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served honorably on active duty after September 16, 1940, for a period of 6 months or more in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps or the Coast Guard, would be liable for induction except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress. Now, there will be a fuller explanation of that situation. There are three veterans groups, as I have outlined, and in some cases we are inducting people under the present law and have inducted people under the present law who served for a considerable period of time
The CHAIRMAN. Twenty-two months in some cases.
Mr. BLANDFORD. Twenty-two months in some cases, as the chairman has indicated, and yet have been inducted and been required to serve 24 months under the present law.
The CHAIRMAN. Go ahead and explain the law.
Mr. BLANDFORD. Now, let's go into the Reserve situation. Members of the organized units of the National Guard and all other organized units of the armed services are exempt--now, there is a distinction between being deferred and exempt-if they were members on February 1, 1951, and have served satisfactorily continuously since that time they are exempt.
Note that these individuals are exempt and not deferred, and thus are not liable to induction after passing the age of 26.
On the other hand, those who joined National Guard units prior to attaining the age of 18 years and 6 months may be deferred from induction so long as they participate in the National Guard, but if they leave the National Guard and have been deferred because of their National Guard service, they remain liable until the age 35.
Individuals may be deferred from induction who are in the senior division of the ROTC or other officer-training programs, provided they agree in writing to accept the commission if tendered and to serve on active duty not less than 2 years after receipt of the commission.
These individuals may have an additional year of service added to their obligation if they receive financial assistance while attending a civilian college. Aviation cadets likewise may be deferred for a period not to exceed 4 months, which is renewable, prior to being accepted for cadet training.
Now, note that National Guardsmen who enter the National Guard prior to attaining the age of 18 years and 6 months are deferred from induction so long as they participate in the National Guard. But another provision of the law says that any person who is deferred remains liable for induction until the age 35. Thus young men who join the National Guard before attaining the age of 18)—and they probably don't know this --must remain in the Active Reserve until age 35, under present law. This seems to be unduly harsh, and as the chairman has indicated, might have an adverse effect upon the purpose of the provision which allows enlistment in the National Guard if it is not remedied.
Mr. Vinson has indicated that he will propose an amendment later to except these individuals from the liability to age 35, so that their liability will only extend to age 26.
The CHAIRMAN. That is uniformity in age limit.
Now, general deferments. The authority for all other deferments is contained in section 6 (h) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act. Under this provision the President is authorized to pro
vide for the deferment of any or all categories of persons, and I will quote the law:
Whose employment in industry, agriculture or other occupations or employment or whose continued employment in an office, other than an office described in subsection (f), under the United States or any State, Territory or possession, or the District of Columbia, or whose activity in study, research or medical, dental, veterinary, optometric, osteopathie, scientific, pharmaceutical, chiropractic, chiropodial, or other endeavors found to be necessary to the maintenance of the national health, safety or interest: Providedand this is the important thingThat no person within any such category shall be deferred except upon the basis of his individual status: Provided further, That persons who are or may be deferred under the provisions of this section shall remain liable for training and service in the Armed Forces under the provisions of section 4 (a) of this act until the 35th anniversary of the date of their birth.
That is the end of the quote from the law.
Now, note that individuals may only be deferred on the basis of individual status, and since June 19, 1951, the President has been precluded from deferring anybody because of marriage except in cases of extreme hardship. We changed the law in 1951 in that connection.
Now, the President is authorized to defer individuals with wives and children or children alone. However, by Presidential regulation since August 25, 1953, registrants not already deferred as fathers could not use fatherhood as a basis for obtaining exemption from the draft unless they can show extreme hardship, or deferment, I shall say. Children conceived after August 25, 1953, no longer constitute a basis for deferment.
High-school students must be deferred until graduation or until attaining their 20th birthday.
College students are entitled to one automatic deferment to complete an academic year. Conscientious objectors may also be deferred from combatant service, and if they are opposed to any type of military service, may be required to perform, for a period of 24 months, civilian work contributing to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest.
Sole surviving sons may not be inducted where one or more sons or daughters of the family were killed in action or died in line of duty while serving in the service of the United States or subsequently died as a result of injuries received or disease incurred during such service.
Now, that is the act in brief.
The law is administered by local boards throughout the United States and its territories. There are 3,951 local boards, with 92 appeal boards and 28 panels operating in some of the States where they have the appeal boards.
The boards are set up on the basis of judicial, Federal judicial districts. Each State has at least one appeal board. Selective Service operates with 39,793 uncompensated employees and 7,195 compensated employees.
The CHAIRMAN. Řead that again, so the country and the committee can get that in their mind.
Mr. BLANDFORD. All right, sir.
Mr. SHORT. About the only remuneration many of these faithful and loyal Americans have received have been untold abuse.
Mr. BLANDFORD. Well, there is no question about that, Mr. Short. They have been abused for it. They operate with 39,793 uncompensated employees.
Now, since induction started in fiscal 1949 and up to January 1, 1955, the cost of administering the Selective Service System has amounted to $184 million, and so far 1,966,526 men have been inducted.
There are 16,153,000 living registrants. Ninety-six percent of them have been classified. Of this number, you will be interested to know that 44,000 persons are deferred for agricultural reasons and 17,000 for occupational deferments other than agriculture. And I am sure you will want to go into these figures to a considerable extent with General Hershey.
Mr. Rivers. Have you those percentages of classification according to States?
Mr. BLANDFORD. I don't have it broken down. I am sure they have it. Mr. Rivers.
Mr. RIVERS. Get it for me.
