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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION-Continued

General and special funds—Continued

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT-Continued
Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)--Continued

New obligational authority:
Appropriation

Transferred from "Construction of facilities" (76 Stat. 731).
Transferred to:

"Administrative operations" (77 Stat. 439)

"Operating expenses, Public Buildings Service," General Services Administration (76 Stat. 728).......

Appropriation (adjusted).

Budget plan (amounts for research and
development actions programed)

1963 actual 1964 estimate 1965 estimate

2,897,878
32,603

-1,074

2,929,407

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established October 1, 1958, pursuant to Public Law 85-568 (72 Stat. 426; 42 U.S.C. 2451) approved July 29, 1958, for the conduct of the nonmilitary space programs of the United States, including the exploration of space and its utilization for peaceful purposes, and to conduct and support advanced research and development related to space and aeronautics in support of both civilian and military requirements. This appropriation provides for research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as follows:

1. Manned space flight. The estimates for this activity include funds for all NASA manned space flight missions and the development of the large launch vehicles and propulsion systems required for these missions. The objective of the manned space flight program is to provide the capability for manned operations in space which will achieve and maintain a position of leadership for the United States, and to demonstrate this capability by landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth in this decade. A supplemental estimate of $141 million is required in 1964 to maintain this schedule.

(a) Spacecraft development and operations. Project Mercury has been successfully completed with six manned flights, including two suborbital flights, two flights of three orbits, a six orbit flight, and one flight of twenty-two orbits.

3,926,000 4,382,000

Effort on the Gemini two-man spacecraft, directed toward long-duration orbital flight and the development of orbital rendezvous techniques, will continue in 1964 and 1965. The first unmanned flight test is scheduled for 1964 with the first manned flights to take place during 1965.

An increased effort on the Apollo three-man spacecraft system will be conducted in 1964 and 1965 leading, in later years, to missions ranging from extended earth orbital flights and rendezvous tests to lunar landing. The Apollo spacecraft consists of a command module, a service module, and a lunar excursion module. The command module' is designed to accommodate three astronauts during extended flights and to reenter the atmosphere upon return to earth. The service module contains propulsion, life support and other systems required for the flight missions. The lunar excursion module will be incorporated for the lunar landing mission. It will

-16,385

Note. Reconciliation of budget plan to obligations:
Total budget plan..

Deduct portion of budget plan to be obligated in subsequent years.
Add obligations of prior year budget plans...

Total obligations.--

3,909,615

4,382,000

1963

actual

2,567, 465
102, 108
50, 027
2, 515, 384

1963 actual 1964 estimate

2,897,878
32,603

-1,074

2,929,407

Obligations

1964 estimate 3,998,588 196, 261 138, 095 3,940, 422

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1965
estimate
4,457,900
218,061
196, 261
4,436, 100
descend with two astronauts from lunar orbit to the sur-
face of the moon and return to a lunar orbit rendezvous
with the command and service modules. The astronauts
will then transfer to the command module for the return
flight to earth.

The Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex., has
primary responsibility for the spacecraft project manage-
ment and flight operations. The development effort is
provided by industrial contractors.

(b) Launch vehicle development. The major launch vehicles for Apollo are the Saturn series. The Saturn I launch vehicle will be used for unmanned flight tests of the Apollo command module. The first stage of Saturn I, flown successfully four times, is powered by eight H-1 engines which develop a total of 1.5 million pounds of thrust. The first two-stage flight, incorporating the S-IV liquid-hydrogen fueled upper stage, is scheduled for launch early this year.

The Saturn IB vehicle consists of a modified Saturn I first stage and an advanced liquid-hydrogen fueled upper stage (the S-IVB) powered by a single J-2 engine. This launch vehicle will enable manned earth orbital flight test of the complete Apollo spacecraft including the lunar excursion module. In 1964 and 1965 design, development and ground test of Saturn IB will be emphasized, with initial flight scheduled for 1966.

