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THE

GUIDE TO KNOWLEDGE.

EDITED BY

W. PINNOCK,

AUTHOR OF

"PINNOCK'S CATECHISMS," "GRAMMAR OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY AND

HISTORY," &c. &c, &c.

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LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
AND PUBLISHED BY W. EDWARDS, 12, AVE-MARIA-LANE.

1833.

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The Proprietors of the " Glide to Knowledge," solicit attention to the following brief outline of its contents, with the certainty that an inspection of the work itself will shew that the present Address but partially states its claims to public patronage.

Among its numerous subjects will be comprised a complete History of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in which will be shewn their Origin, Progress, Theory, Use, and Practice; at the same time exhibiting the Invention, the Improvement, and Uses of the most considerable and important Instruments and Machinery, together with their Nature, Power, and Operation, exemplified by numerous Engravings: it will also include a brief historical View of the Progress of the Human Min I, and a concise Analysis of the Belles Lettres and the Fine Arts.

Natural Philosophy, in all its branches, and with all the latest improvements, will be treated of in simple and intelligible language. By our choice of subjects under this head, and by the mode of communicating them, we trust that this part of our work will appear to our readers an object of considerable importance; and, at the same time, it is our hope to render them, by their clearness, sources of utility and entertainment. In this department will be given a series of Essays on Natural History, thereby forming "a complete system of Natural and Philosophical Knowledge," by which is understood, a philosophical view of the most interesting objects of the visible creation. This department includes the greater part of the subjects as noticed under the head Mathematics^ in which will be comprised all new discoveries relating to vision,—Fire, Air, Water, Steam, &C. ; and to which will be added a description of the Microscope, Telescope, Air Pump, Fire Engine, Orrery, and Electric Machines.

Among the several branches of Belle* Lettres, will be given a series of articles on the Greek, Latin, and Italian Authors, chronologically arranged, together with some of the most beautiful passages translated.

The Guide will also comprise a series of Essays on Literature in general, in which will be given the Lives and Characters of the most eminent Writers, in different languages, ancient and modern, together with critical -.{/marks on their works, the whole designed as a Directory to guide the judgment, and form the taste, in reading the best Authors.

One great object of these Essays, is to exhibit a critical review of Literature, from the earliest times to the present day; a subject full of instruction and entertainment. And they will afford a distinct view of ancient and modern learning, with a just estimation of most writers, whether in philosophy, history, or oratory. The plan is entirely new, and exhibits, in one connected series', a very great variety of literary information.

Chemistry will also find a place in our work; as it is not only an interesting study by itself, but doubly important from its connexions with most manufactures and many arts.

History in general will be an important division of the "Guide to Knowledge;'' and particular attention will be paid to the history of our own country,— a branch of knowledge which is of the utmost importance to all British Youth. Indeed, the study of history will open the eyes of the understanding to a comparative view of all things; hence the attainment of this branch of ledge is certainly of the greatest importance; for, as it wise

philosopher has said,"Not to know what has occurred before our time is to be always a child;" and we shall not know how to estimate the present, if we cannot contrast it with the times past.

Biography.—If any species of writing has to boast of a "universal suffrage in its favour, it is Biography ; for of all historical information, the history of man certainly affords, in a supreme degree, the union of instruction and amusement; hence this subject has been always considered as one of the most valuable studies to which youth in particular can be directed; it also further points out the rewards of diligence and application, and the misery and disgrace which generally accompany idleness, and the misapplication of time and talents.

Natural History will have for its subjects, the animals, insects, worms, serpents, birds, beasts, and fishes; all of which will be treated of fully ; and the several systems of Zoology w ill be explained under their proper terms, accompanied by critical and explanatory notes.

Botany.—Under this head will be explained the several systems of Botany; and the vegetables of the different parts of the world, remarkable for their singularity and beauty, will be treated on at large, together with their virtues and uses.

As Rhetoric supplies life with some of its highest and most graceful literary pleasures, we intend to devote some portion of our columns to this equally interesting and important subject, as well as to the art of reasoning correctly, technically called Logic.

