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army, but for some reason or other had been presented to the late Rajah. Neither men nor horses seemed to have benefited by the change of masters, the horses looked uncared for, the men very untidy; still they wore uniforms, rode in column, and maintained some vestiges of their former discipline.

After them, but separated by a long interval of carts and camp followers, followed the regular infantry. It consisted of no more than a single regiment of Sepoys. They were armed and clothed after the English fashion, but both weapons and uniforms were of a very antiquated type. The muskets had flint locks, and the dresses were of the pattern in use in our army about the commencement of the century. It consisted of a swallow-tail coat, shoes like slippers, and wonderful caps of black leather, very much resembling the foot of an elephant. If the men had trousers, they did not wear them, but in their place the native dhoty, which is a voluminous roll of cotton cloth twisted round the waist and loins. They marched badly-straggling and lounging; and were altogether themselves and their uniforms-dirty and slovenly to the last degree.

Their appearance was quite in harmony with that of the artillery, which, after another interval of mob and animals, next succeeded. No two of the guns were of the same size, and their carriages were as dilapidated as they could be to hold together. The wheels of two of them were absolutely falling to pieces, and only prevented from doing so by bands of rope coiled round the tyres. Some of the carriages were of bare wood; the others had once been painted, but so long ago that the traces of the paint were fast disappearing. In places it had fallen off in large flakes; where it remained it was discoloured and blistered. The only respectable cannon

were two nine-pounders belonging to the Seths. The eldest Seth had a few years previously been permitted to purchase these from our Government, in order to fire salutes to his idol. Very unwillingly, his younger brothers had permitted the guns to accompany our expedition.

After the artillery came what was considered as the irregular portion of the army. It consisted of some thousand and more of horse and foot. But the soldiers were so mixed up with the camp followers, and so little differed from them in appearance, that it was difficult to form any but the roughest estimate of their numbers. Some were armed with swords, some with matchlocks, others carried spears of solid steel very like kitchen spits.

This portion of the army was composed of several divisions, each being under the command of a separate chief. But in the line of march the distinction of division was not attended to, or else, since we set out, it had been lost-the whole force, horse, foot, soldiers and camp followers moved along in one confused, disorderly mass. The chiefs themselves took matters very easily; some rode in carriages, some on elephants, while others were carried reclining in palanquins. A few of the more energetic were mounted on horses, but neither these nor any of the others rode with their men.

It took us more than an hour to pass the army; soon afterwards we reached our encamping ground, which was a bare open space adjoining a village named Chowmah. There was here a small bungalow, which we were very glad to enter; for the sun was now high, its rays burning hot, and we were besides almost smothered with the dust. In the course of the day the army straggled in; when we took our evening stroll the plain

was covered by a canvas town; very pretty it looked, for the tents were bright in colour and picturesque in shape. When viewed nearer the impression was less pleasing. The camp was pitched without any arrangement, and full of noise, dirt, and disorder. Having commenced our march, we were anxious to continue it, and, indeed, Chowmah was not a place where anyone would willingly remain who could avoid doing so. Nevertheless, circumstances compelled us to reside in it for three whole days.

Captain Nixon was summoned to Agra to discuss the campaign with the Lieutenant-Governor, and the chiefs, on hearing of his intended departure, at once made it a plea for declining to continue the march. With much trouble and an exercise of patience that moved my admiration, Captain Nixon succeeded in inducing them to consent to proceed to the next halting place, and there await his return. I received hints from my own people that though the chiefs had given this promise they did not intend to abide by it. Their sincerity was not, however, put to the test.

I was woke up at midnight by a messenger from my police over the river. The messenger had brought a letter informing me that the Sepoy regiment at Allyghur, the next station to mine, had mutinied and gone to Delhi, having first burnt the English houses. I aroused the officer that Captain Nixon had left in charge of the army. He agreed with me that when the chiefs heard the news they would refuse to proceed. We thought it best to anticipate their refusal by countermanding the order for the march. This order, which was issued to prevent a disturbance, very nearly produced one. I received next morning a message from the chiefs that their choice lay between the army dying of thirst or

their marching it back to Bhurtpore, for all the wells in the neighbourhood had run dry. The statement seemed incredible; on making inquiry, I found it was untrue. There was plenty of water, but the troops were too lazy to draw it; they wished the villagers to do so for them, which the villagers refused. It took me all the morning to arrange the matter.

In the afternoon the Rajah's band played at the durbar. The band had been all along in the camp, but till now had not put in an appearance. The bandsmen played on English instruments, and what were supposed to be English tunes, though to our ears little resembling them. I suppose on that account they better suited the native taste. As the music played the camp followers clustered around; the sounds even drew the villagers from the sullen seclusion they had hitherto maintained. First one head, then another peeped cautiously over the village wall. Before long, the roofs of the houses were thronged with an admiring audience of men, women, and even children. In the course of the night Captain Nixon returned.

The next morning our party was augmented by the arrival of Mr. Harvey, the Commissioner of Agra, and some other gentlemen, chiefly young engineers, who had preferred to join the expedition rather than remain idle at Agra, where, as elsewhere, all regular work was suspended. We had known for some days of Mr. Harvey's intention to accompany the force, as also ha the chiefs, and unfortunately they had got the impression that he would bring with him a regiment of English soldiers. When they found that he was accompanied by only some twelve gentlemen and a small party of native troopers, their disappointment was extreme, and their dissatisfaction was so openly expressed that it

occasioned Captain Nixon some uneasiness. It was not till after hours of talking, and an assurance that they would be immediately reinforced by the army of the Rajah of Ulwar, that they consented to proceed. I doubt if they would really have done so had not Captain Nixon's assurances been confirmed in the course of the afternoon by the arrival of the advanced guard of the Ulwar army.

The next morning we marched. After travelling some miles, the monotony of the landscape was broken by the appearance of what seemed a vast castle of red stone. It was not really a castle, but a fortified caravanserai, one of the many erected by the ancient Mogul sovereigns, and which at intervals of about fifteen miles formerly lined all the great roads of the empire. Around the caravanserai lay the little town of Chattah. passed a dirty pond, and came on an open space covered with the bones of animals and other rubbish. In the middle of the space was a small bungalow; in this we put up. The army encamped on the plain beyond the town.


The impression I had formed of our army was not favourable; further acquaintance had not altered but rather increased it. The army appeared to have no head and no discipline. It was nominally under the command of Captain Nixon as representing the Rajah, but the real power lay with the chiefs. The positions of the chiefs to each other, to the army, and to the Rajah were very confusing. They were all more or less nearly connected with the Rajah and with each other by ties of relationship. They received from the Rajah salaries of varying amounts. They possessed in addition hereditary estates of their own, and held civil appointments besides their commands in the army. One was Chief Architect,

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