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so reports to the Congress that the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States require that the provisions of this section do not apply in specific circumstances to agents of such country; or

(B) has been convicted of, or has entered a plea of nolo contendere with respect to, any offense under section 792 through 799, 831, or 2381 of this title 3 or under section 11 4 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, except that the provisions of the subsection shall not apply to a person described in this clause for a period of more than five years beginning on the date of the conviction or the date of entry of the plea of nolo contendere, as the case may be.

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3 18 U.S.C. 792-799. • 50 U.S.C. app. 2410.

6. Neutrality Act and Related Material

a. Neutrality Act of 1939, as amended Public Resolution 76-54 (H.J. Res. 306], 54 Stat. 4, approved November 4, 1939; as

amended by Public Resolution 76–87 (S.J. Res. 279), 54 Stat. 611, approved June 26, 1940; Public Law 76-776 (H.R. 10213), 54 Stat. 866, approved August 27, 1940; Public Law 77-294 (H.J. Res. 237], 55 Stat. 764, approved November 17, 1941; Public Law 77-459 (S.J. Res. 133], 56 Stat. 95, approved February 21, 1942; Presidential Proclamation 2695, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, approved July 4, 1946; and by Public Law 83-665 (Mutual Security Act of 1954; H.R. 9678), 68 Stat. 861, approved August 26, 1954 JOINT RESOLUTION To preserve the neutrality and the peace of the United

States and to secure the safety of its citizens and their interests. Whereas the United States, desiring to preserve its neutrality in

wars between foreign states and desiring also to avoid involvement therein, voluntarily imposes upon its nationals by domestic

legislation the restrictions set out in this joint resolution, and Whereas by so doing the United States waives none of its own

rights or privileges, or those of any of its nationals, under international law, and expressly reserves all the rights and privileges to which it and its nationals are entitled under the law of na

tions; and Whereas the United States hereby expressly reserves the right to

repeal, change or modify this joint resolution or any other domestic legislation in the interests of the peace, security or welfare of the United States and its people: Therefore be it

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

PROCLAMATION OF A STATE OF WAR BETWEEN FOREIGN STATES Section 1.1 (a) That whenever the President, or the Congress by concurrent resolution, shall find that there exists a state of war between foreign states, and that it is necessary to promote the security or preserve the peace of the United States or to protect the lives of citizens of the United States, the President shall issue a proclamation naming the states involved; and he shall, from time to time, by proclamation, name other states as and when they may become involved in the war.

(b) Whenever the state of war which shall have caused the President to issue any proclamation under the authority of this section shall have ceased to exist with respect to any state named in such proclamation, he shall revoke such proclamation with respect to such state.

Sec. 2.2 * [Repealed—1941]

1 22 U.S.C. 441.

2 Sec. 2, which concerned commerce with states engaged in armed conflict, was repealed by Public Law 77-294 (55 Stat. 764).

Sec. 3.3 * * * [Repealed—1941]

AMERICAN RED CROSS

Sec. 4.4 (a) The provisions of section 2(a) 2 shall not prohibit the transportation by vessels, unarmed and not under convoy, under charter or other direction and control of the American Red Cross of officers and American Red Cross personnel, medical personnel, and medical supplies, food, and clothing, for the relief of human suffering: Provided, That where permission has not been given by the blockading power, no American Red Cross vessel shall enter a port where a blockade by aircraft, surface vessel, or submarine is being attempted through the destruction of vessels, or into a port of any country where such blockade of the whole country is being so attempted: Provided further, That such American Red Cross vessel shall be on a mission of mercy only and carrying only Red Cross materials and personnel.

(b) 5 The provisions of sections 2(a) 2 and 33 shall not prohibit a vessel, in ballast, unarmed, and not under convoy, and transporting refugee children, under sixteen years of age, from war zones, or combat areas, and shall not prohibit such vessel entering into such war zones or combat areas for this purpose, together with such necessary American citizen adult personnel in charge as may be approved by the Secretary of State, subject to the provisions of the immigration laws, if such vessel is proceeding under safe conduct granted by all of the states named in the proclamations issued under the authority of section 1(a), and if such vessel has painted on a large scale prominently, distinctly, and unmistakably on each side thereof and upon the superstructure thereof plainly visible from the air and American flag and a statement to the effect that such vessel is a refugee-child rescue ship of the United States or under United States registry: Provided, That every such child so brought into the United States shall, previous to departure from the port of embarkation, have been so sponsored by some responsible American person, natural or corporate, that he will not become a public charge.

TRAVEL ON VESSELS OF BELLIGERENT STATES

Sec. 5.6 (a) Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section

1(a) it shall thereafter be unlawful for any citizen of the United States to travel on any vessel of any state named in such proclamation, except in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed.

