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beginning four or five times, for Indians of America differed from offering to disturb or take him up; other males of the human species in but gentle chastisement having soon the want of one very characteristic corrected these little passions, I af- mark of the sex, to wit, that of a terwards gave him the liberty of my beard. From this general observabed-chamber. Towards night he tion, the Esquimaux have been ex. would rub his eyes, then looking cepted; and hence it has been supattentively round, would walk upon posed, that they had an origin diffethe furniture, or oftener upon ropes rent from that of the other natives that I had placed on purpose. of America. Inferences have also

A little milk, or very juicy fruits, been drawn, not only with respect to were not disagreeable to him ; but the origin, but even relative to the this was a laft resource, he was only conformation of Indians, as if this fond of small birds and all sorts of was in its nature more imperfect infects. If he beheld game of this than that of the rest of mankind. kind, which I used to tie at the part It appears somewhat singular that of the chamber opposite to him, or authors, in deducing the origin both thew him and invite him to me, he of the Esquimaux and of the other would presently approach with a Indians of America from the old long careful step, like a person world, should never have explained walking on tip-toe going to sur to us how the former came to retain prise another. When he was with- their beards, and the latter to lay in a foot of his prey, he would stop, them aside. To ascertain the auand raising himself upright, ad, thenticity of this point may pervance gently, stretching out his haps prove of little real utility to arm, then at once seizing, would mankind; but the fingularity of the strangle it with remarkable cele- fact certainly claims the attention lerity.

of the curious : and as it is imposThis little animal perished by fible to fix any limits to the infeaccident. He appeared much at rences which may at one time or anotached to me; it was my custom to ther be drawn from alledged facts, caress him, especially after feeding: it must always be of consequence to his return of affection consisted in enquire into the authenticity of taking the end of my fingers, pres- thoie facts, how little interesting fing them to his bosóm, and fixing foever they may at present appear, his eyes half open upon mine." I will not by any means take

upon me to say that there are not

nations of America destitute of Particulars relative to the Nature and beards; but ten years residence at

Cuftoms of the Indians of North, Niagara, in the midst of the Six-NaAmerica, By Mr. Richard tions (with frequent opportunities of M'Caufland, Surgeon to the King's seeing other nations of Indians) has or Eighth Regiment of Foot. Com- convinced me, that they do not difmunicated by Joseph Planta, Esq. fer from the rest of men,

in this Sec. R. S. From Vol. LXXVI. of particular, more than one European the Philosophical Transactions.

differs from another; and as this T has been advanced by several imperfection has been attributed to travellers and historians that the the Indians of North America,




equally with those of the rest of the Colonel Butler, deputy superintenContinent, I am much inclined to dant of Indian affairs, well known think, that this assertion is as void in the late American war, whose of foundation in one region as it is great and extensive influence ain the other.

mongst the Six-Nations could not
All the Indians of North America have been acquired by any thing
(except a very small number, who, less than his long and intimate
from living among white people, knowledge of them and their lan-
have adopted their customs) pluck guage. The other authority is that
out the hairs of the beard; and as of Thayendanega, commonly known
they begin this from its first appear- by the name of Captain Joseph
ance, it must naturally be supposed, Brant, a Mohock Indian of great
that to a superficial observer their influence, and much spoken of in
faces will seem smooth and beard- the late war. He was in England
less. As further proof that they in 1775, and writes and speaks the
have beards, we may observe, first, English language with tolerable ac.
that they all have an instrument for curacy. I shall therefore only sub-
the purpose of plucking them out. join their opinions upon this matter,
Secondly, that when they neglect the originals of which I have under
this for any time, several hairs their own signatures,
{prout up, and are seen upon the
chin and face. Thirdly, that many

Colonel BUTLER'S.
Indians allow tufts of hair to grow

The men of the Six-Nation In. upon their chins or upper lips, re

dians have all beards naturally, as sembling those we see in different have all the other nations of North nations of the old world. Fourthly, America which I have had an opthat several of the Mohocks, Delawares, and others, who live amongst Mohocks have with razors, as do

portunity of seeing. Several of the white people, sometimes have



of the Panees who with razors, and sometimes pluck their beards out. These are facts

are kept as slaves by the Europeans. which are notorious amongst the

But in general the Indians pluck out

the beard by the roots from its ear. army, Indian traders, &c.; and

lieft appearance ;

and as their faces which are never doubted in that

are therefore smooth, it has been part of the world by any person in supposed that they were deftitute of the least conversant' with Indians : beards. I am even of opinion, that but as it is difficult to transport a

if the Indians were to practise ihay. matter of belief from one country ing from their youth, many of them to another distant one, and as the would have as strong beards as Euauthors who have maintained the contrary opinion are too respectable