Also in 1964 and 1965, design and development will continue on the Saturn V'launch vehicle. The Saturn V will be capable of accelerating the 90,000 pound Apollo spacecraft to the velocity required for lunar flights. The five F-1 engines of the first (S-IC) stage of this vehicle will provide a total thrust of 7.5 million pounds. The second (S-II) stage will be powered by five J-2 liquid-hydrogen fueled engines, and will have a total thrust capability of one million pounds. The third stage will be essentially the same as the S-IVB stage used on the Saturn IB.

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In 1965 development work will continue on engines for the Saturn class vehicles. Funds are also included for launch operations and other supporting activities associ ated with this program at the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Cocoa Beach, Fla.

Most of the development work on NASA launch ve hicles is performed by industrial contractors. NASA effort in this field is concentrated at the Marshall Space

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Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; the Michoud Plant, New
Orleans, La.; the Mississippi Test Facility, Pearl River,
Miss.; the Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio; and
the Kennedy Space Center.

(c) Supporting programs.-Estimates are included in this activity for effort in several supporting areas required by manned space flight missions. Engineering analysis and evaluation of mission requirements and objectives, integration of major hardware components into complete systems, and the development and evaluation of methods and equipment to check out manned space vehicle systems are included. Funds are also provided for work in physiological, psychological, and health requirement areas, thereby adding necessary assurance of flight and ground crew safety and effective performance during

missions.

Studies of future possible manned space exploration projects, such as an earth orbiting laboratory and a lunar support base are also funded in this activity.

The NASA elements primarily involved in this activity are the Office of the Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Washington, D.C., the Manned Spacecraft Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Kennedy Space Center, with additional support provided by industrial contractors.

2. Space applications.-NASA programs in this activity include communications satellites, meteorological satellites, advanced technology satellites, and the application of developed technology to industry. Both contractor and NASA efforts are involved, the latter located primarily at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

(a) Meteorology.-Tiros satellite flights will continue in 1964 and 1965 for testing sensors and spacecraft modifications. The U.S. Weather Bureau is providing for the establishment of an operational meteorological system using the Tiros satellite which has had a highly successful record of research and development flights to date. Spacecraft and vehicle procurement, launching, and other services for the operational system are being performed by NASA for the Weather Bureau on a reimbursable basis. NASA's meteorological satellite program also supports the development of techniques and components for possible use in future systems, some of which will be tested on the Nimbus satellite, to be launched early this year.

(b) Communications.-The national research and development program in the communications satellite field is a cooperative effort of NASA, the Department of Defense, and industry. Responsibility for development and establishment of an operational, worldwide, commercial communications satellite system is vested in the Communications Satellite Corporation. NASA's role is the continued development of applicable technology.

3. Unmanned investigations in space.-Estimates in this activity include space flight missions for the acquisition of basic scientific data in the near earth space environment, in interplanetary space and from the moon and nearby planets. Development of related launch vehicles is also included. NASA effort in this area is carried out by the Goddard Space Flight Center; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Lewis Research Center, with support from other NASA centers. The major development activity is provided by contractors.

NASA will complete work in 1964 and 1965 on the present Relay low altitude satellites and the Syncom 24-hour orbit satellite system being developed in cooperation with the Department of Defense.

(c) Other applications. This activity includes the NASA effort on technology required for satellites for future applications with improved performance and reliability. A multipurpose satellite will be used to develop the techniques for placing satellites in orbits synchronized with the earth's rotation and to conduct experiments related to a variety of space applications. The program for disseminating to industry and other Government agencies technological advances resulting from NASA's research and development effort is also included.

(a) Spacecraft development and operations.-Acquisition of scientific data on the upper atmosphere and near space by means of sounding rocket probes will be continued in 1965. Development of earth-orbiting observatories carrying multiple experiments for measurement and investigation of space phenomena will continue. The major projects include astronomical, geophysical, and solar observatories. In addition, work will be conducted on smaller scientific satellites and probes, including international satellite projects.