(b) Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section l(a) shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

3 Sec. 3, which related to combat areas, was repealed by Public Law 77-294 (55 Stat. 764). * 22 U.S.C. 444. The first paragraph of sec. 4 was amended and restated by Public Resolution 76-87 (54 Stat. 611).

5 Subsec. (b) was added by Public Law 76-776 (54 Stat. 866). 6 22 U.S.C. 445.

Sec. 6.7 * * * [Repealed-1941)

FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS

Sec. 7.8 (a) Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 441(a) of this title, it shall thereafter be unlawful for any person within the United States to purchase, sell, or exchange bonds, securities, or other obligations of the government of any state for any person within the United States to purchase, sell, or exchange named in such proclamation, or of any political subdivision of any such state, or of any person acting for or on behalf of the government of any such state, or political subdivision thereof, issued after the date of such proclamation, or to make any loan or extend any credit (other than necessary credits accruing in connection with the transmission of telegraph, cable, wireless and telephone services) to any such government, political subdivision, or person. The provisions of this subsection shall also apply to the sale by any person within the United States to any person in a state named in any such proclamation of any articles or materials listed in a proclamation referred to in or issued under the authority of section 12(i).9

(b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a renewal or adjustment of such indebtedness as may exist on the date of such proclamation.

(c) Whoever shall knowingly violate any of the provisions of this section or of any regulations issued thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $50,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both. Should the violation be by a corporation, organization, or association, each officer or director thereof participating in the violation shall be liable to the penalty herein prescribed.

(d) Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section 1(a) shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

(e) 10 This section shall not be operative when the United States is at war.

SOLICITATION AND COLLECTION OF FUNDS AND CONTRIBUTIONS

Sec. 8.11 (a) Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 1(a), it shall thereafter be unlawful for any person within the United States to solicit or receive any contribution for or on behalf of the government of any state named in such proclamation or for or on behalf of any agent or instrumentality of any such state.

(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the solicitation or collection of funds and contributions to be used for medical aid and assistance, or for food and clothing to relieve human suffering, when such solicitation or collection of funds and contributions is made on behalf of and for use by any person or organization which is not acting for or on behalf of any such government, but all such solicitations and collections of funds and contributions shall be in accordance with and subject to such rules and regulations as may be prescribed.

7 Sec. 6, which prohibited the arming of American merchant vessels, was repealed by Public Law 77-294 (55 Stat. 764).

8 22 U.S.C. 447.
9 Sec. 12(i) was repealed. See footnote 17.
10 Subsec. (e) was added by Public Law 77-459 (56 Stat. 95).
11 22 U.S.C. 448.

(c) Whenever any proclamation issued under the authority of section 1(a) shall have been revoked with respect to any state the provisions of this section shall thereupon cease to apply with respect to such state, except as to offenses committed prior to such revocation.

AMERICAN REPUBLICS

Sec. 9.12 This joint resolution (except section 12) shall not apply to any American republic engaged in war against a non-American state or states, provided the American republic is not cooperating with a non-American state or states in such war.

RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF AMERICAN PORTS

Sec. 10.13 (a) Whenever, during any war in which the United States is neutral, the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, shall have cause to believe that any vessel, domestic or foreign, whether requiring clearance or not, is about to carry out of a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, fuel, men, arms, ammunition, implements of war, supplies, dispatches or information to any warship, tender, or supply ship of a state named in the proclamation issued under the authority of section 1(a), but the evidence is not deemed sufficient to justify forbidding the departure of the vessel as provided for by section 1, title V, chapter 30, of the Act approved June 15, 1917 (40 Stat. 217, 221; U.S.C., 1934 edition, title 18, sec. 31),14 and if, in the President's judgment, such action will serve to maintain peace between the United States and foreign states or to protect the commercial interests of the United States and its citizens, or to promote the security or neutrality of the United States, he shall have the power, and it shall be his duty, to require the owner, master, or person in command thereof, before departing from a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, to give a bond to the United States, with sufficient sureties, in such amount as he shall deem proper, conditioned that the vessel will not deliver the men, or any fuel, supplies, dispatches, information, or any part of the cargo to any warship, tender or supply ship of a state named in a proclamation issued under the authority of section 1(a).

(b) If the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, shall find that a vessel, domestic or foreign, in a port of the United States, has previously departed from a port or from the jurisdiction of the United States during such war and delivered men, fuel, supplies, dispatches, information, or any part of its cargo to a warship,

12 22 U.S.C. 449. 13 22 U.S.C. 550. 14 18 U.S.C. 31 'was repealed by the Act of June 25, 1948 (63 Stat. 862).

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