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and some account of that celebrated minifter. Convention with Sweden, by which the French are admitted to the rights of denizenship, of establish, ing warehouses and factories, and of carrying on a free trade in Gottenburgh; in return for which, France cedes the West India island of St. Bartholomew to Sweden. Observations on that cefion. Spirit of civil liberty, of enquiry, of reform and improvement, with a disposition to the cultivation of useful arts, characteristics of the present times. Causes.Great improvements in Spain with respect to arts, manufactures, and agriculture ; measures pursued for the dissemination of useful knowledge, for improving the morals, and enlightening the minds of the people. Inquisition difarmed of its dangerous powers ; numerous patriotic focieties formed, and public schools instituted, under the patronage of the first nobility; carals and roads forming ; subscriptions for conveying water to large districts desolate through its want. King successfully resumes the project of peopling and cultivating the Sierra Morena ; abolishes bull feafs ; reftritts the number of horses and mules to be used in the carriages of the nobility ; procures an accurate survey and charts of the coasts of the kingdom, as well as of the Straits of Magellan. Attention to naval force and to commerce. New East India company formed. Improvements in the adminiftration of colonial government. Intermarriages with the royal line of Portugal lay the foundation for an alliance between the latter and France. Patriarchal age, eminent qualities, and death of the celebrated Cardinal de Solis, Archbishop of Seville. Important reforms in the police of Portugal. Qucen forms the excellent resolution of never granting a pardon in any cale of asassination or deliberate murder ; which has already produced the happieft effe&ts. Excellent regulation of taking up the idle and disolute throughout the kingdom, and of applying them, at the expence, er under the care of government, to proper labour. Improvements in agriculture attempted; climate and soil unfavourable to corn. Political observations on the intermarriages with Spain, and on the new alliances with the house of Bourbon.-Italy. Noble act of Pious the Vlth, in his

generaus endeavours to drain the Pontine marshes.-Naples. Disposition of the king to naval affairs, and to the forming of a marine force. Grand Duke of Tuscany. Regulation in Florence for the disposal of the dead in a common cemetery, causes great discontent.


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Retrospective view continued.--Venice. War with Tunis.-- Germany. Dif

appointment in the Emperor's commercial views. Failure of the Afiatic company. Ancient crown and'regalia of Hungary removed from Presburgh to Vienna. Archduke Maximilian succeeds to the electorate of Cologn, Admirable improvements in the ecclefiaftical electorates. Pastoral letter from the elector of Triers. Death of the Landgrave of Heffe Cafel. _Turkey. Nezu prophet. Some account of the Sheich Mansour. Porte obliged to procure a peace for the Emperor's subjects with the Barbary ftates. Perfian physician constructs a balloon at Constantinople, and as cends successfully into the air, with two others, in the presence of the court



and city. Nobly rewarded by the Grand Signior. Proffered services of a
celebrated aeronaut, about the same time, reje&ted by the Emperor and the
king of Pruffia. All attempts of the fort forbidden in the Russian empire.

-Demark. Prince Royal displaying uncommon early abilities, is declared
major. Unexpected revolution in the ministry, and wijdom with which it
was condueted. Neze council or administration formed under the auspices
of the prince. Queen Dowager presented with the royal castle of Frede-
ricksburgh, in Holstein, to which she retires. Prince jupports with luftre
the early hopes formed of his talents and virtues.

Becomes the encourager
I of literature, and patron of learned men. Liberal and successful attempt

to recover the antiquities, and to procure materials for establishing the bil-
tory of the northern nations. Succession of irregular jeajons, with violent
Shocks of the earth, extraordinary commotions in the heavens, and other na-
'tural evils, produce great calamities to mankind in various parts of the
world. Peftilence desolates the coasts of the Levant with unexampled ma-
lignity. Failure of harvests in Europe. Many parts of Italy, Hungary,
Germany, and France, desolated through the inundations of their great ri-

Prince Leopold of Brunswick unfortunately perishes in the Oder.
Famine and distresses of every kind prevail in the northern'kingdoms. Rulia
refuses the ftipulated supply of grain 10 Sreden from Livonia, which in-
creases the calamity of that country. Complicated distrefjes af Norway.
Unexampled destruction, and calamity of Iceland.



