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trachea; then, finally, sharp cough, and spitting of blood. The woman was fifty-eight years of age when it stopped; she was stout and plump. What conditions here saved her from getting phthisis, like the patients of Andral or Louis, would be an interesting subject of speculation.

The older observers differ very materially as to the frequency of hemorrhage from the lungs in relation to tubercles. Hæmoptysis may precede tubercle for years and years, and even be almost forgotten, till the patient is reminded of it. The use of codliver oil, we believe, has very materially changed the rate of mortality and curability of phthisis of late years. Andral found in those dying of phthisis, in his time, that one in six had never had hæmoptysis at all; in two in six the hemoptysis appeared to mark the development of tubercle as a cause; in the remaining number, or half the deaths in Paris from phthisis, it followed rather as a consequence from unequivocal phthisical disease, with diarrhoea and wasting, and a breaking up of the lungs into anfractuous sinuses and cavities.-London Lancet.

NOTE ON THE INDUCTION OF SLEEP AND ANESTHESIA BY COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTIDS. BY ALEXANDER FLEMING, M. D., Professor By of Materia Medica, Queen's College, Cork.-While preparing a lecture on the mode of operation of narcotic medicines, I thought of trying the effect of compressing the carotid arteries on the functions of the brain. I requested a friend to make the first experiment on my own person. He compressed the vessels at the upper part of the neck, with the effect of causing immediately deep sleep. This experiment has been frequently repeated on myself with success, and I have made several cautious but successful trials on others. It is sometimes difficult to catch the vessels accurately, but once fairly under the finger, the effect is immediate and decided.

There is felt a soft humming in the ears, a sense of tingling steals over the body, and, in a few seconds, complete unconsciousness and insensibility supervene, and continue so long as the pressure is maintained. On its removal, there is confusion of thought, with return of the tingling sensation, and in a few seconds consciousness is restored. The operation pales the face slightly, but the pulse is little if at all affected. In profound sleep the breathing is stertorous, but otherwise free. The inspirations are deeper. The mind dreams with much activity, and a few seconds appear as hours, from the number and rapid succession of thoughts passing through the brain. The experiments have never caused nausea, sickness, or other unpleasant symptom, except, in two or three instances languor. The period of profound

sleep, in my experiments, has seldom exceeded fifteen seconds, and never half a minute.

The best mode of operating is to place the thumb of each hand under the angle of the lower jaw, and, feeling the artery, to press backwards, and obstruct the circulation through it. The recum bent position is the best, and the head of the patient should lie a little forwards to relax the skin. There should be no pressure on the windpipe.

The internal jugular vein must be more or less compressed at the same time with the carotid artery; and it may be thought that the phenomenon is due, wholly or in part, to the obstructed return of blood from the head. I am satisfied that the comprsssion of the artery, and not of the vein, is the cause. The effect is most decided and rapid when the arterial pulsation is distinctly controlled by the finger, and the face loses somewhat of its color; and, on the other hand, is manifestly postponed and rendered imperfect when the compression causes congestion of the coun

tenance.

This mode of inducing anesthesia is quick and certain. The effects diminish immediately when the arteries are relieved from pressure, and are not liable to increase, as happens sometimes with chloroform and ether, after the patient has ceased to respire the vapors. So far as my experience goes, it has shown no tendency to cause faintness; and usually, after its employment, no unpleasant feeling whatever remains.

I think it may be found useful as a remedial agent in certain headaches, tetanus, asthma, and other spasmodic diseases, and to prevent pain in such small operations as the extraction of a tooth. or the opening of an abscess. Whether the compression can be continued with safety sufficiently long to make it available in larger operations, has to be ascertained. But, whatever be the practical value of this observation, it is at least interesting as a physiological fact, and may be the means of throwing light on the causes of ordinary, medicinal, and hypnotic sleep, and of coma. Some facts encourage the supposition that the circulation of the brain is languid in ordinary slumber, and the etymology of the word carotid shows the ancient belief in the dependence of deep sleep on some interference with the passage of the blood through these vessels; and it is not an unreasonable conjecture, that hypnotic sleep may be sometimes caused or promoted by the contracted muscles and constrained position of the neck compressing the carotid arteries, and diminishing the supply of blood to and pressure on the brain.-British and Foreign Medico-Chirugical Journal.

