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beginning four or five times, for Indians of America differed from offering to disturb or take him up; other males of the human species in but gentle chastisement having soon the want of one very characteristic corrected these little passions, I af- mark of the sex, to wit, that of a terwards gave him the liberty of my beard. From this general observabed-chamber. Towards night he tion, the Esquimaux have been exwould rub his eyes, then looking cepted; and hence it has been supattentively round, would walk upon posed, that they had an origin diffethe furniture, or oftener upon ropes rent from that of the other natives that I had placed on purpose. of America. Inferences have also

A little milk, or very juicy fruits, been drawn, not only with respect to were not disagreeable to him ; but the origin, but even relative to the this was a last resource, he was only conformation of Indians, as if this fond of small birds and all sorts of was in its nature more imperfect infects. If he beheld game of this than that of the rest of mankind. kind, which I used to tie at the part It appears somewhat singular that of the chamber opposite to him, or authors, in deducing the origin both fhew him and invite him to me, he of the Esquimaux and of the other would presently approach with a Indians of America from the old long careful step, like a person world, should never have explained walking on tip-toe going to sur- to us how the former came to retain prise another. When he was with- their beards, and the latter to lay in a foot of his prey, he would stop, them aside. To ascertain the auand raising himself upright, ad, thenticity of this point may pervance gently, stretching out his haps prove of little real utility to arm, then at once seizing, would mankind; but the fingularity of the strangle it with remarkable cele- fact certainly claims the attention lerity.

of the curious : and as it is imposThis little animal perished by fible to fix any limits to the infeaccident. He appeared much at- rences which may at one time or anotached to me; it was my custom to ther be drawn from alledged facts, caress him, especially after feeding: it mult always be of consequence to his return of affection consisted in enquire into the authenticity of taking the end of my fingers, pref- thole facts, how little interesting fing them to his bosom, and fixing foever they may at present appear, his eyes half

I will not by any means take upon me to say that there are not

nations of America destitute of Particulars relative to the Nature and beards; but ten years residence at

Cuftoms of the Indians of North, Niagara, in the midst of the Six-NaAmerica, By Mr. Richard tions (with frequent opportunities of M'Causand, Surgeon to the King's seeing other nations of Indians) has or Eighth Regiment of Foot. Come convinced me, that they do not difmunicated by Joseph Planta, Esq. fer from the rest of men, in this Sec. R. S. From Vol

. LXXVI.of particular, more than one European the Philosophical Tranfactions.

differs from another; and as this T has been advanced by several imperfection has been attributed to travellers and historians that the the Indians of North America,


open upon mine."


that to

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equally with those of the rest of the Colonel Butler, deputy fuperintenContinent, I am much inclined to dant of Indian affairs, well known think, that this assertion is as void in the late American war, whose of foundation in one region as it is great and extensive influence 4in the other,

mongst the Six-Nations could not All the Indians of North America have been acquired by any thing (except a very small number, who, less than his long and intimate from living among white people, knowledge of them and their lanhave adopted their customs) pluck guage. The other authority is that out the hairs of the beard; and as of Thayendanega, commonly known they begin this from its first appear- by the name of Captain Joseph ance, it must naturally be supposed, Brant, a Mohock Indian of great

a superficial observer their influence, and much spoken of in faces will seem smooth and beard the late war. He was in England less. As further proof that they in 1775, and writes and speaks the have beards, we may observe, first, English language with tolerable ac. that they all have an instrument for curacy. I all therefore only subthe purpose of plucking them out. join their opinions upon this matter, Secondly, that when they neglect the originals of which I have under this for any time, several hairs their own signatures, {prout up, and are seen upon the chin and face. Thirdly, that many Colonel BUTLER'S. Indians allow tufts of hair to grow