Though Mythology abounds with the wildest inconsistencies, and most absurd reveries, that an uncultivated mind, and a wild imagination could devise, yet it is so interwoven with the Belles Lettres, that without a correct knowledge of the former', it is impossible to make any useful or considerable progress in the latter. The noble works of the Greek and Roman authors can neither be enjoyed nor understood without an intimate acquaintance with the religious mysteries and customs to which they perpetually allude; and both Painting and Sculpture, as well as Poetry, derive their chief ornaments from their connexion with the Mythology of the ancients.

Geography.—Under this head wiilbe considered the Earth; its formation and structure; its several parts, mountains, seas, deserts, cataracts, lakes, and rivers; together with all meteors, and the phenomena of earthquakes, volcanoes, &c. philosophically treated; in which will be comprehended the whole system of Cosmogony, and the several theories of the Earth: to which will be added a concise history of minerals, metals, and gems; of fossils buried in the earth, and since petrified; and of sulphur, salts, &c. In this part will be comprised a complete system of Metallurgy, Mineralogy, and whatsoever other arts relate to the study of fossils.

Astronomy.—Our articles on this science have already been numerous, and it is with pleasure we have to say that they have been well received by the public; but as this subject opens a wide field, and though there seldom arises a Herschel, we still hope to find further matter to gratify the lovers of Astronomy; and therefore we intend to lay before our readers, from time to time, an accurate account of all astronomical, nautical, and geographical discoveries that shall be made in any part of the world; together with a concise view of the various branches of,the Mathematics,* in which will be comprised an accurate and full account of the several mathematical, optical, and other instruments, with their different apparatus, according to the latest improvements. In this part will be given a complete explanation of the structure, nature, and purposes of the several kinds of Telescopes, Microscopes, and whatever other works of art are necessary for examining the subjects treated of in the " Guide to Knowledge," the whole of which will be illustrated with a great number of Engravings, taken from the subjects themselves expressly for this Work.

Mathematics may be considered as the " Science of Sciences," from its treating on every thing occupying space, and consequently extending itself to every thing in nature; hence, under this head are comprised many sciences, distinguished by various names, according to the subjects they consider, the chief of which are the following; namely, Geometry, which treats of extension, or magnitude, under the form of lines, superficies, and solids; subordinate to which are Arithmetic and Algebra: these may be considered as one and the same, since both treat of the calculations of quantities; the first by numbers, and the latter by general characters. These, from their treating on, and from their investigating and demonstrating the properties of, magnitudes, multitudes, and quantities in general, are called Pure Mathematics, from their considering quantities abstractedly, without any relation to matter or bodies; but those branches which consider quantity as subsisting in material beings, are called Mixed Mathematics; for example, length in a road, breadth in a river, height in a star, &c.: such are Mechanics,—that branch which considers motion and moving powers, their nature and laws, with their effects in machincs.t — Hydrostatics is that part of Mechanics which considers the laws and power of fluids, and of bodies immersed therein.—Pneumatics is that part of Philosophy which treats of the nature and properties of the Air, and comprehends the doctrine or laws according to which air is rarefied or condensed.—Hydraulics considers the motion of fluids, with the application thereof, particularly in artificial water-works, by which is shewn the several methods of raising wafer, and of constructing engines for that purpose. — Optics is the science of direct light or vision; Catoptics of reflected vision; Dioptics, of refracted \ision. Perspective is that branch which shows the method of delineating images of visible objects on a plain surface, such as they appear in nature.—Astronomy describes the universe-, and the phenomena of the heavens. GeograPhy explains the properties of the earth, which are of three kinds, celestial, terrestrial, and human.— Hydrography is

• Every species of knowledge is good and valuable, in proportion as it is conducive to public benefit. That the mathematical sciences are eminently so is a truth of which no one can doubt; this added to the clearness of the reasoning employed, and the certainty of the conclusions obtained, are motives sufficient to induce us to introduce those studies into the "Guide," as being in every way suited to its readers.

