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and some account of that celebrated minister. Convention with Sweden, by which the French are admitted to the rights of denizenship, of eftablish, ing warehouses and fa£tories, and of carrying on a free trade in Gottenburgh; in return for which, France cedes the West India island of St. Bartholomew to Sweden. Observations on that ceffion. Spirit of civil liberty, of enquiry, of reform and improvement, with a disposition to the cultivation of useful arts, characteristics of the present times. Causes.Great improvements in Spain with respect to arts, manufactures, and agriculture; measures pursued for the dissemination of useful knowledge, for improving the morals, and enlightening the minds of the people. Inquisition disarmed of its dangerous powers; numerous patriotic focieties formed, and public schools instituted, under the patronage of the first nobility; canals and roads forming ; subscriptions for conveying water to large districts desolate through its want. King successfully resumes the project of peopling and cultivating the Sierra Morena ; abolishes bull feafts ; reftritts the number of horses and mules to be used in the carriages of the nobility; procures an accurate survey and charts of the coasts of the kingdom, as well as of the Straits of Magellan. Attention to naval force and to com. merce. New East India company formed. Improvements in the adminiftration of colonial government. Intermarriages with the royal line of Portugal lay the foundation for an alliance between the latter and France. Patriarchal age, eminent qualities, and death of the celebrated Cardinal de Solis, Archbishop of Seville. Important reforms in the police of Portugal. Qucen forms the excellent resolution of never granting a pardon in any case of ajafination or deliberate murder ; which has already produced i be happiest effeéts. Excellent regulation of taking up the idle and dissolute throughout the kingdom, ard of applying them, at the expence, er under the care of government, to proper labour. Improvements in agriculture attempted ; climate and foil unfavourable to corn.
Political observations on the intermarriages with Spain, and on the new alliances with the house of Bourbon.-Italy. Noble act of Pious the Vlth, in his
genereus endeavours to drain the Pontine marshes.- Naples. Disposition of the king to naval affairs, and to the forming of a marine force. Grand Duke of Tuscany. Regulation in Florence for the disposal of the dead in a common cemetery, caufes great discontent.
Retrospettive view continued.-Venice. War with Tunis.- Germany. Dif
appointment in the Emperor's commercial views. Failure of the Afatic company. Ancient crown and 'regalia of Hungary removed from Presburgh to Vienna. Archduke Maximilian fucceeds to the ele£torate of Cologn, Admirable improvements in the ecclefiaftical electorates. Pastoral letter from the elector of Triers. Death of the Landgrave, of Helle Cafel.
Turkey. New prophet. Some account of the Sheich Manjour. Porte obliged to procure a peace for the Emperor's subjeets with the Barbary ftates. Perfan physician constructs a balloon at Conftantinople, and alcends successfully into the air, with two others, in the presence of the court
and city. Nobly rewarded by the Grand Signior. Proffered services of a
celebrated aeronaut, about the same time, rejected by the Emperor and the
king of Prufia. All attempts of the fort forbidden in the Russian empire.
--Demark. Prince Royal displaying uncommon early abilities, is declared
major. Unexpected revolution in the ministry, and wijdom with which it
was conducted. New council or administration formed under the auspices
of the prince. Queen Dozvager presented with the royal castle of Frede->
ricksburgh, in Holstein, to which she retires. Prince jupports with luftre
the early hopes formed of his talents and virtues.
Becomes the encourager
1 of literature, and patron of learned men. Liberal and successful attempt
to recover the antiquities, and to procure materials for establishing the bif-
tory of the northern nations. Succession of irregular jeajons, with violent
jocks of the earth, extraordinary commotions in the heavens, and other na-
tural evils, produce great calamities to mankind in various parts of the
world. Pestilence desolates the coasts of the Levant with unexampled ma-
lignity. Failure of harvests in Europe. Many parts of Italy, Hungary,
Germany, and France, desolated through the inundations of their
Prince Leopold of Brunswick unfortunately perijbes in the Oder.
Famine and distrelses of every kind prevail in the northern kingdoms. Ruffia
refuses the flipulated supply of grain 10 Sreden from Livona, which in-
creases the calamity of that country. Complicated distresses of Norway.
Unexampled destruction, and calamity of Iceland.
Neither the danger of foreign war, nor the resignation of the duke of Brun/-
wick, serve in any degree to ullay the ferment in Holland, or to restore
tranquillity to the Stadtholder's government. Great point gained by the
adverse party, in procuring a French General to command the armies of the
Republic. Some account of the Marshal de Maillebors. Short view of
the origin and history of that celebrated republican party, which has sub-
lifted in Holland from the days of Prince Maurice to the present time.
Motives on both fides for the close connection which generally Jubfifted be-
tween that party and France. Late war with England, and its conse-
quences, afforded the means for that party to become again formidable.
