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light of facts ascertained and known and read of all men, so that they may duly prepare the same in accordance with the just interests of the people and of those who may benefit by tariff legislation. In every department, wherever you may look, you find the necessity of getting the man who can tell you what is, who has a genius for getting at the real facts of the case, and who can come with a report upon those facts showing not only the skill of the master of research, but the common sense and poise and adjustment of the man acquainted with the difficulties of administrative work. There is no one in any position-chairman of a committee in the legislature, head of a department, executive of a State or of a nationwho does not count himself happy if he can come into close contact with the man who has had the rare opportunity to learn by painstaking investigation the facts of our social condition, all that pertains to these delicate human relations, so that remedies that may be needed may be devised in the light of experience and with a general acquaintance which must lie outside of the range of the busy administrator. It is very gratifying that at the time of our most pressing necessity there should be this greater cooperation between the man of thought and the man of action. And the men of thought are becoming more and more the men of action. We have less of doctrines to be maintained at all hazards, fewer schools with creeds, fewer political and economic dogmas which must be accepted as a test of fellowship, and we have more and more the caution of the trained investigator, who is unwilling to hazard a final generalization, knowing that there is yet so much he must learn before the last word can be spoken. And so the man of thought is anxious to have a chance to work; to see how the machinery moves; to get close to the actual affairs of public life, of social enterprise, of the various industrial occupations, and to the relations which give rise to those manifold questions; and the man of action on the other hand is becoming more and more the student. He is consorting more and more with those who have had the opportunity which the pressure of his own work has denied to him.

Once in a while a distinguished representative of the schools will go over into another field and talk of things of which he knows nothing, and again some man fresh from the field of action will -attempt to give lectures which would really be suitable from one of academic past. But these illustrations are exceptional, and go to show the rule. They go to show this happy relation of the sense of mutual need and desire to cooperate, which is so helpful a sign at this hour.

You have in your various associations the opportunities to study many phases of the same question. There are, I do not doubt, many of you who rejoice in knowledge for its own sake; who love to

ascertain something apparently unrelated because of the joy of acquisition. And there is no finer joy than that of the scholar alone in his library, rejoicing over a. point that is all his own-that up to date no one else, he thinks, may have apprehended. But after all your work is practical. It is to be decided by practical advantages. You are simply bringing together many data from many laboratories, giving the result of an extended experimentation, not for the purpose of piling up the grave of foolish speculations, in an immense mausoleum of annual reports, but in order that you may have something worth while to give to busy men, to administrators, to men who have the responsibilities of the work of government, in order that they may be helped. And I would say not to the scholars, but to the men of affairs, study history, even if it is superficially studied. We need its information; we need the poise that it gives. We can not be firm and secure and well poised in the turmoil of the hour unless we have reviewed the activities and fought the battles of the olden times, and known of the ups and downs of former critical hours. But the best of all is the encouragement, the consciousness that we have as we lift our eyes from the page of history, that difficult as have been the problems of other days, and of our own day, humanity is moving on; step by step a gain is made. We are the favored of all kinds. We to-day have the best inheritance in our generation that the children of men have ever enjoyed. And however doubtful may be the future, we can not survey the past, with its awful scenes of human cruelty, with its blackness of despair at times, without realizing the capacity that the human race has for the onward movement, without being satisfied that the advantages of this hour will never be lost. And by the cooperation which you offer, and by the intense desire of the people at large that all should be done to conserve honorable conditions, widen opportunity, lessen misery, and enlarge happiness, we are destined-not losing, but increasing the advantages that we now enjoy-still to continue on the upward path until we get somewhere near the goal which has been the dream of the poets, and the historians, and the scholars of the bygone days.

Chairman CHOATE. By virtue of the power vested in me as chairman of this meeting, I now declare the meeting closed.


American historical absociation

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