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Other transactions---------------------------------------------------------------- 284

Basis for budget figures------------------------------------------------------------ 285


Explanatory note------------------------------------------------------------ ----- 290

Legislative branch---------------------------------------------------------------- 291

The Judiciary-------------------------------------------------------------------- 298

Executive Office of the President--------------------------------------------------- 301

Funds appropriated to the President------------------------------------------------ 304

Department of Agriculture--------------------------------------------------------- 309

Department of Commerce--------------------------------------------------------- 319

Department of Defense—Military-------------------------------------------------- 325

Department of Defense-Civil----------------------------------------------------- 331

Department of Energy------------------------------------------------------------ 335

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare-------------------------------------- 337

Department of Housing and Urban Development------------------------------------- 351

Department of the Interior-------------------------------------------------------- 355

Department of Justice------------------------------------------------------------- 364

Department of Labor------------------------------------------------------------- 366

Department of State-------------------------------------------------------------- 370

Department of Transportation----------------------------------------------------- 373

Department of the Treasury------------------------------------------------------- 379

Environmental Protection Agency-------------------------------------------------- 384

General Services Administration---------------------------------------------------- 386

National Aeronautics and Space Administration-------------------------------------- 389

Veterans Administration----------------------------------------------------------- 391

Other independent agencies-------------------------------------------------------- 393

Allowances----------------------------------------------------------------------- 421

Budget totals-------------------------------------------------------------------- 422

Off-budget Federal entities--------------------------------------------------------- 424

PART 9. SUMMARY TABLES---------------------------------------------------- 425

Explanatory note relating to the summary tables------------------------------------- 426

Table 1. Budget summary--------------------------------------------------------- 427

Table 2. Budget receipts, outlays, and budget authority------------------------------- 428

Table 3. Budget authority and outlays by agency------------------------------------- 429

Table 4. Budget authority and outlays available through current action by Congress------ 430

Table 5. Relation of budget authority to outlays-------------------------------------- 431

Table 6. Obligations incurred, net--------------------------------------------------- 432

Table 7. Balances of budget authority----------------------------------------------- 433

Table 8. Summary of full-time permanent civilian employment in the executive branch---- 434

Table 9. Budget financing and outstanding debt-------------------------------------- 435

Table 10. Budget receipts by source------------------------------------------------- 436

Table 11. Offsetting receipts by type------------------------------------------------ 440

Table 12. Budget authority by function and agency----------------------------------- 443

Table 13. Outlays by function and agency------------------------------------------- 456

Table 14. Controllability of budget outlays, 1969–79---------------------------------- 470

Table 15. Legislative proposals for major new and expanded programs in the 1979 budget-- 472

Table 16. Budget receipts by source, 1969–79---------------------------------------- 476

Table 17. Budget outlays by function, 1969–79--------------------------------------- 478

Table 18. Federal transactions in the national income accounts, 1968–79----------------- 485

Table 19. Federal finances and the gross national product, 1958–79--------------------- 486

Table 20. Composition of budget outlays in current and constant (fiscal year 1972) prices:
1956–79----------------------------------------------------------------------- 487

Table 21. Budget receipts and outlays, 1789–1979------------------------------------- 488







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To the Congress of the United States:

The first complete budget of any new administration is its most important. It is the administration's first full statement of its priorities, policies, and proposals for meeting our national needs. Last February, after just one month in office, I submitted a revised budget to the Congress. That revision changed the direction of the prior administration's budget, but was—of necessity—based upon a review of limited scope. I promised then that future budgets would reflect detailed, zero-based reviews of Federal spending programs, reform of the tax system, and reorganization of the Government. This budget is my first major step in meeting that promise. It reflects, I believe, a determination to face and make difficult decisions in a manner that places the common good above that of any particular interest. This budget represents a careful balancing of several considerations: —The importance of a fiscal policy that provides for a continuing recovery of the Nation's economy from the 1974–75 recession; —The obligation of the Government to meet the critical needs of the Nation and its people; —The fact that resources are limited and that Government must discipline its choices and its scope; and —The need for careful and prudent management of the taxpayers'

TeSOur CeS. THE BUDGET TOTALS |In billions of dollars) 1977 1978 1979 actual estimate estimate Budget receipts--------------------------------------------- 357 400 440 Budget outlays--------------------------------------------- 402 462 500 Deficit (-)------------------------------------------------ –45 –62 –6] Budget authority------------------------------------- 465.2 502.9 568.2

My budget provides for total outlays of $500 billion, an increase of $38 billion, or 8%, over the 1978 budget, and receipts of $440 billion. This budget total is a restrained one that: —Meets essential national needs; —Imposes strict priorities upon Federal expenditures; and –Decreases the share of the Nation's gross national product taken by the Federal Government from 22.6% to 22.0%.

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This budget places us on a path that will permit a balanced budget in the future if the private economy continues its recovery over the coming years. At the same time, my budget embodies a fiscal policy that will strengthen the economic recovery. I propose a progressive tax reduction of $25 billion to help assure continued economic recovery and reduction in unemployment. An integral part of this tax reduction proposal is a set of recommendations for tax reform that will make the tax system simpler and more equitable. Without the reduction, I would have been able to announce a decline in the deficit of $15 to $20 billion between 1978 and 1979. With the reduction, the budget deficit will still decline slightly, because of careful restraints on expenditures. But I judged that the most important priority this year was to reduce the burdens on taxpayers. Only in this way can we ensure a vigorous economy, a declining unemployment rate, a strong expansion of private investment, and a stable budget balance in future years. While the expenditures I recommend in this budget are restrained, they are, nevertheless, directed toward overcoming our Nation's crucial problems. I have looked carefully at existing approaches to these problems and improved those approaches where possible. The spending priorities of the past are now being shifted toward longneglected areas. These new priorities are based on the following judgments: —An effective national energy plan is essential to reduce our increasingly critical dependence upon diminishing supplies of oil and gas, to encourage conservation of scarce energy resources, to stimulate conversion to more abundant fuels, and to reduce our large trade deficit. The national energy plan I proposed last spring defined these goals. This budget includes the programs and initiatives designed to meet those objectives. Included are increased emphases on conservation and nonnuclear research and development, energy grants and technical assistance to States and localities, accelerated acquisition of the strategic petroleum reserve, and greater emphases on nuclear waste management. I continue in the unswerving belief that the Nation's leaders have the obligation to plan for the future, and that the national energy plan is essential to the future health and vigor of the American economy. The United States also must take the lead in minimizing the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation as we advance nuclear power technology. Thus, this budget increases research and development funding for systems that present fewer risks than the plutoniumfueled liquid metal fast breeder reactor.

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