(Signed) to be doubted upon light grounds,

JOHN BUTLER, I by no means intend to rest the

Agent of India Affairs, proofs upon what has been said, or

Niagara, April 12, 1784. upon my single affertion.

I have provided myself with two authorities, which I apprehend may

Captain Brant's. in this case be decisive. One is The men of the Six-Nations


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have all beards by nature ; as have dian Captain Brant and Colonel likewise all other Indian nations of Burler. North America which I have seen. Each nation is divided into three Some Indians allow a part of the or more tribes; the principal of beard upon the chin and upper which are called the turtle-tribe, lip to grow, and a few of the Mo- the wolf-tribe, and the bear-tribe. hocks shave with razors in the same Each tribe has two, three, or more manner as Europeans; but the ge- chiefs, called Sachems; and this disa nerality pluck out the hairs of the tinction is always hereditary in the beard by the roots as soon as they family, but descends along the fe. begin to appear; and as they con male line : for instance, if a chief tinue this practice all their lives, dies, one of his sister's fons, or one they appear to have no beard, or at of his own brothers, will be apmost only a few ftraggling hairs pointed to succeed him. Among which they have neglected to pluck these no preference is given to out. I am however of opinion, that proximity or primogeniture; but if the Indians were to have they the Sachem, during his life-time, would never have beards altoge- pitches upon one whom he supposes ther so thick as the Europeans; and to have more abilities than the rest; there are some to be met with who and in this choice he frequently, have actually very little beard. though not always, consults the (Signed)

principal men of the tribe. If the Jos. Brant THAYENDANEGA. successor happens to be a child, the Niagara, April 19, 1783.

offices of the post are performed by

fome of his friends until he is of fufUpon this subject I shall only fur- ficient age to act himself. ther observe, that it has been sup Each of these posts of Sachem has posed by some, that this appear a name which is peculiar to it, ance of beard on Indians arises and which never changes, as it only from a mixture of European is always adopted by the successor; blood; and that an Indian of pure

nor does the order of precedency of race is entirely destitute of it. But each of these names or titles ever the nations amongst whom this cir- vary. Nevertheless, any Sachem, cumstance can have any influence, by abilities and activity, may acbear so small a proportion to the quire greater power and influence in multitude who are unaffected by it, the nation than those who rank be. that it cannot by any means be con fore him in point of precedency ; sidered as the cause ; nor is it looked but this is merely temporary, and upon as such, either by Captain dies with him. Brant or Colonel Butler.

Each tribe has one or two chief I fhall here subjoin a few particu- warriors, which dignity is also helars relative to the Indians of the reditary, and has a peculiar name Six-Nations, which, as they seemn attached to it. not to be well understood even in These are the only titles of disAmerica, are probably still lefs' tinction which are fixed and permaknown in Europe. My authori

My authori. nentin the nation ; for although any ties upon this subject, as well Indian may by superior talents, Bs upon the former, are the In- either as a counsellor or as a war

their own.

rior, acquire influence in the nation, at home (as it often happens that he yet it is not in his power to trans- is a child) he is still considered as mit this to his family.

the head of the party.

The belt he The Indians have also their great presented to his party is returned women as well as their great men, fixed to the scalp or prisoner, and to whose opinions they pay great passes along with them to the friends deference ; and this distinction is of the person he replaces. Hence also hereditary in families. They it happens, that a war party, redo not fit in council with the Sa- turning with more scalps or pri. chems, but have separate ones of foners than the original intention of

the party required, will often give When war is declared, the Sa- 'one of these supernumerary scalps chems and great women generally or prisoners to another war party give up the management of public whom they meet going out ; upon affairs into the hands of the war. which this party, having fulfilled riors. It may however so happen, the purpose of their expedition, that a Sachem may at the same time will sometimes return without gobe also a chief warrior.

