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head, and tied behind the head. In the middle of this was a horn, or a conical piece of silver gilt, about four inches long, much in the shape of our common candle extinguishers. This is called a horn, and is only worn at reviews, or parades after victory. The crooked manner in which they hold the neck, when this ornament is on their forehead, for fear it should fall forward, seems to agree with what the Psalmist calls, “ speaking with a stiff neck, of which phrase it shows the meaning, when you hold the horn on high like the horn of an unicorn.

“ The celebrated William Penn gives the following account of his interview with the American Indians when he purchased the land for his province of Pennsylvania ; it will help to illustrate the subject.

• One of the chiefs, says he, ‘ put on his head a kind of chaplet, in which appeared a small horn. This, as among the primitive Eastern nations, and according to Scripture language, was an emblem of kingly power; and whenever the chief, who had a right to wear it, put it on, it was understood that the peace was made sacred, and the persons of all present inviolable. Upon putting on this horn, the Indians threw down their bows and arrows, and seated themselves round their chiefs in the form of a half-moon, upon the ground. The chiefs then announced to William Penn, by means of an interpreter, that the nations were ready to hear him.'”*

- What did Solomon mean, father,' where he says, that 'ointment and perfume rejoice the heart?” Prov. xxvii. 9.

“ Doubtless he meant, they were very agreeable and refreshing. This is a very general opinion in the East. Almost all their apartments are filled with fragrance. "Towards the conclusion of a visit,' says Savary, in Egypt, a silver plate, on which are burning precious spices, approaches the faces of the visitors, each of whom in his turn perfumes his beard. They then pour rose-water on the head and hands. This is the last ceremony; after which it is usual to withdraw."

* Clarkson's Life of Penn, i. 340.

“At my taking leave of a chief in India, says Lord Valentia, “the usual compliments passed, rose-water was presented, and our chins were perfumed with frankincense.'

Fragrant wood is often burnt in the houses of the East, in order to scent the apartments. Aloes wood is often used for this purpose. Maundrell tells us, that it is put into a small silver chafing-dish, covered with a lid full of holes, and fixed upon a hand


some plate. In this they put some fresh coals, and upon them a piece of lignum aloes; and then, shutting it up, the smoke immediately ascends with a grateful odour through the

It is not improbable that Solomon had reference to some such custom prevalent in his day.

Thus, you see, Harry, that the more the sacred Scriptures are examined, the more excellent they appear. It is also evident, that, by an actual reference to the usages of the countries in which the facts recorded transpired, they may be explained and illustrated in a very striking and instructive manner. We have only to glance at the most admirable productions of the greatest men among the heathen nations,—such as the works of Homer, or Virgil, or Horace, to see that they, or any of our race, were absolutely incapable of



inventing any volume at all resembling the Scriptures. But can you repeat Dryden's admirable lines on this subject ?"

• Whence but from Heaven should men, unskill’d

in arts,

In different ages born, in different parts,
Weave such agreeing truths ? Or how, or why,
Should all conspire to cheat us with a lie ?
Unask'd their pains, ungrateful their advice,
Starving their gains, and martyrdom their price.'




Dorset Street, Fleet Street,

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