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negatived by the report that accompanied the act, which speaks of "the fourth clause of the twenty-sixth section of the third article * * * upon the subject of prohibiting the emigration of free negroes and mulattoes into the State." It must therefore be concluded either that the Missouri Legislature, in common with nearly all writers on the subject of the Missouri Compromise ever since, failed to notice the inaccuracy in the act of Congress, or that, if they noticed it, they took no account of it.
It remains only to be said that Missouri accomplished her purpose in spite of the act of Congress. A State act of 1825 "concerning negroes and mulattoes" excluded such persons from the State, unless citizens of another State, in which case they were required to prove their citizenship by presenting naturalization papers. While such persons were regarded as citizens in some States, they were never naturalized, and therefore could not present naturalization papers. In 1847 it was more positively provided that "No free negro nor mulatto shall under any pretext emigrate into this State from any State or Territory," and this act remained upon the statute book until the Civil War drew to a close.*
1 Printed in Missouri Intelligencer, June 18, 1821.
2 R. L. Mo., 1825, p. 600.
3 R. S. Mo., 1855, p. 1101.
Laws of Mo., 1865, p. 66.
X. TWO STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST.
1. THE TOWNS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST WERE NOT FOUNDED
2. MORTON MATTHEW MCCARVER, FRONTIER CITY BUILDER.
By EDMOND S. MEANY,
Professor in the University of Washington.
1. THE TOWNS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST WERE NOT FOUNDED ON THE FUR TRADE.
By EDMOND S. MEANY.
At the meeting of the American Historical Association in 1893 Prof. Frederick J. Turner, of the University of Wisconsin, read a paper on "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," which has exercised a profound influence on subsequent students and writers. In that paper Prof. Turner says:
The trading posts reached by these trails were on the sites of Indian villages which had been placed in positions suggested by nature; and these trading posts, situated so as to command the water systems of the country, have grown into such cities as Albany, Pittsburg, Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Council Bluffs, and Kansas City. Thus civilization in America has followed the arteries made by geology, pouring an ever richer tide through them, until at last the slender paths of aboriginal intercourse have been broadened and interwoven into the complex mazes of modern commercial lines.1
In a more recent publication the same distinguished author expands his thesis and uses these words:
Practically all of the Indian villages of the tributaries of the Great Lakes and of the upper Mississippi were regularly visited by the trader. The trading posts became the nuclei of later settlements; the traders' trails grew into the early roads, and their portages marked out the location for canals. Little by little the fur trade was undermining the Indian society and paving the way for the entrance of civilization."
While conceding the full value and validity of the thesis as applied to that portion of the United States lying east of the Rocky Mountains, it is the purpose of this present paper to demonstrate that west of those mountains, in the Pacific Northwest, or the old Oregon country, the evolution of civilization did not follow the lines so successfully elaborated by Prof. Turner.
It should be stated at once that the quest for furs and the primitive trading posts have important places in the history of old Oregon, but
1 American Historical Asociation, Annual Report, 1893, p. 210.
2 Frederick J. Turner, Rise of the New West (in "The American Nation, a History," ed. Hart, Vol. XIV), 113–114.