ON TUBERCULAR DISEASE IN THE EAST. BY DR. WILSON. (Indian Annals, No. 3, p. 182.)-In the Zillah jail at Rajshye, there was an average of 846 prisoners. The average annual mortality from tubercle was a little under 8 per 1000, or nearly the same rate as at home. Thus, in six years 165 men died, and in almost all post-mortem examinations were made. Tubercles were present in one-fourth of the whole.

Dr. Wilson remarks:

The natives of India form no exception to the dark races in other parts of the globe, or at least this much may be said, that exemption from phthisis is by no means so universal as has been supposed: if portions of the continent of India are so exempt it is very desirable to have information regarding them, as convincing as that given of places where the disease has been ascertained. It is not surprising that, previous to the universal practice of percussion and auscultation, the extent of the prevalence of the disease should have been overlooked, but at first sight it is surprising that it should not be universally recognized up to the present time; the explanation is found in the difficulty of always procuring post-mortem examinations, and in the peculiar and latent nature of the chest symptoms, and partly, no doubt, from education at home settling in the mind a belief to the contrary. *

"The disease, besides the common wasting form, which has procured for it the descriptive names of consumption and decline, shows itself in two varieties, more commonly than in Europethe latent and febrile; the latter is, possibly, often only a hurried termination of the latent. In the latent form, the chest symptoms may never appear, the disease being fatal by hurrying on of concomitant disease in the bowels, the effect of climate being to excite to activity the abdominal symptoms." (p. 188.)

NEW TREATMENT OF CORYZA.-In the Journal de Médecine et de Chirurgie Pratiques for November, 1854, M. Yvyonneau says that he has obtained great success in coryza by plugging up the external nares by introducing a plug of lint rolled in collodion. The organ, he says, is protected from the contact of cold air, and at the same time the disordered surface is bathed in warm air, and the moisture exhaled in respiration. The remedy has, in his hands, never failed to produce a cure in twenty-four hours.

INJECTION OF CHLOROFORM IN HYDROCELE.-Prof. Langenbeck, of Berlin, prefers chloroform to the tincture of iodine as an injection in hydrocele. He injects from one to three drachms into the sac.

INJECTIONS OF Chloroform-Vapor into the UTERINE CAVITY TO RELIEVE PAIN. By M. ARAN. (Bull. de Thér., Jan. 1845.)-M. Aran, extending the local application of the vapor of chloroform in uterine affections, recommended by Dr. Hardy, of Dublin, has adapted to Hardy's apparatus a hollow uterine sound, pierced at the end by two openings; this is passed into the uterine cavity. Caution is advised not to inject the vapor too suddenly, lest the uterus be distended; but done gradually, it is said that instant relief is given to uterine pain. Five cases are reported: in three the effect was favorable; in one of these, a case of post puerperal metritis, pain was completely suspended, and on a second injection altogether stopped; in a second, a case of chronic metritis, with an irritable condition of the uterus, two injections produced a permanent amelioration; in the third, a case of retroflexion, in which the intrauterine pessary could not be borne, after a few injections the instrument could be worn for several days at a time. In the two other cases, the effect was not so marked: in one, of retroflexion with chronic inflammation, the injections at first caused great pain, it is supposed from being forced too rapidly, but relief followed; in the other, of obstinate dysmenorrhoea with colics and nervous phenomena, relief was but momentary, while the injection of a few drops of laudanum into the uterine cavity gave ease which lasted for twenty four hours.-British and For. Medico-Chirurgical Journal.