The men of the Six-Nation In. upon their chins or upper lips, re

dians have all beards naturally, as sembling those we see in different have all the other nations of North nations of the old world. Fourthly, America which I have had an opthat several of the Mohocks, Delawares, and others, who live amongst Mohocks have with razors, as do

portunity of seeing. Several of the white people, sometimes have

likewise of the Panees who

many with razors, and sometimes pluck are kept as slaves by the Europeans. their beards out. which are notorious amongst the But in general the Indians pluck out

the beard by the roots from its eararmy, Indian traders, &c.; and

lieft which are never doubted in that

appearance; and as their faces

are therefore smooth, it has been part of the world by any person in the least conversant with Indians: supposed that they were destitute of but as it is difficult to transport a

beards. I am even of opinion, thar matter of belief from one country ing from their youth, many of them

if the Indians were to practise ihavto another distant one, and as the would have as strong beards as Euauthors who have maintained the

contrary opinion are too respectable
to be doubted upon light grounds,

I by no means intend to rest the

John BUTLER, proofs upon what has been said, or Niagara, April 12, 1784.

Agent of India Affairs, upon my fingle affertion.

I have provided myself with two aythorities, which I apprehend may

Captain Brant's.
in this case be decisive. One is

The men of the Six-Nations
E 3


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have all beards by nature; as have dian Captain Brant and Colonel likewise all other Indian nations of Burler. North America which I have seen. Each nation is divided into three Some Indians allow a part of the or more tribes; the principal of beard upon the chin and upper which are called the turtle-tribe, lip to grow, and a few of the Mo. the wolf-tribe, and the bear-tribe. hocks shave with razors in the same Each tribe has two, three, or more manner as Europeans; but the ge- chiefs, called Sachems; and this disa nerality pluck out the hairs of the tinction is always hereditary in the beard by the roots as soon as they family, but descends along the fe. begin to appear; and as they con- male line: for instance, if a chief tinue this practice all their lives, dies, one of his sister's fons, or one they appear to have no beard, or at of his own brothers, will be apmost only a few ftraggling hairs pointed to succeed him. Among which they have neglected to pluck these no preference is given to out. I am however of opinion, that proximity or primogeniture; but <if the Indians were to have they the Sachem, during his life-time, would never have beards altoge. pitches upon one whom he supposes ther so thick as the Europeans; and to have more abilities than the rest; there are some to be met with who and in this choice he frequently, have actually very little beard. though not always, consúlts the (Signed)

principal men of the tribe. If the Jos. Brant THAYENDANEGA. successor happens to be a child, the Niagara, April 19, 1783.

offices of the post are performed by

fome of his friends until he is of sufUpon this subject I shall only fur- ficient age to act himself. ther observe, that it has been sup- Each of these posts of Sachem has posed by some, that this appear- a name which is peculiar to it, ance of beard on Indians arises and which never changes, as it only from a mixture of European is always adopted by the successor; blood; and that an Indian of pure nor does the order of precedency of race is entirely destitute of it. But each of these names or titles ever the nations amongst whom this cir- vary. Nevertheless, any Sachem, cumstance can have any influence, by abilities and activity, may acbear so small a proportion to the quire greater power and influence in multitude who are unaffected by it, the nation than those who rank be. that it cannot by any means be con- fore him in point of precedency ; sidered as the cause; nor is it looked but this is merely temporary, and upon as such, either by Captain dies with him. Brant or Colonel Butler.

Each tribe has one or two chief I fhall here subjoin a few particu- warriors, which dignity is also helars relative to the Indians of the reditary, and has a peculiar name Six-Nations, which, as they feemn attached to it. not to be well understood even in These are the only titles of difAmerica, are probably still less' tinction which are fixed and permaknown in Europe. My authori. nent in the nation ; for although any ţies upon this subject, as well Indian may by superior talents, zs upon the former, are the In- either as a counsellor or as a war

their own.

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rior, acquire influence in the nation, at home (as it often happens that he yet it is not in his power to trans- is a child) he is still considered as mit this to his family.

the head of the party. The belt he The Indians have also their great presented to his party is returned women as well as their great men, fixed to the scalp or prisoner, and to whose opinions they pay great passes along with them to the friends deference ; and this distinction is of the person he replaces. Hence also hereditary in families. They it happens, that a war party, re. do not fit in council with the Sa- turning with more scalps or pri. chems, but have separate ones of soners than the original intention of

the party required, will often give When war is declared, the Sa- 'one of these fupernumerary scalps chems and great women generally or prisoners to another war party give up the management of public whom they meet going out ; upon affairs into the hands of the war. which this party, having fulfilled riors. It may however so happen, the purpose of their expedition, that a Sachem may at the same time will fometimes return without go. be also a chief warrior.

ing to war. Friendships seem to have been instituted with a view towards strengthening the union between the Some particulars of the present state several nations of the confederacy; of Mount Veluvius. Extracted and hence friends are called the

from a letter from Sir William finews of the Six Nations. An

Hamilton, K. B. F. R. S. and Indian has therefore generally one A. S. to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart, or more friends in each nation. Be.

