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and American archives, their organization, the collection, storage, and classification of material, and its use for historical purposes, are discussed in formal papers and informally at these conferences.

Historical manuscripts commission.—The historical manuscripts commission was established in 1895. It has engaged itself in securing information respecting the manuscript sources of American history and in publishing calendars and texts. Thus it has printed, in the annual reports, the letters of John C. Calhoun, the letters of Salmon P. Chase, the correspondence of the French ministers to the United States, 1791–1797, and the diplomatic archives of the Republic of Texas, as well as smaller collections of documents. The commission endeavors to stimulate an interest in the proper preservation and making accessible of manuscript materials and has prepared a leaflet of suggestions for the printing of documents relating to American history. This leaflet may be obtained upon application to the secretary.

Public archives commission.-The public archives commission was established in 1899 for the purpose of examining into the condition and character of the public records of the United States, of the several States, and of local communities, with a view to obtaining and publishing such information concerning them as will make the records more generally known and more easily available for students. The commission has been instrumental in securing legislation for the better administration of the public records in many States, and has printed, in the annual reports, reports of varying scope on the archives of about 30 States, as well as reports on the records of certain cities and counties, together with a summary of state legislation relating to the custody and supervision of the public records, and a bibliography of the printed public archives of the thirteen original States to 1789.

Committee on bibliography.—The committee on bibliography considers such bibliographical projects as come before it, and has caused to be prepared various bibliographies which have been printed in the annual reports. Among these have been a bibliography of the publications of American historical societies, a list of the public documents of the first fourteen Congresses, notes on the collections of works on European history in American libraries, bibliographies of Alabama and of Mississippi, etc.

Committee on a bibliography of modern English history.—This committee was appointed by the council in December, 1908, at the request of the conference on English history, for the purpose of securing the preparation of a bibliographical introduction to modern English history. It cooperates with an English committee having the same purpose.

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For the encouragement of historical research the American Historical Association offers two prizes, each of $200-the Justin Winsor prize in American history and the Herbert Baxter Adams prize in European history. Each is awarded biennially (the Winsor prize in the even years and the Adams prize in the odd years) for the best unpublished monograph submitted to the committee of awards on or before October 1 [hereafter July 1] of the given year— e. g., by October 1, 1911, for the Adams prize in European history, and by July 1, 1912, for the Winsor prize in American history. The conditions of award are as follows:

I. The prize is intended for writers who have not yet published any considerable work or obtained an established reputation.

II. A. For the Justin Winsor prize.-The monograph must be based upon independent and original investigation in American history, by which is meant the history of any of the British colonies in America to 1783, of other territories, continental or insular, which have since been acquired by the United States, of the United States, and of independent Latin America. It may deal with any aspect of that history-social, political, constitutional, religious, economic, ethnological, military, or biographical, though in the last three instances a treatment exclusively ethnological, military, or biographical would be unfavorably received.

B. For the Herbert Baxter Adams prize.-The monograph must be based upon independent and original investigation in European history, by which is meant the history of Europe, continental, insular, or colonial, excluding continental French America and British America before 1783. It may deal with any aspect of that history-social, political, constitutional, religious, economic, ethnological, military, or biographical, though in the last three instances a treatment exclusively ethnological, military, or biographical would be unfavorably received.

III. The monograph must present subject matter of more than personal or local interest, and must, as regards its conclusions, be a distinct contribution to knowledge. Its statements must be accurate, and the author in his treatment of the facts collected must show originality and power of interpretation.

IV. The monograph must conform to the accepted canons of historical research and criticism.

It must be presented in scientific form.

It must contain references to all authorities.

It must be accompanied by a critical bibliography. Should the bibliography be omitted or should it consist only of a list of titles without critical comments and valuations, the monograph will not be admitted to the competition.

V. The monograph should not exceed 100,000 words in length. The manuscript should be typewritten, and must be neat, correct, and in form ready for the printer.

VI. In addition to text, footnotes, and bibliography, the monograph must contain nothing except the name and address of the author and a short introduction setting forth the character of the material and the purpose of the

work. After the award has been made the successful competitor may add such personal allusions as are customary in a printed work.

VII. In making the award the committee will consider not only research, accuracy, and originality, but also clearness of expression, logical arrangement, and especially literary form. The successful monograph must be written in good English. The prize will not be awarded unless the work submitted shall be of a high degree of excellence.

VIII. The successful monograph will be published by the American Historical Association. Galley and page proofs will be sent to the author for revision; but, should changes be made by him exceeding in cost an aggregate of 10 cents per page of the completed book, such excess shall be borne by him, and the amount will be deducted from the prize.

IX. The prize, together with 10 bound copies of the printed volume, will be sent to the author after the publication of the book. Further copies, not to exceed 25, he shall be entitled to purchase at the reduced price ($1) at which a copy is furnished to each subscribing member of the Association. Should he further desire unbound copies, not for sale, the committee will endeavor to furnish them to him at cost.

Address all correspondence relative to the Justin Winsor prize (after Jan. 1, 1911) to Prof. Claude H. Van Tyne, Ann Arbor, Mich., and all correspondence relative to the Herbert Baxter Adams prize to Prof. George Lincoln Burr, Ithaca, N. Y.

The Justin Winsor Prize (which until 1906 was offered annually) has been awarded to the following:

1896. Herman V. Ames, The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

1900. William A. Schaper, Sectionalism and Representation in South Carolina; with honorable mention of Mary S. Locke, Anti-Slavery Sentiment before 1808.

1901. Ulrich B. Phillips, Georgia and State Rights; with honorable mention of M. Louise Greene, The Struggle for Religious Liberty in Connecticut.

1902. Charles McCarthy, The Anti-Masonic Party; with honorable mention of W. Roy Smith, South Carolina as a Royal Province.

1903. Louise Phelps Kellogg, The American Colonial Charter: A Study of Its Relation to English Administration, chiefly after 1688.

1904. William R. Manning, The Nootka Sound Controversy; with honorable mention of C. O. Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution.

1906. Annie Heloise Abel, The History of Events Resulting in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi River.

1908. Clarence Edwin Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 17651774; with honorable mention of Charles Henry Ambler, Sectionalism in Virginia, 1776-1861.

1910. Edward Raymond Turner, The Negro of Pennsylvania-Slavery, Servitude, and Freedom, 1699-1861.

From 1897 to 1899 and in 1905 the Justin Winsor Prize was not awarded.

The Herbert Baxter Adams Prize has been awarded to:

1905. David S. Muzzey, The Spiritual Franciscans; with honorable mention of Eloise Ellery, Jean Pierre Brissot.

1907. In equal division, Edward B. Krehbiel, The Interdict, its History and its Operation, with Especial Attention to the Time of Pope Innocent III, and William S. Robertson, Francisco de Miranda and the Revolutionizing of Spanish America.

1909. Wallace Notestein, A History of English Witchcraft from 1558 to 1718.



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