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marriage brought upon him so much difquiet, as for a time disordered his understanding; and Butler lampoon'd him for his lunacy. I know not whether the malignant lines were then made publick, nor what provocation incited Butler to do that which no provocation can excuse,

His frenzy lasted not long; and he seems to have regained his full force of mind; for he wrote after, wards his excellent poem upon the death of Cowley, whom he was not long to survive ; for on the 19th of March, 1688, he was buried by his side.

DENHAM is deservedly considered as one of the fathers of English poetry.

“ Denham and Waller," says Prior, “ improved our versification, and Dryden

perfected it.” He has given specimens of various composition, descriptive, ludicrous, didactick, and sublime.

He appears to have had, in common with almost all mankind, the ambition of being upon proper occasions a merry fellow, and in common with most of them to have been by nature, or by early habits, debarred from it. Nothing is less exhilarating than the ludicrousnefs of Denham : He does not fail for want of efforts : he is familiar, he is gross; but he is never merry, unless the “ Speech against peace in the close “ Committee” be excepted. For grave burlesque, however, his imitation of Davenant fhews him to have been well qualified.

Of his more elevated occasional poems there is perhaps none that does not deserve commendation. In the verses to Fletcher, we have an image that has since been adopted :

" Put

" But whither am I stray’d? I need not raise

Trophies to thee froin other mens dispraise ;
Nor is thy fame on lesser ruins built,
“ Nor need thy juster title the foul guilt
" Of eastern kings, who, to secure their reign,

“ Must have their brothers, sons, and kindred lain," After Denham, Orrery, in one of his prologues,

“ Poets are sultans, if they had their will;

“For every author would his brother kill,” And Pope,

“ Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,

“ Bear like the Turk no brother near the throne." But this is not the best of his little pieces : it is excelled by his poem to Fanshaw, and his elegy on Cowley.

His praise of Fanshaw's version of Guarini, contains a very spritely and judicious character of a good translator :

1. That servile path thou nobly doft decline,
Of tracing word by word, and line by line.
“ Those are the labour'd births of slavish brains,
" Not the effect of poetry, but pains ;

Cheap vulgar arts, whose narrowness affords
No flight for tloughts, but poorly stick at words,
“ A new and nobler way thou dost pursue,
" To make tranflations and translators too.

They but preserve the ashes, thou the flame, " True to his sense, but truer to his fame.” The excellence of these lines is greater, as the truth which they contain was not at that time generally known.

His poem on the death of Cowley was his last, and, among his shorter works, his best performance: the numbers are musical, and the thoughts are just.

“ Cooper's

"* COOPER's Hill” is the work that confers upon him the rank and dignity of an original author. He seems to have been, at least among us, the author of a species of composition that may be denominated local poetry, of which the fundamental subject is some particular landschape, to be poetically described, with the addition of such embellifhments as may be fup. plied by historical retrospection or incidental media tation.

To trace a new scheme of poetry has in itself a very high claim to praise, and its praise is yet more when it is apparently copied by Garth and Pope *; after whose names little will be gained by an enumeration of smaller poets, that have left scarce a corner of the island not dignified either by rhyme, or blank verse,

“ Cooper's Hill," if it be maliciously inspected, will not be found without its faults. The digressions are too long, the morality too frequent, and the fen, timents sometimes such as will not bear a rigorous en. quiry

The four verses, which, since Dryden has com, mended them, almost every writer for a century palt has imitated, are generally known:

“ O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream
“My great example, as it is my there!
Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull;

“ Strong without rage, without o'er-flowing full." The lines are in themselves not perfect; for most of the words, thus artfully opposed, are to be understood simply on one side of the comparison, and metaphorically on the other ; and if there be any language

By Garth, in his “ Poem on Claremont," and by Pope, in hig « Windsor Foreft."

which does not express intellectual operations by maé terial images, into that language they cannot be translated. But so much meaning is comprized in so few words; the particulars of resemblance are so perfpicaciously collected, and every mode of excellence separated from its adjacent fault by so nice a line of limitation; the different parts of the sentence are so accurately adjusted; and the flow of the last couplet is so smooth and sweet ; that the passage, however celebrated, has not been praised above its merit. It has beauty peculiar to itself, and must be numbered among those felicities which cannot be produced at will by wit and labour, but must arise unexpectedly in some hour propitious to poetry.

He appears to have been one of the first that understood the necessity of emancipating translation from the drudgery of counting lines and interpreting single words. How much this servile practice obscured the clearest and deformed the most beautiful parts of the ancient authors, may be discovered by a perusal of our earlier versions ; some of them the works of men well qualified, not only by critical knowledge, but by poetical genius, who yet, by a mistaken ambition of exactness, degraded at once their originals and themfelves.

Denham saw the better way, but has not pursued it with great success. His versions of Virgil are not pleasing; but they taught Dryden to please better. His poetical imitation of Tully on “Old Age” has neither the clearness of prose, nor the spriteliness of poetry.

The “ strength of Denham,” which Pope so emphatically mentions, is to be found in many lines and


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couplets, which convey much meaning in few words, and exhibit the sentiment with more weight than bulk.

On the Thames. ". Though with those streams he no resemblance hold, • Whofe foam is amber, and their gravel gold; “ His genuine and less guilty wealth t explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore."

On Strafford.

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" His wisdom such, at once it did appear
“ Three kingdoms wonder, and three kingdoms fear ;
“ While single he stood forth, and seem'd althougla
“ Each had an army, as an equal foe.
" Such was his force of eloquence, to make
“ The hearers more concern'd than he that spake ;
66 Each seem'd to a&t that part he came to see,
“ And none was more a looker-on than he ;
“ So did he move our passions, some were known
6 To wish, for the defence, the crime their own.
“ Now private pity strove with publick hate,
“ Reason with rage, and eloquence with fate."

On Cowley,
" To him no author was unknown,
" Yet what he wrote was all his own;
“ Horace's wit, and Virgil's state,
“ He did not steal, but emulate !
“ And when he would like them appear',

“ Their garb, but not their cloaths, did wear."
As one of Denham's principal claims to the regard
of posterity arises from his improvement of our num-
bers, his versification ought to be considered. It will
afford that pleasure which arises from the observation
of a man of judgeinent naturally right forsaking bad

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