In 1965, the unmanned lunar exploration program, designed to land instruments on the lunar surface and to collect data from lunar-orbiting spacecraft, will be continued at an increased pace. This program will help meet urgent data requirements of the manned lunar landing program.

In the unmanned interplanetary program, work will proceed on the Pioneer interplanetary probe. The Mariner series of spacecraft, one of which successfully relayed the first close-up observations of Venus in December of 1962, will be employed for investigations of the planet Mars in fiscal 1965.

The bioscience program will continue in 1965 investigating, with flight projects and laboratory research, the effects of the space environment on living organisms and evidence of extraterrestrial life.

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(b) Launch vehicle development.-The only launch vehicle under active development for unmanned missions in 1965 will be the Centaur, which will serve as the launch vehicle for the unmanned lunar landing spacecraft, Surveyor. The Centaur was successfully launched November 27, 1963, and represents the first known successful ignition in space of a liquid hydrogen-oxygen fueled engine. Also encompassed in this activity are improvements to the present family of small and medium launch vehicles, including experiments with fluorine additives which show promise of significantly improving performance of existing launch vehicles.

4. Space research and technology.-NASA programs for the advancement of the technology required for space vehicle systems and related equipment and components are funded in this activity.

(a) Launch vehicles and spacecraft.-The estimates provide for a program of flight projects and research and development in areas such as space environment effects, aerothermodynamics, structures and materials, vehicle concepts, and the role and support of man as a functioning element in aerospace operations. In addition, effort will be continued on electronic measurements; recording and transmission of operational, technical, and scientific data; guidance and control systems; and reentry phenomena. The objective of all the effort in this activity is to advance technological developments by ground research and flight experiments to the point of practical application in flight missions. The work is conducted primarily at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.; the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.; and the Lewis Research

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION-Continued

General and special funds-Continued

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT-Continued

Center, with support from other NASA centers and

contractors.

(b) Propulsion and space power. The estimates provide for continuation of effort in research and development on chemical, nuclear and electric propulsion and solar, chemical and nuclear-electric power generation techniques. In 1965 continuing work will be done on the joint programs with the Atomic Energy Commission for development of components of both nuclear-electric power generation systems and nuclear rockets. NASA work will also be conducted on development and test of electric propulsion systems; the development of small solid rockets for space vehicle use; and on battery, solar, and other electrical power units for spacecraft. The agency will also support the development of large solid rocket motors, an advanced liquid hydrogen-oxygen engine of about 1.5 million pounds thrust (the M-1 engine), and related propulsion technology. Effort on these programs is located primarily at the Lewis Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center, and plants of industrial contractors.

5. Aircraft technology.-This program fosters the technological growth required for continued advancement of the national capability in aeronautics, and supports other Government agencies in research and development on specific aircraft.

In 1965 various cooperative projects with the Federal Aviation Agency and the Department of Defense will be continued, including research efforts in support of the supersonic transport, the X-15 aircraft, and short and vertical takeoff and landing aircraft.

Research in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and loads, propulsion, and aircraft operations will be supported, with a view toward advancing the technology required for advanced aircraft developments anticipated in the latter portion of this decade. NASA installations primarily involved in these projects are the Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., the Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center, and the Lewis Research Center.

6. Supporting operations.-NASA program elements grouped in this activity provide general support for the accomplishment of NASA research, development, and flight programs.

(a) Tracking and data acquisition. -The estimates in this activity provide for the procurement, installation, and operation of equipment at stations of the NASA tracking and data acquisition networks, and for continued research and development on specialized ground equipment to improve the network capability. NASA installations primarily involved in these activities include the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

(b) Facility, training, and research grants.-This program was initiated in 1962 to enlarge university participation in space science and engineering, to supplement NASA research activity, to broaden the base of university conceived and constructed experiments for future space missions, and to provide an interdisciplinary framework for the assimilation into the body of scientific thought

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2. Space applications....