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Neither the danger of foreign war, nor the resignation of the duke of Brun-

wick, serve in any degree to ullay the ferment in Holland, or to restore
tranquillity to the Stadtholder's government. Great point gained by the
adverse party, in procuring a French General to command the armies of the
Republic. Some account of the Marshal de Maillebois. Short view of
the origin and history of that celebrated republican party, which has sub-
fifted in Holland from the days of Prince Maurice to the present time.
Motives on both sides for the close connection which generally subfifted be-
tween that party and France. Late war with England, and its confe-
quences, afforded the means for that party to become again formidable.
General charges against the Stadt holder with respect to the conduct of that
war, and the answers made to them. Repeatedly challenges them to the
proof. Their views answered by supporting and spreading the clamour and
jealousy. Specific enquiry into the conduet of the navy, after a long and
tedious course of proceeding, produces nothing equal to the public expectation.
Various causes which concurred at this time to raise the republican prit
to the highest pitch in that country. Injudicious measure of placing arms
in the hands of the burghers, producës effects little expected or wished by
the leaders of the party, and causes great innovations in the government of
many, towns. Peculiar advantages polessed by the adverse party over
shoje on the Orange fide. Great legal, official, and natural powers, and
ryources, polesed by the Prince Stadtholder. Violent measure of deporing
the Prince from the government of the Hague. Prince and family aban-


don the Hague. Ineffetual interposition of the late King of Prusia. 14dicious measure of the Prince Stadtholder in retiring to Guelderland. 17jemblage of the States of Holland and Weft Friezeland at the Hague. Riot on opening the Stadtholder's gate. Violent disenfions and great preparations for defence or war, in the city of Utrecht. Large subscriptions for supporting the armed burghers and volunteers. Republic convuljed in all its parts. Great debates in the assembly of the States of Holland and West Friezeland, on the question for restoring the Stadiholder to the government of the Hague. Question loft by a fingle vote. Spirited letter, immediately upon his accefJion, from the prejent King of Prussia in behalf of the Staatholder, conveyed by his minister of state, the Baron de Goerts. Little effect produced by the King's representations. Memorial from the Court of Versailies, not only disclaiming all interference herself in the government of the republic, but declaring her intention to prevent their being disturbed by that of others. Refraktory burgbers of Elbourg and Hattem reduced by the Stadtholder, under the orders of the States of Guelderland. Violent ferment on the taking of these towns. States of Holland jujpend the Stadíholder from all the functions appertaining to his office of Captain General within their province ; and discharge the troops from their military oath to obey his orders,


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Opening of the third session of parliament. Amendment moved upon the ad

dress in both houses, and negatived without a division. Mr. Fox's observations on the king's speech on the state of foreign alliances--treaty between France and the United Provinces---Germanic league-treaty with Rusiacommercial treaty with France-preposterous mode of conducting the public business-Irish propositions-affairs of India. Mr. Pitt's reply; his observations on Mr. Fox's dexterity in debate ; his account of the Russian treaty and German confederacy; his opinion respecting the connection between Hanover and Great Britain ; defence of his India bill; flourishing state of the revenues. Remarks by Mr. Fox on the minister's opinion concerning the political connection between Great Britain and Hanover.

Ma. jer Scott calls on Mr. Burke to bring forward his charges against Mr. Hastings. Mr. Burke relates in reply an anecdote of the duke of Parma. Grand debate on the duke of Richmond's proposed fortification of the dockyards. Instructions to the board of land and jea-oficers, and extracts from their report. Mr. Pitt's motion and arguments in support of the plan proposed, as necesary, as best adapted to their purpose, as tending to increase the effečts of our naval force, and to reduce the army. Amendment to Mr. Pitt's motion by Mr. Bastard and Sir William Lemon. Mr. Sheridan's Speech in favour of the amendment ; first be shews that the plan proposed was dangerous to the constitution ; he denies it would reduce the standing army, and if it did, be proves that in the same proportion it would increase its power'; zdly, he denies that it is sanktioned by the report of the board of officers, the extraets from the report prove the members were not agreed; the report it self founded on hypothetical suggestions from the master general, Mr. Pitt's motion rejected by the cafting vote of the speaker.


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Mr. Pitt's motion with respect to the reduction of the national debt.-Report

of a seleet committee relative to the annual income and expenditure of the state.
- Supplies and ways and means for the current year.-Bill brought in by
Mr. Pitt to form a sinking fund of one million annually, to be vested in com-
miffioners, and to be applied to the reduction of the national debt; debates,
thereon ; resolutions moved by Mr. Sheridan negatived ; an amendment Mr. Fox, and agreed to without a division ; the Bill passes both

houses of parliament, and receives the royal asent.--Mr. Pitt's Bill for

transferring the duties on wines from the customs to. the excise ; debates

thereon ; a new clause, moved by Mr. Beaufoy, negatived; the bill car-

ried up to the house of lords ; debates upon it there ; passed. Mr. Pitt's

Bill, empowering commisioners to enquire into the state of, and to sell, the crown

