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and social institutions or of philosophical, moral, and legal doctrines; memoirs which are read and discussed there treating historical themes; and finally competitive prize contests which are held in behalf of research works, which very often have a historical character and which have given rise to the publication of monographs such as those relating to the organization and functions of the financial authorities of Castile in the Middle Ages, and the numerous ones relating to the common law and the popular economy of Spain, which, along with the actual living forms of the day, deal with the old and with their variations. I beg to call special attention to these series, which, I believe, have no equal in other countries and which are indispensable for the study of Spanish legal history.1

The last institution, in chronological order, is the Institute of Catalonian Studies, created at Barcelona in 1907 by the provincial assembly, which has for its object the encouragement of the study of Catalan history. This history had not had until lately any other special center of investigation and culture, aside from the Academy of Belles Lettres, than the "Floral Literary Contests " (Jochs Florals), held in great prestige in the country, which always included in their programs themes of a local historical character. Accordingly, the volumes in which the prize works are published are frequently of interest in this respect. A few years ago special classes on Catalan historical studies were established at the University of Barcelona, and lately the competitions in this field have largely centered about the Institute of Catalonian Studies. It has for an object, as the first reason for its creation indicates, "the superior scientific investigation of all the elements of Catalan culture." It is composed of eight persons, and is divided into four sections, one of history, the second of archæology, the third of literature, and the last of law. It intends to publish documentary diplomatic collections of a literary, historical, commercial, and juridical character; literary manuscripts of all sorts, whether inedited or needing new critical editions; studies and historical works of a critical and archæological order that may show a notable progress and be of use for Catalan culture; and reviews and annals. It plans also the organization of a special archive and library, as well as to hold competitive contests, deliver lectures, undertake works of exploration and research missions, and to employ other similar means, all conducive to the attainment of its scientific object.

As set forth by the institute in the first report of its activities submitted to the provincial assembly of Barcelona, the following of the

1 Reference is here made to the data found on this point in my article on Archives, Libraries, and Museums, in Historia y Arte. Information is given there as to catalogues and other interesting printed matter published.

2 The Floral Literary Contests have spread to almost all the Spanish provinces, and in all historical themes take turns with literary matters, but they do not always give rise to works of importance.

plans just enumerated have been carried out: Of publications there have appeared the institute's first annual, the first installment of the album, entitled “Catalonian Mural Paintings," the first volume of Don J. Botet y Sisó's work on "Catalonian Coins," the collection of documents gathered by Mr. Rubió y Lluch for the history of Catalan medieval culture (first volume), and the first volume of Don J. Puig y Cadafalch's "Romanesque Architecture in Catalonia." Of other activities there have been carried out a juridical-archæological excursion to the country on the western frontier of Catalonia for the purpose of ascertaining juridical customs and traditions and of studying monuments, paintings, and household furniture; an expedition under the auspices of the Catalonian Excursion Society to study the paintings found in Cogul (Lérida); a third to study intimately the documents kept at the Archives of Pobla de Lillet and Baga; a further expedition to copy and make an investigation of the Catalan manuscripts preserved in the Royal Library of Munich; a final one to take photographs and make drawings of all Catalan historical objects shown in the local exhibitions of Zaragoza (1908) and Valencia (1909); the foundation of the Catalan Library with the important help of the libraries of the learned Aguiló and Aulestía and the great poet Verdaguer, together with the highly prized manuscripts belonging to Muntaner, Turell, Desclot, etc., and lastly, the reorganization and installation of certain archives. In addition the institute has prepared a critical edition of the Political Writings of Ausias March and another of the Catalan versions of the Bible, this latter work having been entrusted to Sr. Foulché Delboscq.

These signs of great activity lead us to believe that the Institute of Catalonian Studies will be an important addition to the academies already existing, and that it will become a powerful factor in Spanish historical research.

The nature of the present treatise excludes an account of other undertakings, individual rather than collective, which have greatly contributed to historical culture in modern times, as, for instance, the two" Collections of inedited documents of the history of Spain; " the "Spanish Museum of Antiquities," the series entitled "Architectural Monuments in Spain," and other publications born of the initiative of learned and meritorious persons or of publishers who were in search, at the same time, of wealth and knowledge. It is fit and proper, however, to bring such activities to the attention of those interested in the progress of historical studies in Spain.1

1 Since the date of this paper there has been founded at Madrid, under the Department of Public Instruction, an Institute (Centro) of Historical Studies, in which a group of seminaries in the general, philosophical, Arabic, artistic, and legal history of Spain have been organized. The Institute will publish the monographs prepared by its members, as well as documents hitherto unprinted. Another institute has been founded in Rome for the exploration of the Vatican archives and for archæological researches.





Secretary of the Conference.

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