ing to war. Friendships seem to have been instituted with a view towards ftrengthening the union between the Some particulars of the present ftate several nations of the confederacy ; of Mount Veluvius. Extracted and hence friends are called the

from a letter from Sir William finews of the Six-Nations. An

Hamilton, K. B. F. R. S. and Indian has therefore generally one A. S. to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart, or more friends in each nation. Be

P.R.S. From the same. fides the attachment which subfifts during the life-time of the two Naples, January 24, 1786. friends, whenever one of them happens to be killed, it is incumbent on , presenting to his family either a scalp, a prisoner, or a belt confift- month of November, 1784, nearly ing of some thousands of wampum ; at the moment of my return from and this ceremony is performed by England to this capital, and which every friend of the deceased. continued in some degree till about

The purpose and foundation of the zoth of last month, has afforded war parties therefore, is in general, much amusement to travellers unto procure a prisoner or scalp to re- acquainted with this wonderful opeplace the friend or relation of the ration of nature, but no new cirIndian who is the head of the party, cumstance that could justify my An Indian who wishes to replace a troubling you with a letter on the friend or relation presents a belt to subject. The lava either overflowed his acquaintance, and as many as

the rim of the crater, or issued from chuse to follow him accept this belt, small fissures on its borders, on that and become his party. After this, fide which faces the mountain of it is of no consequence whether he Somma, and ran more or less in one, goes on the expedition or remains and at times in three or four chan


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nels, regularly formed, down the quakes, or from the loose volcanic
flanks of the conical part of the foil's having been washed from un-
volcano ; sometimes descending and der their foundations by the torrents
spreading itself in the valley be- of rain-water from the high grounds
tween the two mountains ; and once, which surround Naples, and on
when the eruption was in its great- which a great part of the town itself
eft force, in the month of Novem- is built.
ber last, the lava descended still From the time of the last formi.
lower, and did some damage to the dable eruption of Mount Vesuvius,
vineyards, and cultivated parts at in August 1779 (described in one of
the foot of Veluvius, towards the my former communications to the
village of St. Seb stiano ; but ge- Royal Society) to this day, I have,
nerally the lava, not being abun- with the asistance of the Father
dant, stopped and cooled before it Antonio Piaggi*, kept an exact
was able to reach the valley. By diary of the operations of Vesuvius,
the accumulation of these lava's on with drawings, thewing, by the
the flanks of Vesuvius, its form has quantity of smoke, the degrees of
been greatly altered ; and by the fermentation of the volcano ; also
frequent explofion of scoriæ and ash- the course of the lava’s during this
es, a considerable mountain has last eruption, and the changes that
been formed within the crater, have been made in the form of the
which now rising much above its mountain itself by the lava's and
rim has likewise given that part of scoriæ that have been ejected. This
the mountain a new appearance. journal is becoming very curious
Just before I left Naples, in May and interesting; it is remarkably
1783, I was at the top of Vesuvius. fo with respect to the pointing out
The crater was certainly then more : a variety of fingular effects that
than 250 feet deep, and was im- different currents of air have upon
practicable, its fides being nearly the smoke that issues from the cra-
perpendicular. This eruption, how- ter of Vesuvius, elevated (as you
ever, has been as fatisfactory as know, Sir) more than 3600 feet
could be desired by the inhabitants above the level of the sea ; but,
of this city, a prodigious quantity except the smoke increasing confi-
of lava having been disgorged; derably and constantly when the sea
which matter, confined within the is agitated, and the wind blows
bowels of the earth, would proba- from that quarter, the operations of
bly have occasioned tremors; and Vesuvius appear to be very caprici-
even slight ones might prove fatal ous and uncertain. One day there
to Naples, whose houses are, in ge- will be the appearance of a violent
neral, very high, ill built, and a fermentation, and the next all is
great number in almost every street calmed again: but whenever the
already supported by props, having smoke has been attended with con-
either fuffered by former earth- fiderable ejections of scoria and

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* This Padre Antonio Piaggi is the ingenious Monk who invented the method of unfolding and recovering the burnt ancient manuscripts of Hercula, neum, and who resides constantly at Resina, at the foot, and in full view, of Mount Vesuvius.


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