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training programs are estimated to be $12.8 billion in 1979. Improvements in the economy will permit gradual declines in temporary programs thereafter, with increases beginning in 1980 and beyond as the jobs portion of welfare reform begins to build up to a full-year level of $11.1 billion in 1983.

General training and employment programs.-Authority for appropriations under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), with the exception of the Young Adult Conservation Corps, expires at the end of 1978. The budget requests continuation of most activities under this law with more targeting of resources to individuals and areas in relatively greater need. State and local governments will receive general grants under CETA to provide outlays of approximately $1.9 billion, resulting in about 430,000 training or work experience opportunities. Outlays for special programs for Indians and for migrant and seasonal farmworkers are estimated to reach $172 million in 1979. Subsidized public service employment is provided primarily for low-income, long-term unemployed individuals. In 1977, the administration sought and received authority needed to build the public service jobs program up to 725,000 jobs by mid-1978. For 1979, the budget request continues to support 725,000 jobs. For future years, the administration will request levels consistent with the anticipated improvement in the economy. Permanent standby authority will be requested so that additional public service jobs could be provided if any future economic downturns were to make that necessary.

The administration's proposed better jobs and income program will restructure the Nation's system for providing employment assistance and income to those in need. Job placement and training will aid those able and expected to work. If there is a shortage of private sector jobs, the Government will make available up to 1.4 million subsidized jobs in the public sector for primary earners in families with children. Together, the cash assistance and employment programs will always make unsubsidized employment more attractive than subsidized jobs or cash assistance alone. In 1979, planning grants will become available under the new program for State and local prime sponsors to use with State employment security agencies, other State and local agencies, and community-based organizations to plan for implementation of the new program. In addition, in 1979, several demonstration projects will be funded to show how the new program will work and to ensure that management systems are fully adequate before initiating them in all areas. The cash program is scheduled to become effective during 1981, three years after the date of enactment.

Youth programs.-About half of the Nation's unemployed are under age 25. Among these young people, minorities and the disadvantaged

Outlays for Youth Training and Employment Programs

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1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Fiscal Years
"Youth Share of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, Title I.


are disproportionately represented, with recent minority youth unemployment rates of 35% to 40%. In response to these unacceptable levels of joblessness, a major expansion of youth training and employment programs was started in 1977, as part of the administration's economic stimulus program. A substantial increase in Job Corps capacity was initiated. Summer youth employment was increased to 1 million jobs. Four experimental programs were authorized in the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act. These new efforts are being continued in 1978, and will be further expanded in 1979, as the administration continues to explore methods for fighting high levels of youth unemployment, especially among the disadvantaged. Outlays of programs designed specifically for youth, which does not include CETA title I, are estimated to reach a total of $2.3 billion in 1979. This includes: • $376 million under the Job Corps, which will have doubled en

rollment since 1977; • $740 million under the summer youth employment program,

to provide 1 million job opportunities for disadvantaged youth;

and • $1.2 billion for programs authorized in 1977 under the Youth

Employment and Demonstration Projects Act.

The four new programs authorized by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act are: • Young Adult Conservation Corps, which provides job opportunities on public lands; • Youth incentive entitlement pilot projects, which are testing the effect on school dropout rates of providing employment guarantees to disadvantaged youth; • Youth community conservation and improvnent projects, which provide work in rehabilitation and other community projects; and • Youth employment and training programs, which provide flexible grants to State and local sponsors to devise new ways of serving youth, plus substantial discretionary funding for Governors and for the Secretary of Labor.

Private sector initiative.—A major effort will be made to orient Federal training and employment activities more directly toward unsubsidized private sector jobs. Working through State and local sponsors, increased funding will be provided for training designed with the aid of local industry. These programs will serve the disadvantaged and unemployed, with special emphasis on young people. Advance planning and initial developmental work will start in 1978. A total of $400 million in budget authority is requested for 1979.

Older workers.-Community service employment for older Americans will provide 47,500 job opportunities for low-income persons 55 and over in 1979. Authority for this program expires in 1978. For 1979, similar authority will be sought.

Work incentive program (WIN).-Those receiving aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) are helped to find jobs through intensive employment services or, where necessary, through job training and job creation programs. Child care and other supportive services enable recipients to seek and accept jobs. In 1977, about 270,000 individuals were placed in unsubsidized jobs under WIN. Another 270,000 individuals will be placed in 1979.

Federal-State employment services.—To improve the operation of labor markets, job-matching services for workers and employers are provided through some 2,400 State offices, operated with Federal funds. Results of a pilot study on the net impact of the employment service on the economy are expected in late 1978. These are part of a major study to define the role of a government employment service in the labor markets over the next several years. The budget request

260-000 O - 78 - 12

will maintain employment service operations at their current level in 1979, with outlays of $745 million. Expansion of computerized job matching to more sites and States will continue in 1979.

Other labor services. The Federal Government establishes and enforces standards affecting the relationship between employer and employee. These standards apply to such aspects of employment as minimum wages, overtime payments, equal pay for equal work, job discrimination on the basis of age, and welfare and pension plans. (Similar efforts relating to job safety and health are included in the health function, while those related to equal employment opportunities for minorities and women are covered in the law enforcement and justice function.) The Federal Government also administers laws designed to assure fair practices in labor-management relations, and gathers and disseminates statistics on employment, wages, and prices. Outlays for these services are estimated at $477 million in 1979.

Training and employment-related programs.-A number of Federal programs are related to training and employment although their primary purpose is to meet other national needs and serve other major missions. The following table shows major training and employment-related programs that support other major missions.


[In millions of dollars]

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The Federal Government provides grants to States for a variety of social services. These services are primarily for the poor and other groups with special needs for such services.

Social services.-Grants to States for social services.—The social services program authorized under title XX of the Social Security Act provides financial assistance to States for the delivery of a wide range of social services to the poor, to foster their self-sufficiency and ability to live as independently as possible. Federal outlays for the basic title XX social services program are estimated at $2.45 billion in 1979, compared to $2.4 billion in 1978.

The administration is also requesting a continuation in 1979 of the $200 million (budget authority and outlays) in special funding under this program to be used by the States for child day care.

Child welfare services.-Authorized under title IV-B of the Social Security Act, this program provides grants to the States for the care and protection of neglected, homeless, and abused children. The administration has proposed legislation to improve significantly the scope and quality of services provided by the States to children and to develop stronger procedural safeguards to protect the rights of children and their parents. This proposal is designed to: • aid in reuniting children with their natural families wherever

feasible; • require more frequent monitoring of the status of children in

foster care to assure that they are permanently placed as rapidly

as possible; • encourage the adoption of children who might otherwise remain

in foster care for an extended period; and • subsidize low-income families who want to adopt children.

Under this proposal, outlays for child welfare services would rise from $57 million in 1978 to $121 million in 1979.

Retroactive claims. A total of $543 million in budget authority and outlays is requested in 1978 to settle States' prior-year claims under the Social Security Act. The Secretary of the Treasury would make such payments under the provisions of proposed legislation now pending before the Congress.

Services for the disabled, elderly, and other special groups.-Loans will be provided to help renovate facilities of Federal higher education grantees to meet the requirements of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act to eliminate architectural barriers to the handicapped.

Outlays for programs for the disabled are estimated to be $953 million in both 1979 and 1980, and will help approximately 1.8 million persons who have physical and mental disabilities become selfsufficient. To aid State planning in this area, advance funding for 1980 is requested for State grants to provide basic vocational rehabilitation services. Additional 1979 outlays for vocational rehabilitation services

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