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1 Includes sale of loan assets.
2 Includes loans counted as direct loans of other accounts.

Related programs.—Many programs whose primary purpose is to fulfill other national needs help promote community and regional development. Federal outlays for civil public works, shown on the table below all support community development. In addition, grants for local health, education, crime prevention, employment training, and general revenue sharing assist State and local development. Other direct Federal activities, such as housing credit, defense contracting, and management of public forests and parks, and the operation of Federal facilities (for example, Veterans Administration hospitals, naval shipyards, NASA research facilities, et cetera) also have a significant impact on community development.

FEDERAL OUTLAYS FOR CIVIL PUBLIC WORKS AND CONSTRUCTION

[In billions of dollars]

Agency and program

1977 actual

1978 1979 estimate estimate

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Federal public works:

Tennessee Valley Authority (largely energy supply)---
Corps of Engineers (water resources programs) --
Department of Energy (largely energy conservation).
Department of the Interior (natural resources and Indian pro-

grams) ---
Department of Agriculture (largely forest roads)--
Department of Transportation (largely airports) -
Veterans Administration (medical facilities)---
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (largely health)
All other agencies

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Total, Federal public works.

5.2

6.5

6.5

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Grants to State and local governments:
Department of Transportation:

Airports.
Highways..

Mass transit.
Environmental Protection Agency-Sewage construction grants
Department of Housing and Urban Development (community

development) -
Department of Commerce (local public works and other).
Appalachian regional development programs.---
Department of Agriculture (rural development and flood pre-

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vention)----
Department of the Interior (largely recreation).
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (largely health).
Other agencies

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.4

0.4 0.5 0.1 0.6

Total, grants to State and local governments.

16.4

20.1

21.3

Total, Public Works..

Allocated to community development (function 450) ----
Allocated to other national needs.

21.6
(4.6)
(16.9)

26.7 (6.9) (19.8)

27.8 (6.5) (21.3)

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL

SERVICES

National Needs Statement:

• Promote the extension of knowledge.
• Facilitate the dissemination of knowledge through

research.
• Assist the disadvantaged and the disabled to be self-

sufficient and self-supporting. • Provide equal education opportunities for the disadvan

taged and the handicapped. • Provide training needed for full and effective participation

in the labor force. • Provide employment opportunities to counter unemploy

ment caused by changes in the business cycle or other

economic dislocations. • Promote the development of and access to the arts and

humanities.

To help to achieve our national needs in education, training, employment, and social services in 1979, the Federal Government will spend an estimated $30.4 billion in support of the following major missions: • Elementary, secondary, and vocational education programs:

$6.5 billion. • Higher education: $4.3 billion. • Research and general education aids: $1.2 billion. • Training and employment: $12.8 billion. • Other labor services: $0.5 billion. • Social services: $5.1 billion.

To help to carry out these missions, the following major proposals are emphasized in this budget: • Provide funds for improving the basic educational skills of the

disadvantaged with an emphasis on reading. • Improve access to higher education for lower income students,

and help to reduce the immediate financial burden of higher

education for middle-income families. • Expand employment and training programs for youth to find ways

to reduce the excessive unemployment burdening the disadvan

taged, especially minorities. • Redirect employment and training assistance toward individuals

and areas of greatest need and start a new initiative to increase employment in permanent private sector jobs.

• Continue 725,000 public service jobs—primarily for the low

income and long-term unemployed—through 1979; phase down in future years as unemployment decreases, with the assurance that more such jobs will become available if unemployment

should rise again. • Provide employment assistance to those in need through the

Better Jobs and Income Act proposed to restructure the Nation's

system of providing jobs and income to the poor. • Safeguard the rights and improve the status of children in foster

care, and provide assistance and encouragement for family re

unification or adoption as alternatives to long-term foster care. The major missions are supported by the programs shown in the following table:

NATIONAL NEED: EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

[Functional code 500; in millions of dollars]

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SOCIAL

NATIONAL NEED: EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND

SERVICES-Continued
[Functional code 500; in millions of dollars]

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Total..

33, 604 20,985 27,471 30,421 33,210

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