lands ; debates thereon ; amendments moved by Mr. Jolliffe agreed to ;

the Bill carried up to the lords ; debates, thereon ; carried on a divi-

fron ; proteft entered against it.Bill brought in by Mr. Marsham to ex-

tend the disqualifications in Mr. Crewe's Bill to persons holding places

under the navy and ordnance offices ; debates thereon ; negatived on a di-



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Accufation of Mr. Haffings. --Speech of Mr. Burke on opening that business

in the house of commons ; he gives the reasons for his undertaking it ;
reminds the house of their former proceedings ; ftates three different modes
of accusation, prosecution in the courts below, bill of pains and penalties,
impeachment ; objection to the two former modes ; his plan of conducting
the last ; general observations on the whole ; he moves for a variety of In-
dia papers and documents ; debates thereon ; Mr. Dundas's defence of him-
Jelf ; Mr. Pitt's argument on the same fide; answer to objeétions by Mr.
Burke ; rights and privileges of an accufer ; the production of papers rela-
tive to the treaties with ihe Mahrattas and the Mogul objected to, on the
ground of disclofing dangerous fecrets ; answer to that objection; papers
refused on a division ; motion renewed by Mr. Fox, and rejetted. Mr. Burke
delivers in twenty-two articles of charge against Mr. Hastings ; Mr. Haft-
ings petiti ns to be heard in his own defence ; conversation thereon ; Mr.
Hastings heard at the bar ; bis defence laid on the table: firft charge, re-
setting the Rohilla war, moved by Mr. Burke ; his introductory Speech; lif

of speakers on both sides; charge rejected on a division: second charge, re-

specting Benares, moved by Mr. Fox; fupported by Mr. Pitt ; carried by a

"large majority; indecent reflections of Mr. Hastings's friends thereupon.


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c H A P.



Rusia.-Magnificence of the Court of Petersburgh.Expeditions of discovery

by land and sea, to the yet-unexplored parts of the empire. --Small colony of

Christians discovered in the wilds of Caucasus.--New canal for opening

an inland navigation between the Caspian Sea and the Baltic.--Com-

mercial treaty with the Emperor.-Similar treaties in negociation with

France and other nations. Old commercial treaty with England suffered to

expire without renewal.Some observations on that circumstance, and on

the change which seems to have taken place in the Empress's political

bystem.--War with the Tartars.--Inequality of the contending parties.-

Brave and obftinate resistance notwithstanding made.--Prince of Hesse

Rhinfels killed. -Tartar chief, with his fons and nephew taken prisoners.

-Cuban Tartary desolated.--The new prophet, Sheich Mansour, defeated.

Empress announces ber intention of making a progress to Cherson and the

Crimea. Extraordinary preparations for rendering the procesion Superbly

magnificent. The intelligence of this intended progress and design, instead

of terrifying the Tartars, occasions a stricter union and general confederacy

among them; fhezu unusual judgment in seizing the gorges and defiles of

the mountains, and interrupting the Russian communications.- Victory

gained by the Tartars in the autumn of 1786, on the fide of Caucafus.-

Some of the apparent consequences of that event; and particularly its effe &

with respect to the intended progress.-Georgians forely pressed by the

Leighis Tartars.-Court of Petersburgh vents its indignation on the Porte,

as the cause of all these untoward events. Some jealousies entertained by the

Chinese.- Death of Kienlong, the excellent Emperor of China.-Singular

bank established by the Empress at Petersburgh.-Russian troops fent into

Courland, in order to support the freedom of election in case of the Duke's

death.Turkey.- Appeal from the Grand Signior to his subjects, and to

all true Musulmen, on the differences with Rusia, the treatment he has re-

ceived, and calling upon ihem to be in preparation for the expected confe-

quences.- Preparations for placing the empire in a formidable state of

defence.-Troubles in Egypt.-- Captain Packa's expedition to that country;

defeats Murat Bey in two battles, and takes Grand Cairo.- Porte does

not relax in its endeavours, notwithstanding the critical state of public

affairs, to introduce the arts and sciences in that empire ; orders a trans-

lation of the French Encyclopediæ.-Emperor's conduct with respect to

Ruffia and the Porte. - Engaged still in a multiplicity of internal regula-

tions.Abrogation of the old laws, and establishment of a new code.

Ecclefiaftical reforms.-Suppresion of religious boules. —Number of the

conventual clergy already reduced.-German prelacy join the Emperor in

rehfting the interference of the court of Rome in their ecclefiaftical and

metropolitan government.--Elector of Mentz and Archbishop of Salızbourg

apply to the Emperor, to prevent a nuncio's arrival at the court of


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