f The knowledge of Mechanics is one of those things that serves to distinguish civilized nations from barbarians. It is by this science that the utmost improvement is made of every power and force in nature; and the motions of the elements, water, air, and fire, are made subservient to the various purposes of life; for however weak the force of man appears, w hen unassisted by this art, yet, with its aid, there is hardly any thing above his reach. It is distinguished by Sir Isaac Newton into Practical and Rational Mechanics; the former of which treats of the mechanical powers: namely, the lerer, balance, axis anil wheel, pulley, wedge, screw, and inclined plane. Rational Mechanics comprehends the. whole theory of motion, shows when the powers or forces are given, how to determine the motions that are produced by them ; and conversely, when the phenomena of the motions are given, how to trace the powers of forces from which they arise. Mechanical Philosophy is the same with what is otherwise called Corpuscular Philosophy, which is so called from corpuscle, a minute particle, a physical atom, being such as compose a natural body.

that part of Geography which considers the sea as navigable. It teaches us how to measure it, and gives us an account of its tides, currents, soundings, rocks, shelves, sands, harbours, &c—Gnomonics is the art of constructing Dials, instruments that serve to measure time by the shadow of the sun.—PyroTechnics, the art of employing fire for use or pleasure; the art of fireworks, both as regards diversion or the uses of war.— Architecture, the art of building, whether civil or military.— Music, the science of sounds, and their effects in the ear. All of which will be treated of under their particular heads. Hence, it will be observed, that many of the necessaries of life, as well as its conveniences, are obtained through the medium of mathematical knowledge.

Literary Review.—In this department we intend to give a brief account of all the most important works that shall appear on polite literature, the popular sciences, and the various dep artmcnts of knowledge which are of most general interest and value; particularly those on Natural History, and Natural and Experimental Philosophy.

We also propose to give a series of Essays on Education; the Languages, Belles Lettres, History, Ethics, and Commerce. This department presents a wide field for highly useful and interesting articles; and we trust that we shall not fail of delighting, instructing, and improving the mind in its best principles. A very important part of our plan will be to pay a particular attention to Chemistry and Mechanics, because of their intimate connexion with our Manufactures and the Arts.

Having thus supplied the young Student with knowledge, it will remain now that he learn its application ; and that thus qualified to act his part, he is at last taught to choose it. For this purpose a series of Essays will be added upon Human Life and Manners; in which he will be cautioned against the danger of indulging the passions, of vitiating his habits, and depraving his sentiments. These Essays will comprise the most important subjects in life, the Proprietors intending that the "Guide to Knowledge" shall not only be a general instructor in Literature, Science, and the Arts, but also a faithful monitor to unexperienced youth, so as to raise in their minds an early sense of the dignity of human nature, to inflame them with a love for virtue, and to teach them to form just estimates of men and things; the want of which has been too often the occasion of their sacrificing their characters, as they frequently do their fortunes, before they have acquired a proper knowledge of the value of either.

As the Editor's aim is to assist the rising generation, and present it with something that may reiTtf«t_t]jejicqmreinciit of Knowledge more easy and expeditious, he trusts mat -an undertaking so laudable, will meet with the general approbation aud aid of those gentlemen who are his fellow-labourers in the public service of Teaching, and of forming those minds, the perfect cultivation of which so greatly tends to public peace and private happiness.

Our business will be to lead our readers through the paths and passages of these delightful and important studies, and if we can give satisfaction, the reflection will be highly pleasing to our sentiments and feelings.

N.B. The " Guide to Knowledge" will hereafter be printed and ready for delivery on Thursday in each successive week, that the booksellers and newsvendersmay have the numbers on Friday, so as to enable them to supply Subscribers on Saturday morning.

The numbers and parts of this work, from its commencement in July, 1832, to the present time, may be procured by applying to any bookseller or newsvender in the kingdom; but as some of the early numbers are nearly out of print, an immediate application is recommended to avoid disappointment.

(£3* All Communications for the Editor, to be addressed to him at the Publisher's.

INDEX.

A.

Page.