ON THE ABSENCE OF TYPHUS IN THE TROPICS, AND IN THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE EARTH. BY DR. M. In an interesting paper, this anonymous writer passes in review the various evidences found in writers which show that the European typhus is unknown, or almost so, in the tropics and in the Southern Hemisphere. He appears to be extremely well read in English literature, and draws many of his illustrations from English authors. He has not even omitted the late observations on the occurrence of three cases of typhoid fever in Burmah, by Mr. Scriven; * but he considers these to be doubtful. His conclusion is, that "Typhus is a disease only of the Northern temperate zone, and that its Southern limit is the isothermal line of 720 Fah.; it does not occur in the Southern temperate zone, or at any rate it is not endemic there."-Ibid.

* Medical Times and Gazette, Feb. 1854.

AT THE

NEW YORK MEDICAL COLLEGE.

(East Thirteenth Street, bet. Third and Fourth Avenues.)

HORACE GREEN, M. D., LL. D, Emeritus Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine, and Professor of Diseases of the Respiratory Organs.

E. H. DAVIS, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics.

B. FORDYCE BAKER, M. D., Professor of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children.

R. OGDEN DOREMUS, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence.

J. M. CARNOCHAN, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Operations of Surgery, with Surgical Pathology.

EDMUND R. PEASLEE, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Pathology.

EDWARD H. PARKER, M. D., Professor of General, Descriptive, and Microscopic Anatomy.
HENRY G. COX, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine, and of Clinical Medicine.
D. 8. CONANT, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.

The Summer Course of Lectures will commence on June 12, 1855, and will continue until Oct. 12, when the Winter Course will be resumed. The Summer Course will be entirely practical and clinical in its characters. Lectures will be delivered daily at the College or at the Hospital, by the following gentlemen:

On Therapeutics, by Prof. DAVIS.

On Puerperal Diseases, by Prof. BAKER.

On Practical Chemistry, by Prof. DOREMUS.

On the Surgical Operations of the Eye, by Prof. CARNOCHAN.

On the Microscope as applied to the Diagnosis of Diseases, by Prof. PARKER.

On Diseases of Children, by Prof. Cox.

On Auscultation and Percussion, by J. HANCOCK DOUGLASS, M. D.,

On Medical Jurisprudence, by DAVID UHL, M. D.

Prof. CARNOCHAN, Surgeon-in-Chief, and Prof. Cox, Physician-in-Chief, to the Emigrants' Hospital, which contains about 1500 beds, will visit the Hospital with the Students, and Clinical Lectures will be delivered there by them. Students of this College also can attend at the Bellevue Hospital, Blackwell's Island Hospitals, and the New York Hospital. At the College three Cliniques are held weekly-Surgical Clinique by Prof: CARNOCHAN, Medical Clinique by Prof. DAVIS and PARKER, and Clinique for Diseases of Women by Prof. BAKER. At the latter, every variety of Uterine diseases is exhibited to the class. Midwifery cases will be furnished to the Students to attend at the house of the patients.

The Class will be divided into sections to attend at the office of Prof. GREEN, where they will have an unequalled opportunity to witness the treatment of the Diseases of the Respiratory Organs. It will thus be seen that unsurpassed clinical opportunities are afforded for Students of this College.

Physical Diagnosis as applied to both Medical and Surgical Diseases, will receive especialy attention during the Summer Course.

Students are especially urged to avail themselves of the gratuitous instruction in Chemical Analysis, which will commence three weeks in advance of the Winter Course; opportunities for this practical knowledge, it is believed, are not afforded in any other Institution.

Dissections will be commenced as early as practicable, and an abundant supply of material will be furnished at the lowest rates.

TERMS:

For Summer and Winter Courses, inclusive,

For Winter Course alone,

For Summer Course alone,

$105
105

25

If Students attending the Summer course afterwards decide to attend the Winter Course, the $25 00 paid will be placed to their credit on taking out the tickets for the Winter Course. Matriculation Fee, $5 00.

Letters may be addressed to any member of the Faculty, or to

R. OGDEN DOREMUS, M. D., Dean of the Faculty.

New York Medical College, May 1, 1855.

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