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III-20

Bureau of the Budget, “National Aeronautics and Space
Administration: Highlight Summary," October 30, 1968 .....

495

III-21

Charles Townes, et al., “Report of the Task Force on Space,”
January 8, 1969 .....

499

III-22

Richard Nixon, Memorandum for the Vice President, the
Secretary of Defense, the Acting Administrator, NASA, and the
Science Adviser, February 13, 1969

......... 512

III-23

T.O. Paine, Acting Administrator, NASA, Memorandum for the
President, “Problems and Opportunities in Manned Space Flight,"
February 26, 1969

513

III-24

Robert C. Seamans Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, to
Honorable Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President, August 4, 1969......

519

III-25

Space Task Group, The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the
Future, September 1969

522

III-26

Robert P. Mayo, Director, Bureau of the Budget, Memorandum
for the President, “Space Task Group Report, " September 25, 1969 .......... 544

III-27

Peter M. Flanigan, Memorandum for the President, December 6, 1969.... 546

III-28

Caspar W. Weinberger, Deputy Director, Office of Management
and Budget, via George P. Shultz, Memorandum for the President,
"Future of NASA," August 12, 1971

546

III-29

James C. Fletcher, (NASA) Administrator, Memorandum to Dr. Low,
"Meeting with Ed David," August 24, 1971

548

III-30

Klaus P. Heiss and Oskar Morgenstern, Memorandum for
Dr. James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, “Factors for a Decision
on a New Reusable Space Transportation System," October 28, 1971

549

III-31

James C. Fletcher, “The Space Shuttle," November 22, 1971

555

III-32

George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, NASA, Memorandum for
the Record, "Meeting with the President on January 5, 1972,"
January 12, 1972 .....

......... 558

III-33

Nick MacNeil, Carter-Mondale Transition Planning Group, to
Stuart Eizenstat, Al Stern, David Rubenstein, Barry Blechman,
and Dick Steadman, “NASA Recommendations,” January 31, 1977

559

...........

III-34

Presidential Directive/NSC-37, “National Space Policy,” May 11, 1978 ...... 574

III-35

Zbigniew Brzezinski, Presidential Directive/NSC-42, “Civil and
Further National Space Policy,” October 10, 1978 ...

575

III-36

George M. Low, Team Leader, NASA Transition Team, to
Mr. Richard Fairbanks, Director, Transition Resources and
Development Group, December 19, 1980, with attached:
“Report of the Transition Team, National Aeronautics and
Space Administration”.

.... 579

III-37

Hans Mark and Milton Silveira, “Notes on Long Range Planning,"
August 1981

587

III-38

National Security Decision Directive Number 42, “National Space
Policy," July 4, 1982

590

.........

III-39

National Security Decision Directive 5-83, “Space Station,”
April 11, 1983 .....

593

III-40

"Revised Talking Points for the Space Station Presentation to the
President and the Cabinet Council,” November 30, 1983, with
attached: “Presentation on Space Station,” December 1, 1983

............. 595

III-41

Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense, to James M. Beggs,
Administrator, NASA, January 16, 1984.........

600

III-42

Office of the Press Secretary, “Fact Sheet: Presidential Directive
on National Space Policy," February 11, 1988.

..... 601

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Essay: “Organizing for Exploration,” by Sylvia K. Kraemer .....

........ 611

Documents

IV-1

J.R. Killian, Jr., "Memorandum on Organizational Alternatives for
Space Research and Development,” December 30, 1957 .....

628

IV-2

L.A. Minnich, Jr., “Legislative Leadership Meeting,
Supplementary Notes," February 4, 1958

631

IV-3

S. Paul Johnston, Memorandum for Dr. J.R. Killian, Jr., "Activities,
February 21, 1958, with attached: Memorandum for Dr. J. R. Killian, Jr.,
"Preliminary Observations on the Organization for the Exploitation
of Outer Space," February 21, 1958...

632

IV-4

James R. Killian, Jr., Special Assistant for Science and Technology;
Percival Brundage, Director, Bureau of the Budget;
Nelson A. Rockefeller, Chairman, President's Advisory Committee
on Government Organization, Memorandum for the President,
“Organization for Civil Space Programs," March 5, 1958, with
attached: "Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of
Alternative Organizational Arrangements".

.... 637

IV-5

Maurice H. Stans, Director, Bureau of the Budget, Memorandum
for the President, “Responsibility for 'space' programs," May 13, 1958 ...... 643

IV-6

W.H. Pickering, Director, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to
Dr. T. Keith Glennan, NASA, March 24, 1959 ...

645

IV-7

T. Keith Glennan, The Birth of NASA: The Diary of T. Keith Glennan
(Washington, DC: NASA Special Publication 4105, 1993), pp. 1-6.............. 647

IV-8

Anonymous, “Ballad of Charlie McCoffus," n.d.