Now, this bill also extends the Dependents Assistance Act. I can cover that very briefly. This is the act under which enlisted men in the Armed Forces receive allowances because of their dependents. The men contribute $40 in the lower grades, $60 in the middle grades and $80 in the higher grades, from their own pay, and on the basis of that may obtain from the Government in the nature of a quarters allowance sums ranging from $51.30 for an enlisted man with 1 dependent, to $77.10 for 2 dependents, and $96.90 for enlisted men with 3 dependents. Under the Dependents Assistance Act, dependents of enlisted members are thus receiving sums ranging, combined with their contribution, from $91.90 to $177 a month, and it is obvious, of course
Mr. SHORT. How much there?
Mr. BLANDFORD. Of course the man may also allot more of his pay, but that would be the amount that a man in the upper grades would allot, with three dependents. And obviously, so long as you are going to draft individuals with dependents, there must be some form of financial assistance for those individuals.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Mr. Blandford. That is a very fine statement, and it points out the key points in the selectiveservice law.
Now, the first witness we want to hear this morning is the distinguished Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower, the Honorable Carter Burgess. Mr. Burgess, will you please come around? And your assistants come around to the table. Sit down there.
Mr. Rivers. Mr. Chairman, before we get started, could the record indicate where Mr. Burgess comes from?
The CHAIRMAN. That doesn't make much difference. He is a southern gentleman from Virginia. But we are not interested in domiciles this morning.
Mr. Rivers. Let's find out where he is from, Vr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, Mr. Secretary, have you a prepared statement?
Secretary BURGESS. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask that I be permitted to give Mr. Wilson's statement. As you know, the Secretary is before the House Appropriations Committee this morning. He very much wanted to be here. If it is permissible, sir, I would like to give his statement.
The CHAIRMAN. The committee will be pleased to have you read Mr. Wilson's statement.
Secretary BURGESS. Thank you, sir.
STATEMENT OF SECRETARY OF DEFENSE CHARLES E. WILSON
(DELIVERED BY THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR MANPOWER, HON. CARTER BURGESS)
Secretary BURGESS. Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, the President in his special message to the Congress on January 13, 1955, recommended as one of the important measures required for the security of the United States, that authority to induct young men for 24 months of training and service be extended until July 1, 1959. I recommend this 4-year extension to the early and favorable action of your committee.
The present military program of the Department of Defense requires very powerful military forces with up to date and continually improving weapons. It constitutes by far the largest Military Establishment that this country has ever undertaken to maintain for an indefinite period. I cannot foresee any important reduction in this program nor do I see any need for any important increases short of war, but we will need to continue to improve our forces on a qualitative basis.
We are keenly aware of the importance of attracting and retaining in the armed services the required numbers of career personnel both in the officer and enlisted grades. Our objective is to maintain a sound Military Establishment, ready at all times for whatever is required of it in defense of our vital interests. This readiness is dependent upon the technical skills and military leadership of our military personnel which can only be achieved after long and constant training. The integration into our Military Establishment of an increasing number of newer and more modern weapons is rapidly raising the level of technical skill and experience required of our military personnel. It is most important that we have this high level of long-term personnel within the Military Establishment.
Experience has shown, however, that we cannot maintain on a voluntary basis the total number of military personnel that are required for the foreseeable future. As a result we must have the authority to draft any required additional personnel on a short-term basis.
A review of the history of our Selective Service legislation in recent years will clearly indicate the reasons why we must request a further extension of this authority. The Selective Service law that provided the tremendous manpower strength required during World War II was allowed to expire in March 1947. During the following year the country was unable to meet the strength goals of the greatly reduced active forces through voluntary means. Consequently in March 1948 the temporary reinstatement of selective service was requested. In the past 7 years this authority has been used only to the extent necessary.
To speak of the future we intend to utilize this requested authority in the same fashion. Our planned active strength in the Armed Forces is approximately 2,850,000. This is over twice the size we were able to maintain on a voluntary basis during the time ther was no selective service law on the books.
The extension of this authority represents another assurance to our allies that the size and effectiveness of our armed services will be maintained at the planned levels. To the same degree the countries behind the Iron Curtain would note any lack of such authority as a lessening of our determination to maintain our strength.
We must not allow such a doubt on the part of either our friends and allies or any possible aggressor.
In this requested extension of selective service it is very important that we retain the present 2-year term of service. The present 2-year term represents the minimum desirable length of service and any further reduction with its resultant increased turnover would not only materially increase our training costs but most importantly it would materially reduce the combat effectiveness of our forces.
At the present time the Army is the only service which requires men inducted through the Selective Service System. There is no question, however, that the operation of the draft provides a major stimulus in assisting other services to maintain their strengths on a voluntary basis. Should we fail to extend the authority to induct men for military service or should there be any reduction in the term of service below the present 2-year period, there might be an important effect upon the numbers of men willing to volunteer in the Air Force, the Navy, or the Marine Corps.
The extension of the authority to induct men into the services is also an essential element in the National Reserve plan which has been proposed by the Department of Defense for strengthening our Reserve forces. Men with previous active service and who have a remaining obligation to serve in the Reserve upon release from active duty are the keystone of effective Reserve forces. This need for experienced and highly trained men in the Reserve also points to the necessity to retain the present provision of law that imposes an 8-year total obligation for men entering military service. We must be assured of a supply of skilled personnel in the Reserve if we are to have available Reserve forces capable of performing their missions effectively.
I should like to comment briefly upon section 2 of the legislation under consideration which would extend the provision of the Dependents Assistance Act of 1950 to July 1, 1959, the same as the proposed terminal date of the authority to induct personnel. The allowances that are provided by this legislation have greatly alleviated financial hardship among the dependents of our enlisted personnel during this emergency period when military service has been compulsory. The extension of this authority is considered necessary to the morale and welfare of our enlisted personnel.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary.
Now, have you a statement that you want to submit as the Secretary of Defense for Manpower?
Secretary BURGESS. I have, Mr. Chairman.