General charges against the Stadtholder with respect to the conduct of that
war, and the answers made to them. Repeatedly challenges them to the
proof. Their views answered by supporting and spreading the clamour and
jealousy. Specific enquiry into the conduet of the navy, after a long and
tedious course of proceeding, produces nothing equal to the public expcétation.
Various causes which concurred at this time to raise the republican spirit
to the highest pitch in that country. Injudicious measure of placing arms
in the hands of the burghers, produces effects little expected or wijired by
the leaders of the party, and causes great innovations in the gove“nment of
many toruns. Peculiar advantages podefjed by the adverte party over
those on the Orange side. Great legal, official, and natural powers, and
Tryources, palefed by the Prince Stadtholder. Violent meajure of deponing
the Prince from the government of the Hague. Prince and family aban-
Ε Ν Τ
T den the Hague. Ineffectual interposition of the late King of Pruffia. Judicious measure of the Prince Stadtholder in retiring to Guelderland. Asemblage of the States of Holland and West Friezeland at the Hague. Riot on opening the Stadtholder's gate. Violent dissenfions and great preparations for defence or war, in the city of Utrecht. Large subscriptions for supporting the armed burghers and volunteers. Republic convuljed in all its parts. Great debates in the assembly of the States of Holland and West Friezeland, on the question for restoring the Stadi holder to the government of the Hague, Question loft by a fingle vote. Spirited letter, immediately upon his accesfron, from the prejent King of Prussia in behalf of the Stadtholder, •veyed by his minijter of state, the Baron de Goerts. Little effe&t produced by the King's representations. Memorial from the Court of Versailies, not only disclaiming all interference berself in the government of the republic, but declaring her intention to prevent their being disturbed by that of others. Refraktory burgbers of Elbourg and Hattem reduced by the Stadtholder, under the orders of the States of Guelderland. Violent ferment on the taking of these towns. States of Holland Jujpend the Stadtholder from all the functions appertaining to his office of Captain General within their province ; and discharge the troops from their military oath to obey his orders,
Opening of the third session of parliament. Amendment moved upon the ad
dress in both houses, and negatived without a division. Mr. Fox's obfervations on the king's Speech on the state of foreign alliances-treaty between France and the United Provinces-Germanic league-treaty with Rufia-commercial treaty with France-preposterous mode of conducting the public business -Irish propositions-affairs of India. Mr. Pitt's reply ; his observations on Mr. Fox's dexterity in debate ; his account of the Rufian treaty and German confederacy; his opinion respecting the connection between Hanover and Great Britain; defence of his India bill; flourishing state of the revenues. Remarks by Mr. Fox on the minister's opinion concerning the political connection between Great Britain and Hanover. Major Scott calls on Mr. Burke to bring forward his charges against Mr. Hastings. Mr. Burke relates in reply an anecdote of the duke of Parma. Grand debate on the duke of Richmond's proposed fortification of the dockyards. Instructions to the board of land and jea-oficers, and extracts from their report. Mr. Pitt's motion and arguments in support of the plan proposed, as necessary, as best adapted to their purpose, as tending to increase the effects of our naval force, and to reduce the army. Amendment to Mr. Pitt's motion by Mr. Bastard and Sir William Lemon. Mr. Sheridan's Speech in favour of the amendment ; first be Shewus that the plan proposed was dangerous to the constitution ; he denies it would reduce the standing army, and if it did, he proves that in the same proportion it would increase its power; zdly, he denies that it is fanétioned by the report of the board of officers, the extracts from the report prove the members were not agreed; the report itself founded on hypothetical juggestions from the master general. Mr. Pitt's motion rejected by the coffing vote of the speaker.
Debate in the house of lords on the new clàuse in the mutiny bill for subject-
ing officers by črevet to the military law; amendment proposed by lords
Carlisle and Stormont'; ' reje&ted on a division ; question started, whether an
officer could resign bis commision at pleasure ; opinions of the lord chan-
cellor and lord Loughborough.
Mr. Pitt's motion with respect to the reduction of the national debt.-Report
of a fele&t committee relative to the annual income and expenditure of the state.
