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SEC. 2509. ENHANCEMENT OF ABILITY TO ORDER RESTITUTION IN CER

TAIN FRAUD CASES.
Section 3663(a) of title 18, United States Code, is amended-

(1) by inserting "(1)" after "(a)"; and

(2) by adding at the end the following: "(2) For the purposes of restitution, a victim of an offense that involves as an element a scheme, a conspiracy, or a pattern of criminal activity means any person directly harmed by the defendant's criminal conduct in the course of the scheme, conspiracy, or pattern.

“(3) The court may also order restitution in any criminal case to the extent agreed to by the parties in a plea agreement.". SEC. 2510. FINANCIAL CRIME KINGPIN STATUTE.

(a) CONTINUING FINANCIAL CRIME ENTERPRISES.—Chapter 11 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new section: “8 225. Continuing financial crimes enterprise "(a) Whoever

"(1) organizes, manages, or supervises a continuing financial crimes enterprise; and

"(2) receives $5,000,000 or more in gross receipts from such

enterprise during any 24-month period, shall be fined not more than $10,000,000 if an individual, or $20,000,000 if an organization, and imprisoned for a term of not less than 10 years and which may be life.

“(b) For purposes of subsection (a), the term 'continuing financial crimes enterprise' means a series of violations under section 215, 656, 657, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1014, 1032, or 1344 of this title, or section 1341 or 1343 affecting a financial institution, committed by at least 4 persons acting in concert.”.

(b) CLERICAL AMENDMENT.—The table of sections for chapter 11 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new item: “225. Continuing financial crimes enterprise.”.

Penalties.

a

Subtitle B—Protecting Assets From Wrongful

Disposition

SEC. 2521. INJUNCTIVE RELIEF; PREJUDGMENT ATTACHMENTS. (a) INJUNCTIVE RELIEF.

(1) APPLICATION BY CONSERVATOR OR RECEIVER FOR INSURED DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS.-Section 11(d) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1821(d)) is amended by inserting after paragraph (17) (as added by section 2511 of this title) the following new paragraphs:

“(18) ATTACHMENT OF ASSETS AND OTHER INJUNCTIVE RELIEF.— Subject to paragraph (19), any court of competent jurisdiction may, at the request of

"(A) the Corporation in the Corporation's capacity as conservator or receiver for any insured depository institution or in the Corporation's corporate capacity with respect to any asset acquired or liability assumed by the Corporation under section 11, 12, or 13); or

"(B) any conservator appointed by the Comptroller of the

Currency or the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, issue an order in accordance with Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, including an order placing the assets of any person designated by the Corporation or such conservator under the control of the court and appointing a trustee to hold such assets. “(19) STANDARDS.—

"(A) SHOWING.–Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply with respect to any proceeding under paragraph (18) without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.

“(B) STATE PROCEEDING.—If, in the case of any proceeding in a State court, the court determines that rules of civil procedure available under the laws of such State provide substantially similar protections to such party's right to due process as Rule 65 (as modified with respect to such proceeding by subparagraph (A)), the relief sought by the Corporation or a conservator pursuant to paragraph (18) may be requested under the laws of such State.”. (2) APPLICATION BY CONSERVATOR OR LIQUIDATING AGENT FOR INSURED CREDIT UNION.-Section 207(b)(2) of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1787(b)(2)) is amended by redesignating subparagraph (G) as subparagraph (I) and by inserting after subparagraph (F) the following new subparagraphs:

(G) ATTACHMENT OF ASSETS AND INJUNCTIVE RELIEF.Subject to subparagraph (H), any court of competent jurisdiction may, at the request of the Board (in the Board's capacity as conservator or liquidating agent for any insured credit union or in the Board's corporate capacity in the exercise of any authority under section 207), issue an order in accordance with Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, including an order placing the assets of any person designated by the Board under the control of the court and appointing a trustee to hold such assets. “(H) STANDARDS. —

“(i) SHOWING.–Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply with respect to any proceeding under subparagraph (G) without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.

"(ii) STATE PROCEEDING.-If, in the case of any proceeding in a State court, the court determines that rules of civil procedure available under the laws of such State provide substantially similar protections to such party's right to due process as Rule 65 (as modified with respect to such proceeding by clause (i)), the relief sought by the Board pursuant to subparagraph (G) may

be requested under the laws of such Štate.”. (b) PREJUDGMENT ATTACHMENTS.

(1) APPROPRIATE FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES.-Section 8(i) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1818(i)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph: “(4) PREJUDGMENT ATTACHMENT. —

(A) IN GENERAL.-In any action brought by an appropriate Federal banking agency (excluding the Corporation when acting in a manner described in section 11(d)(18)) pursuant to this section, or in actions brought in aid of, or to enforce an order in, any administrative or other civil action for money damages, restitution, or civil money penalties brought by such agency, the court may, upon application of the agency, issue a restraining order that

"(i) prohibits any person subject to the proceeding from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any funds, assets or other property; and

"(ii) appoints a temporary receiver to administer the restraining order. "(B) STANDARD.-A permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond upon a prima facie showing that money damages, restitution, or civil money, penalties, as sought by such agency, is appropriate.”. (2) ATTORNEY GENERAL.--Section 1345 of title 18, United States Code, is amended

(1) by striking the 1st sentence and inserting the following: “(a)(1) If a person is

"(A) violating or about to violate this chapter or section 287, 371 (insofar as such violation involves a conspiracy to defraud the United States or any agency thereof), or 1001 of this title; or

"(B) committing or about to commit a banking law violation

(as defined in section 3322(d) of this title), the Attorney General may commence a civil action in any Federal court to enjoin such violation.

