its intended place of confinement in amounts offsite, or causing radiation levels offsite, which the Commission determines to be substantial, and which the Commission determines has resulted or will probably result in substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. Any determination by the Commission that such an event has, or has not, occurred shall be final and conclusive, and no other official or any court shall have power or jurisdiction to review any such determination. The Commission shall establish criteria in writing setting forth the basis upon which such determination shall be made. As used in this subsection, "offsite” means away from the location" or "the contract location" as defined in the applicable Commission indemnity agreement, entered into pursuant to section 170.
k. The term “financial protection” means the ability to respond in damages for public liability and to meet the costs of investigating and defending claims and settling suits for such damages.
1. The term “Government agency” means any executive department, commission, independent estabilshment, corporation, wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government.
m. The term "indemnitor” means (1) any insurer with respect to his obligations under a policy of insurance furnished as proof of financial protection; (2) any licensee, contractor or other person who is obligated under any other form of financial protection, with respect to such obligations; and (3) the Commission with respect to any obligation undertaken by it in an indemnity agreement entered into pursuant to section 170.
n. The term “international arrangement” means any international agreement hereafter approved by the Congress or any treaty during the time such agreement or treaty is in full force and effect, but does not include any agreement for cooperation.
0. The term "Joint Committee" means the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
p. The term "licensed activity” means an activity licensed pursuant to this Act and covered by the provisions of section 170 a.
q. The term “nuclear incident” means any occurrence, including an extraordinary nuclear occurrence, within the United States causing, within or outside the United States, bodily injury, sickness, disease, or death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting from the radioactive, toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material: Provided, however, That as the term is used in subsection 170 1., it shall include any such occurrence outside the United States : And provided further, That as the term is used in subsection 170 d., it shall include any such occurrence outside the United States if such occurrence involves source, special nuclear, or byproduct material owned by, and used by or under contract with, the United States : And provided further, Thăt as the term is used in subsection 170 c., it shall include any such occurrence outside both the United States and any other nation if such occurrence arises out of or results from the radioactive, toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material licensed pursuant to chapters 6, 7, 8, and 10 of this Act, which is used in connection with the operation of a licensed stationary production or utilization facility or which moves outside the territorial limits of the United States in transit from one person licensed by the Commission to another person licensed by the Commission.
r. The term "operator” means any individual who manipulates the controls of a utilizattion or production facility.
s. The term “person” means (1) any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, Government agency other than the Commission, any State or any political subdivision of, or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nation, or other entity; and (2) any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing.
t. The term "person indemnified" means (1) with respect to a nuclear incident occurring within the United States or outside the United States as the term is used in subsection 170 C., and with respect to any nuclear incident in connection with the design, developinent, construction, operation, repair, maintenance, or use of the nuclear ship Savannah, the person with whom an indemnity agreement is executed or who is required to maintain financial protection, and any other person who may be liable for public liability or (2) with respect to any other nuclear incident occurring outside the United States, the person with whom an indemnity agreement is executed and any other person who may be liable for public liability by reason of his activities under any contract with the Commission or any project to which indemnification under the provisions of subsection 170 d., has been extended or under any subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement, of any tier, under any such contract or project.
u. The term "produce," when used in relation to special nuclear material, means (1) to manufacture, make, produce, or refine special