P.R.S. From the same. fides the attachment which fubfifts during the life-time of the two Naples, January 24, 1786. friends, whenever one of them happens to be killed, it is incumbent

HE of presenting to his family either a scalp, a prisoner, or a belt confift-month of November, 1784, nearly ing of some thousands of wampum ;

at the moment of my return from and this ceremony is performed by England to this capital, and which every

friend of the deceased. continued in some degree till about The purpose and foundation of the 20th of last month, has afforded war parties therefore, is in general, much amusement to travellers une to procure a prisoner or scalp to re- acquainted with this wonderful opeplace the friend or relation of the ration of nature, but no new cirIndian who is the head of the party, cumstance that could justify my An Indian who wishes to replace a troubling you with a letter on the friend or relation presents a belt to' subject. The lava either overflowed his acquaintance, and as many as

the rim of the crater, or issued from chuse to follow him accept this belt, small fiffures on its borders, on that and become After this, fide which faces the mountain of it is of no consequence whether he Somma, and ran more or less in ope, goes on the expedition or remains and at times in three or four chan


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nels, regularly formed, down the quakes, or from the loose volcanic Aanks of the conical part of the foil's having been washed from anvolcano; sometimes descending and der their foundations by the torrents spreading itself in the valley be- of rain-water from the high grounds tween the two mountains; and once, which surround Naples, and on when the eruption was in its great which a great part of the town itself eft force, in the month of Novem- is built. ber last, the lava descended still From the time of the last formi. lower, and did some damage to the dable eruption of Mount Vesuvius, vineyards, and cultivated parts at in August 1779 (described in one of the foot of Veluvius, towards the my former communications to the village of St. Seb ftiano; but ge- Royal Society) to this day, I have, nerally the lava, not being abun- with the assistance of the Father dant, stopped and cooled before it Antonio Piaggi", kept an exact was able to reach the valley. By diary of the operations of Vesuvius, the accumulation of these lava’s on with drawings, shewing, by the the flanks of Vesuvius, its form has quantity of smoke, the degrees of been greatly altered ; and by the fermentation of the volcano ; also frequent explosion of scoriæ and aih- the course of the lava’s during this es, a considerable mountain has last eruption, and the changes that been formed within the crater, have been made in the form of the which now rising much above its mountain itself by the lava's and rim has likewise given that part of scoriæ that have been ejected. This the mountain a new appearance. journal is becoming very curious Just before I left Naples, in May and interesting; it is remarkably 1783, I was at the top of Vesuvius. fo with respect to the pointing out The crater was certainly then more ' a variety of fingular effects that than 250 feet deep, and was im- different currents of air have upon practicable, its fides being nearly the smoke that issues from the craperpendicular. This eruption, how- ter of Vesuvius, elevated (as you ever, has been as fatisfactory as know, Sir) more than 3600 feet could be desired by the inhabitants above the level of the sea ; but, of this city, a prodigious quantity except the smoke increasing confiof lava having been disgorged; derably and constantly when the sea which matter, confined within the is agitated, and the wind blows bowels of the earth, would proba- from that quarter, the operations of bly have occasioned tremors; and Vesuvius appear to be very caprici. even slight ones might prove fatal ous and uncertain. One day there to Naples, whose houses are, in ge- will be the appearance of a violent neral, very high, ill built, and a fermentation, and the next all is great number in almost every street calmed again : but whenever the already supported by props, having smoke has been attended with concither fuffered by former earth- fiderable ejections of scoriæ and

This Padre Antonio Piaggi is the ingenious Monk who invented the method of unfolding and recovering the burnt ancient manuscripts of Hercula. neum, and who resides constantly at Resina, at the foot, and in full view, of Mount Vesuvius.



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