“(2) If a person is alienating or disposing of property, or intends to alienate or dispose of property, obtained as a result of a banking law violation (as defined in section 3322(d) of this title) or property which is traceable to such violation, the Attorney General may commence a civil action in any Federal court

(A) to enjoin such alienation or disposition of property; or "(B) for a restraining order to

“(i) prohibit any person from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any such property or property of equivalent value; and

"(ii) appoint a temporary receiver to administer such

restraining order. (3) A permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond."'; and

(2) by redesignating the material remaining in such section as subsection (b).

SEC. 2522. NONDISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN FEDERAL BANKRUPTCY INVOLV.

ING OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM A BREACH OF FIDUCIARY
DUTY; DISALLOWING USE OF BANKRUPTCY TO EVADE
COMMITMENTS TO MAINTAIN THE CAPITAL OF A FEDERALLY
INSURED DEPOSITORY INSTITUTION OR TO EVADE CIVIL OR

CRIMINAL LIABILITY. (a) EXCEPTION TO DISCHARGE IN GENERAL.-Section 523 of title 11, United States Code, is amended

(1) in subsection (a) by

(A) striking "or" at the end of paragraph (9);

(B) striking the period at the end of paragraph (10) and inserting a semicolon; and

(C) adding at the end thereof the following new paragraphs: "(11) provided in any final judgment, unreviewable order, or consent order or decree entered in any court of the United States or of any State, issued by a Federal depository institutions regulatory agency, or contained in any settlement agreement entered into by the debtor, arising from any act of fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity committed with respect to any depository institution or insured credit union; or

"(12) for malicious or reckless failure to fulfill any commitment by the debtor to a Federal depository institutions regulatory agency to maintain the capital of an insured depository institution, except that this paragraph shall not extend any such commitment which would otherwise be terminated due to any act of such agency;"; and

(2) by adding at the end thereof the following new subsections: "le) Any institution-affiliated party of a depository institution or insured credit union shall be considered to be acting in a fiduciary capacity with respect to the purposes of subsection (a) (4) or (11)."; and

(3) in subsection (c)

(A) by inserting "(1)” after "(c)"; and

(B) by adding at the end the following: “(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a Federal depository institutions regulatory agency seeking, in its capacity as conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent for an insured depository institution, to recover a debt described in subsection (a)(2), (a)(4), (a)(6), or (a)(11) owed to such institution by an institution-affiliated party unless the receiver, conservator, or liquidating agent was appointed in time to reasonably comply, or for a Federal depository institutions regulatory agency acting in its corporate capacity as a successor to such receiver, conservator, or liquidating agent to reasonably comply, with subsection (a)(3)(B) as a creditor of such institution-affiliated party with respect to such debt.”.

(b) EXCEPTION TO EXEMPTIONS.-Section 522(c) of title 11, United States Code, is amended

(1) in paragraph (1) by striking “or” at the end;

(2) in paragraph (2) by striking the period and inserting“; or”; and

(3) by adding at the end the following:

"(3) a debt of a kind specified in section 523(a)(4) or 523(a)(6) of this title owed by an institution-affiliated party of an insured depository institution to a Federal depository institutions regulatory agency acting in its capacity as conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent for such institution.”. (c) ASSUMPTION OF COMMITMENTS AS EXECUTORY CONTRACTS.-Section 365 of title 11, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following:

“(o) In a case under chapter 11 of this title, the trustee shall be deemed to have assumed (consistent with the debtor's other obligations under section 507), and shall immediately cure any deficit under, any commitment by the debtor to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Resolution Trust Corporation, the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or its predecessors or successors, to maintain the capital of an insured

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depository institution, and any claim for a subsequent breach of the obligations thereunder shall be entitled to priority under section 507. This subsection shall not extend any commitment that would otherwise be terminated by any act of such an agency.”.

(d) COMMITMENTS TO MAINTAIN THE CAPITAL OF FEDERALLY INSURED DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS.—Section 507(a) of title 11, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

"78) Eighth, allowed unsecured claims based upon any commitment by the debtor to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Resolution Trust Corporation, the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or their predecessors or successors, to maintain the capital of an

insured depository institution.". (e) DEFINITIONS.-Section 101 of title 11, United States Code, is amended

(1) by redesignating paragraphs (32) through (53) as paragraphs (36) through (57), respectively;

(2) by inserting before paragraph (36), as so redesignated, the following: “(33) 'institution-affiliated party'

“(A) with respect to an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act), has the meaning given it in section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(u)); and

"(B) with respect to an insured credit union, has the meaning given it in section 206(r) of the Federal Credit

Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1786(r)); "(34) 'insured credit union' has the meaning given it in section 101(7) of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1752(7)); "(35) 'insured depository institution'

"(A) has the meaning given it in section 3(c)2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(2)); and

“(B) includes an insured credit union (except in the case of paragraphs (3) and (33)(A) of this subsection);"; (3) by redesignating paragraphs (3) through (31) as paragraphs (4) through (32), respectively; and (4) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:

(3) 'Federal depository institutions regulatory agency' means

(A) with respect to an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) for which no conservator or receiver has been appointed, the appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined in section 3(g) of such Act);

"(B) with respect to an insured credit union (including an insured credit union for which the National Credit Union Administration has been appointed conservator or liquidating agent), the National Credit Union Administration; (C) with

respect to any insured depository institution for which the Resolution Trust Corporation has been appointed conservator or receiver, the Resolution Trust Corporation; and

"(D) with respect to any insured depository institution for which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has been

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