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The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration have established joint task forces in three major pilot cities—New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles—to investigate and to apprehend individuals engaged in organized crime and related drug activities, particularly those involving heroin. This task force approach combines the diverse investigative experience of both agencies, eliminates duplication, and increases the opportunities for successful prosecution of major violators in organized crime.
The staff increases proposed for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the high priority areas discussed above are accomplished by a reallocation in employment from programs that are no longer of pressing national importance, such as domestic intelligence, military deserters, and those programs in which State and local authorities have developed effective enforcement capabilities, such as the investigation of bank robberies. Outlays for the FBI are estimated to increase by $5 million to $555 million in 1979. Outlays for the Drug Enforcement Administration are expected to be $194 million in 1979, $3 million above 1978.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms will continue its efforts to curtail illegal commerce in firearms. An intensive program focused on illegal firearms has been underway since 1976 in three cities: Washington, Boston, and Chicago. Employment in the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms will be maintained at the 1978 level, while increased operating costs will cause estimated outlays to increase slightly to $135 million.
In August 1977, the President announced major policy initiatives directed at undocumented aliens. The President's program would: (1) provide increased resources for border enforcement activities; (2) make it unlawful for any employer to employ aliens who are not authorized to work; (3) permit undocumented aliens who have lived in the United States since 1970 to adjust to “lawful permanent resident alien” status; and (4) create a new “temporary resident” status for those who have been in the country continuously since before January 1, 1977. These proposals will reduce the opportunities and incentives for illegal immigration and will provide equitable treatment for undocumented aliens already in this country.
The 1979 budget proposes substantial personnel increases for the Immigration and Naturalization Service and for the Customs Service to improve enforcement at the border and at ports of entry. In addition, funds are requested to add new ports of entry, to provide several new pre-clearance centers in Canada, and to initiate an export statistics verification program. Outlays for the Immigration and Naturalization Service are expected to increase to $296 million in 1979. Outlays for the Customs Service are estimated to increase to $432 million in 1979. Funds to implement the undocumented alien status adjustment
proposals will be requested when the necessary authorizing legislation is enacted.
The President's reorganization project is studying ways to increase the cost effectiveness of Federal programs dealing with border management, alien regulation, law enforcement, justice research, and utilization of Federal attorneys. The goals of these studies are to develop proposals to eliminate duplication in facilities and support requirements and to encourage more humane, effective programs.
Other enforcement activities include those of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which enforces title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibiting job discrimination because of race, color, national origin, sex, or religion. The 1979 budget reflects the agency's extensive reorganization now underway. Among the changes are new case processing systems to deal more rapidly with charges of discrimination and an increase in investigations to correct discriminatory patterns and practices.
Other enforcement activities also include the Office for Civil Rights in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The administration is requesting a 1978 supplemental increasing the Office's staff by over 80% to reduce the backlog of investigations of discrimination complaints. Total budget outlays for other enforcement are expected to increase from $228 million in 1978 to $258 million in 1979.
Federal litigative and judicial activities.—Most Federal litigation, both civil and criminal, is conducted by the Department of Justice. Staff increases are proposed for the Washington-based legal divisions to: • Increase the ability of the Criminal Division of the Department
of Justice to prosecute and to coordinate major national crime
major ongoing cases and to initiate new ones. • Increase other staff to meet an increasingly complex and growing
caseload. • Increase the paralegal personnel for offices of the U.S. attorneys
to reduce the current imbalance in the ratio of the attorney to
nonattorney staff. Outlays for litigation are estimated to increase from $354 million in 1978 to $378 million in 1979.
By law, budget estimates for the judiciary are forwarded to the Congress without change. For 1979, the requested outlays of the Supreme Court, the appellate and district courts, and other judicial activities amount to $497 million.
The Legal Services Corporation provides aid in civil cases for lowincome clients. Since the Corporation was formed in 1975, outlays for the program have grown from $71 million to $154 million in 1978. The administration is requesting another significant increase for existing and new legal services offices around the country which will result in 1979 outlays of $243 million.