3. Unmanned investigations in space.

4. Space research and technology.

5. Aircraft technology..

6. Supporting operations....

Total direct..

Reimbursable:

2. Space applications..

Total.

Financing:

Unobligated balance brought forward:

For completion of prior year budget plans... Available to finance new budget plans.. Unobligated balance transferred to or from "Research and development" (76 Stat. 731 and 75 Stat. 355). Unobligated accepted reimbursable order transferred to other

accounts...

Unobligated balance carried forward:

For completion of prior year budget plans.. Available to finance new budget plans..

New obligational authority.

New obligational authority:

Appropriation...

Transferred to:

"Research and development" (76 Stat. 731). "Administrative operations" (77 Stat. 439)

Appropriation (adjusted).

Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)

700-100-64- -49

Budget plan (amounts for construction of facilities actions programed)

1963 actual

543,809
194

47,262

106,849

1.697

42,608

742,419

742,419

-13,500

14,715

743,634

776,237

-32,603

743,634

This appropriation provides contractual services for the design, construction, and modernization of facilities; the purchase of items of equipment related to construction and modernization; and advance design of facilities planned for future authorization. The projects in the 1965 program are described below:

1. Manned space flight. This activity includes estimates for facilities required in 1965 for the manned lunar landing program, which includes both the Apollo spacecraft program and the Saturn V launch vehicle program. Launch and launch support facilities are included for both the Saturn V launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft at the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Cocoa Beach, Fla. In addition, the Saturn V program will require, in 1965, development, ground test, and support facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; ground test and support facilities at the Mississippi test facility, Pearl River, Miss.; manufacturing facilities at the Michoud Plant, New Orleans, La.; and additional development, ground testing, and manufacturing facilities at contractors' plants. Development, ground testing, and operational facilities for the Apollo spacecraft program are provided for at the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex.

1964 estimate

495, 179 3,933

18,574

56,833 100

98,881

673,500

673,500

-14,715

14,715

673,500

680,000

-6,500

673,500

Note. Reconciliation of budget plan to obligations:
Total budget plan....
Deduct portion of budget plan to be obligated in subsequent
years.

Add obligations of prior year budget plans.

Total obligations...

1965 estimate

1963 actual 742, 419

313,573 144, 666 573,512

234,330

7,018

26,620

4,001

9,031

281,000

281,000

281,000

281,000

281,000

1963 actual

1964 estimate 673,500 141, 140 324,024 856, 384

446,893

32,755

57,111

1,924

31.118

569,801

3,711

573,512

-181,843 -13,500

-30,343

381,093 14,715

743,634

776,237

-32,603

743,634

Obligations

1964 estimate

1965 estimate 281,000 54, 664 193,664 420,000

666,249

4,127

39,954

97.524

449

47.697

856,000

384

856,384

-381,093 -14,715

14,715

2,490

195,719

673,500

680,000

-6,500

673,500

1965 estimate

237.957

26,371

66,123

3,264

86,285

420,000

420,000

-195,719

56,719

281,000

281,000

281,000

2. Space applications. No new projects are included in 1965.

3. Unmanned investigations in space. The estimates for this activity provide for modification of facilities to improve spacecraft testing capability at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.; engineering and support facilities for the unmanned lunar and planetary exploration program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; and modifications and improvements in facilities required for unmanned spacecraft missions at the Kennedy Space Center, and modifications to launch areas Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Va.

4. Space research and technology.-Projects included in this category provide for research and supporting facilities at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.; the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.; and the Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Also proposed is construction of various laboratories and other facilities for the Electronics Research Center and technical facilities for contractors engaged in development of the M-1 engine.

5. Aircraft technology. These estimates include an advanced aircraft research facility at the Ames Research Center and a facility at Langley Research Center to house fatigue research equipment.

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