Abbotsford, view of Hit

Acorns 134

Address to (be Reader 2

to Students 35

Aerolites 644

Ages, the Four Great Historical ..... 204

Ainstey of York 436

Air 224

Almanacks 178

Alphabetical Writing TO

American Natives 139

America, Discovery of 287

, North,'.Savages of 647

Amusements 438

Anecdote 39

Anecdotes of two Russian Generals.. 40G
Animals, method of catching in Ame-
rica 34

, change of colour of. 132

, sleep or torpidity 171

Antipathies 415, 527, 543, 574

Ants, Colony of 6

Apologue, Eastern 328

Arc, Joan of 477

Architects, English, Mcmiors of .... 350

Architectural Records 383, 391, 390

Arts and Manufactures 284

Arts and Sciences 125

Assyria 91

Astronomy 17

, Comets 137

, Earth 121

, Heavens ... .85,14), 153,193

, History of. 38, 67,98, 106

, Moon 117

, do. Harvest 119

, Planets 86,105,148

, Systems of i 73

, Terms of, Explained 520, 528,

640, 64S

, Use and Importance of .. 510

Athenians, Anecdotes of 463

Athens, Ruins of 384, 391

August. Mirror of 518.536, 544, 552

Autumn 559, 566

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Cabot, Sebastian 472

Calendar, Roman 179

Calumny 190

Cambridgeshire 329

Camden, his Monument 407

Cavern at Blackheath 681

Cedar of Lebanon 120

Ceres,'Planet 148

Chameleon 517

Charles 1 591

Chemistry of the Kitchen 14, 22

Cherries, Introduction of 352

Cheshire, County of 219

Chivalry 189

Christmas Day .... 214

Christianity and Mahometan ism con-
trasted , 453

Chronology 158, 107,627

Cicero, Orator 215

Cinque Ports 485

Cities of Various Nations .. 301, 310, 318

Clock making .157

Clouds 170

Cloves 209

Coach, Mail 309

Cochineal 645

Cockroach ■ • ■ 128

Coffee 209

Colosseum 392

Colossus of Rhodes 400

Comets 137, 153

Common Council, London 282

Condor 317

Confus:on 684

Constantine, Emperor 139

Constitution of England 207

Contention 509

Contentment 509

Conversation, Advantages of 211

Cook, Captain, and the Shilling 453

Coi n wall 355

Coitcz Ferdinand 215

Cosmologies 139, 2.16, 292, 318, 325

Cotton, Manufacture of 414

Country 204

Crusades 268

Cumberland 303

Davs of the Week 12

— School 69

December, Mirror of 688

, Month of 212

Decoy for Ducks y • • 132

Paee.

Deer, Various Species of '316

Deity, Notions of '139

Derbyshire 321

Devonshire 419

Diversions, Reflections on 150

DogSpeeics 324

Dogs, History of .'. 130, 191

Dolphin 92

Dorsetshire 315

Dropping Well 29

Dryburgh Abbey 165

Durham, County of 219

E.

Earth, Rotundity of 20

. Remarks on 121

East Indies, Progress of Information

ill 440

Eclipse, Solar 501

Eclipses generally 515

Education Advantages of 4

Egypt, &c 91

Elephant 145

Elizabeth, Queen, her Speech to the

Army 412

England, History of 41—64, 90

, Constitution of 207

Entomology 77, 128,159

Environs of London 369

Errors, Origin of 68, 100

Essex, County of 411

Europe 539

, Governments of 591

F.

Face, Human 13

Farm Yard 340

Feudal System 279

Fire of London 567,573

Fishery, Wljaje,^ 181

Fogs 655

Fordyce, Doctor 215

Fox 320

Fraud Detected 414

Fungi 88,134

G.

Gazelle, Hunting the -... 290

.kind 116

Gemini, Constellation 675

Geography 1

, Ancient 27

, History of 9

, Holland and Belginm .. 229

, Sandwich Islands 19

of Durham 219

Earth, Rotundity of the 26

England 203

. Lancashire 243

. Middlesex 207

Netherlands 227

. Portugal • 227

. Rivers and Mountains 233

tbe World ........ 76, 90

Geology, Rivers and Mountains .... 233
George III., Memory and Kindness of 452

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