Federal correctional activities.—The Federal Government is responsible for the care and custody of prisoners convicted of violating Federal laws and detainees held for Federal trial or sentencing. To relieve overcrowding and to close one of our oldest prisons, funds are requested to build two new facilities. The Bureau of Prisons also plans to open a recently constructed adult facility and a new youth facility in 1979. The use of minimum security camps and community treatment centers will be substantially increased to reduce overcrowding and to shift some prisoners from maximum and medium security facilities to more humane environments. To plan for the future, the Attorney General has appointed a task force to conduct a comprehensive review of current correctional policies. Outlays for correctional activities are estimated to increase from $319 million in 1978 to $373 million in 1979.
Criminal justice assistance.—The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration assists States and localities in improving their criminal justice systems. The Administration is considering several proposals to reorganize civil and criminal justice financial assistance, research, and statistical programs, in order to enhance the quality of these programs and to improve their management. Outlays are expected to decline from $817 million in 1978 to $717 million in 1979. To provide greater flexibility and to streamline administration, the budget proposes a reallocation of funds in 1979 from planning grants to program grants.
Related programs.-A number of agencies in other functions support the administration of justice. Many agencies and regulatory commissions, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Trade Commission, enforce Federal laws. Over 100 agencies perform some type of law enforcement function. About 30 Federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Energy, the Veterans Administration, and a few regulatory commissions have some litigation authority independent of the Department of Justice.
CREDIT PROGRAMS-ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
Program 1977 1978 1979
actual estimate estimate Law enforcement assistance: Direct loans:
New loans--------------------------------------------- 41 41 35 Repayments, sales, and adjustments (–)------------------ –52 –44 –47 Net credit outlays------------------------------------ —11 –3 -12
transition from military to civilian life by helping them obtain the education they might have received had they not served their country in a time of national emergency. Active duty servicemen and widows and children of veterans who have died or been totally disabled in military service also are eligible for these benefits. Service-disabled veterans with significant disabilities can choose between regular GI bill benefits or vocational rehabilitation training. Those who enter military service after 1976 are eligible for a new education program that allows them to set aside $50 to $75 from their monthly pay. These amounts are matched by the Government and returned in education payments after discharge. The number of trainees will continue to drop in the future as the number of eligible veterans becomes smaller. In 1979, 1.3 million GI bill trainees are expected to participate in the program, a reduction from 1.6 million in 1978. Thus, despite an average increase in GI bill benefits of 6.6%, effective October 1, 1977, outlays are estimated to decline from $3.1 billion in 1978, to $2.6 billion in 1979. The administration is again proposing legislation to end enrollments in general flight training and correspondence courses that do not promote the readjustment of veterans to civilian life. The budget estimates assume enactment of this proposal, which would result in savings of $100 million in 1979. In addition to the 6.6% increase in GI bill education program benefits effective October 1, 1977, the GI Bill Improvement Act of 1977 provided a 2-year extension of education loan eligibility to some trainees and permits forgiving up to two-thirds of an individual's education loan under certain conditions.
Hospital and medical care for veterans.—The Veterans Administration achieves the mission of providing hospital and medical care to veterans by operating a nationwide civilian medical care system. In 1979, it will operate 172 hospitals, 228 outpatient clinics, 92 nursing homes, and 16 domiciliaries. Outlays for medical programs are expected to be $5.4 billion in 1978 and to rise to $5.8 billion in 1979.
Medical care and hospital services.—In 1979, the WA will increase its emphasis on the care of veterans with service-connected disabilities, Vietnam veterans and the rapidly growing population of elderly veterans. In order to concentrate medical care on these veterans, to meet privacy and other standards, and to free resources for new treatment programs, WA will reduce its hospital system by 3,100 beds in 1979, and make further reductions in 1980. Currently, 70% of WA inpatient care is devoted to treating veterans' non-service-connected disabilities. To the extent that available facilities and staff are not