-Supplies and ways and means for the current year.-Bill brought in by
Mr. Pitt to form a sinking fund of one million annually, to be vested in com-
missioners, and to be applied to the reduction of the national debt; debates,
thereon ; resolutions moved by Mr. Sheridan negatived ; an amendment
moved.by Mr. Fox, and agreed to without a division; the Bill paljes both
houses of parliament, and receives the royal affent. ---Mr. Pitt's Bill for
transferring the duties on wines from the customs to the excise ; debates
thereon; a new clause, moved by Mr. Beaufoy, negatived; the bill car-
ried up to the house of lords ; debates upon it there ; passed.-Mr. Pitt's
Bill, empowering commissioners to enquire into the state
of, and to sell, the crown
lands; debates thereon ; amendments moved by Mr. Jolliffe agreed to ;
the Bill carried up to the lords ; debates, thereon ; carried on a divi-
fron ; protest entered against it.-Bill brought in by Mr. Marsham to exa
tend the disqualifications in Mr. Crewe's Bill to persons holding places
under the navy and ordnance offices ; debates thereon ; negatived on a di-
Accufation of Mr. Hastings.-Speech of Mr. Burke on opening that busine's
in the house of commons ; he gives the reasons for his undertaking it ;
reminds the house of their former proceedings ; ftates three different modes
of accusation, prosecution in the courts below, bill of pains and penalties,
impeachment ; objection to the two former modes ; his plan of conducting
the last ; general observations on the whole ; he moves for a variety of In-
dia papers and documents ; debates thereon ; Mr. Dundas's defence of him-
Jelf ; Mr. Pitt's argument on the fame fide; answer to objections by Mr.
Burke ; rights and privileges of an accufer ; the production of papers rela-
tive to the treaties with the Mahrattas and the Mogul objected to, on the
ground of disclosing dangerous fecrets ; answer to that objection; papers
refused on a division ; motion renewed by Mr. Fox, and rejetted. Mr. Burke
delivers in twenty-two articles of charge against Mr. Haffings ; Mr. Hasta
ings petiti ns to be heard in his own defence ; conversation thereon ; Mr.
Hastings heard at the bar ; his defence laid on the table: first charge, re-
Secting the Rohilla war, moved by Mr. Burke ; his introductory speech; lift
of speakers on both fides; charge rejected on a division: second charge, re-
Ipecting Benares, moved by Mr. Fox; fupported by Mr. Pitt; carried by a
large majority; indecent refle&tions of Mr. Hastings's friends thereupon.
Mr. Dundas's Bill for amending the India a&t of 1784; its arbitrary
principles strongly opposed ; defended by Mr. Dundas; pafjes both houses.
-King's speech.--Parliament prorogued.
Rufia.-Magnificence of the Court of Petersburgh.-Expeditions of discovery
by land and fea, to the yet-unexplored parts of the empire.-Small colony of
Christians discovered in the wilds of Caucasus.—New canal. for opening
an inland navigation between the Caspian Sea and the Baltic.-Com-
mercial treaty with the Emperor.—Similar treaties in negociation with
France and other nations. Old commercial treaty with England suffered to
expire without renewal.--Some observations on that circumstance,' and on
the change which seems to have taken place in the Empress's political
1ystem.-War with the Tartars.-Inequality of the contending parties.-
Brave and obstinate resistance notwithstanding made.-Prince of Helse
Rhinfels killed.--Tartar chief, with his fons and nephew taken prisoners.
-Cuban Tartary desolated. The new propbet, Sheich Mansour, defeated.
- Empress announces her intention of making a progress to Cherson and the
Crimea.-- Extraordinary preparations for rendering the procefron superbly
magnificent.—The intelligence of this intended progress and design, instead
of terrifying the Tartars, occasions a strieter union and general confederacy
among them; sheru unusual judgment in seizing the gorges and defiles of
the mountains, and interrupting the Rilian communications.-Victory
gained by the Tartars in the autumn of 1786, on the side of Caucasus.
Some of the apparent consequences of that event; and particularly its effe Et
with respect to the intended progress.-Georgians forely preled by the
Leghis Tartars.--Court of Peterburgh vents its indignation on the Porte,
as the cause of all these untoward events.- Some jealousies entertained by the
Chinese. ---Death of Kienlong, the excellent Emperor of China.--Singular
bank established by the Empress at Petersburgh.-Rusian troops sent into
Courland, in order to support the freedom of ele&tion in case of the Duke's
death.--Turkey.-- Appeal from the Grand Signior to his subjects, and to
all true Musulmen, on the differences with Rusia, the treatment he has re-
ceived, and calling upon them to be in preparation for the expe£ted conse-
quences.- Preparations for placing the empire in a formidable state of
defence.--Troubles in Egypt.--Captain Pacha's expedition to that country;
-defeats Murat Bey in two battles, and takes Grand Cairo.- Porte does
not relax in its endeavours, notwithstanding the critical state of public
affairs, to introduce the arts and sciences in that empire ; orders a trans-
lation of the French Encyclopedia.-Emperor's conduct with respect to
Russia and the Porte.-Engaged still in a multiplicity of internal regula-
tions.—Abrogation of the old laws, and establishment of a new code.-
Ecclefiaftical reforms.--Supprefion of religious houses.-Number of the
conventual clergy already reduced.--German prelacy join the Emperor in
relifting the interference of the court of Rome in their ecclefiaftical and
metropolitan government.--Elector of Mentz and Archbishop of Saltzbourg
apply to the Emperor, to prevent a nuncio's arrival at the court of