650

IV-9

Report to the President on Government Contracting for Research and
Development, Bureau of the Budget, U.S. Senate, Committee on
Government Operations, 87th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962), pp. vii-xiii, 1-24

...... 651

IV-10

Albert F. Siepert to James E. Webb, (NASA) Administrator,
"Length of Tours of Certain Military Detailees,” February 8, 1963 ........... 672

IV-11

U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science and Astronautics,
Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Staff Study, "Apollo Program
Management," 91st Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office, July 1969), pp. 59-74

........ 674

IV-12

George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, NASA, Memorandum for
the Administrator, “NASA as a Technology Agency,” May 25, 1971 ............. 685

IV-13

George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, NASA, Memorandum to
Addressees, “Space Vehicle Cost Improvement,” May 16, 1972 .......

687

IV-14

E.S. Groo, Associate Administrator for Center Operations,
NASA, to Center Directors, "Catalog of NASA Center Roles,"
April 16, 1976.

688

IV-15

James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, Memorandum to
Bob Frosch, “Problems and Opportunities at NASA,” May 9, 1977 ............. 711

IV-16

Task Force for the Study of the Mission of NASA, NASA Advisory
Council, “Study of the Mission of NASA,” October 12, 1983, pp. 1-9 .......... 717

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Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger
Accident, Vol. I (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,
June 6, 1986), pp. 164-177 .......

...... 723

IV-18

Samuel C. Phillips, NASA Management Study Group, "Summary
Report of the NASA Management Study Group Recommendations,”
December 30, 1986

730

IV-19

NASA, "The Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Failure
Report,” November 1990, pp. iii-v, 9-1 to 9-4, 10-1 to 10-4 ........................ 735

IV-20

Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program
(Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December
1990), pp. 47-48

47-48 .......

..... 741

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The idea for creating a reference work that would include documents seminal to the evolution of the civilian space program of the United States came from then-NASA Chief Historian Sylvia K. Kraemer. She recognized that while there were substantial primary resources for future historians and others interested in the early years of the U.S. space programs available in many archives, and particularly in the NASA Historical Reference Collection of the History Office at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., this material was widely scattered and contained a mixture of the significant and the routine. It was her sense that it was important to bring together the “best” of this documentary material in a widely accessible form. This collection, and any long-term value it may have, is first of all the result of that vision. Once Dr. Kraemer left her position as NASA Chief Historian to assume broader responsibilities within the agency, the project was guided with a gentle but firm hand by her successor, Roger D. Launius. Without his subtle prodding and supportive advice, the undertaking might have taken even longer than it has to reach closure.

Jannelle Warren-Findley, an independent intellectual/cultural historian, and Linda J. Lear, an adjunct professor of history at George Washington University, approached the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs with the suggestion that it might serve as the institutional base for a proposal to NASA to undertake the documentary history project. This suggestion found a positive response; the Space Policy Institute was created in 1987 as a center of scholarly research and graduate education regarding space issues, and as a resource for those interested in a knowledgeable but independent perspective on past and current space activities. Having the kind of historical base that would have to be created to carry out the documentary history project would certainly enhance the Institute's capabilities, and so the Space Policy Institute joined with Warren-Findley, Lear, and Ray A. Williamson of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment in preparing a proposal to NASA. Much to our delight, we were awarded the contract for the project in late 1988, and the enterprise got officially under way in May 1989.

The undertaking proved more challenging than anyone had anticipated. The combination of getting ourselves started in the right direction, canvassing and selecting from the immense documentary resources available, commissioning essays to introduce the various sections of the work from external authors and writing several essays ourselves, and dealing with conflicting demands on the time of the four principals in the project has led to a delay in publishing the volume beyond what we anticipated when first undertaking the project. The final pieces of the manuscript for this volume were not delivered to NASA until the end of 1993. By that time, both Jannelle Warren-Findley and Linda Lear had moved on to the next steps in their careers, and Ray Williamson, who had taken a nine-month leave from the Office of Technology Assessment in 1990 to work on the project, had long ago returned to his primary job. This meant that Warren-Findley and Lear did not have the opportunity to make the kinds of contribution to the final product for which they had hoped; nevertheless, without their initiative, the effort would not have been located at George Washington University, and they both made crucial contributions to conceptualizing and organizing the work in its early stages. For that, they deserve high credit. Ray Williamson has been able to stay involved with the project on an occasional basis since returning to the Office of Technology Assessment, and he has made important contributions to several sections of the effort.

In its start-up phase, the project profited from the advice of a distinguished advisory panel that met twice formally; members of the panel were also always available for individual consultation. Included on this panel were: Carroll W. Pursell, Jr., Case Western University (chair); Charlene Bickford, First Congress Project; Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory; Richard P. Hallion, Air Force Historian; John Hodge, NASA (retired); Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, University of Minnesota; W. Henry Lambright, Syracuse University;

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