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chiefly confined to the servants' hall what I have thus laid before the fowith all-fours and put.

ciety may interest future antiquaPerhaps, as games are subject to ries. If it should, my trouble in revolutions, whisk may be as much compiling this dissertation will be forgot in the next century as Pri- fully answered. mero is at present : in such case,

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MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS.

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The hot baths used over all Egypt, . ing the bath is a great chamber, and the manner of bathing describ- in the form of a rotunda, with an

with observations on the be- open roof, to let the pure air cirnefits arising from them; on the culate freely. A spacious alcove practice of the women who bathe carpeted is carried round, and dionce or twice a week; and compa- vided into compartments, in which risons between these baths and those the bathers leave their clothes. In of the ancient Greeks. From Mons. the centre is a fountain, which plays Savary's Letters on Egypt. into a reservoir, and has a pleasing

effect.
Grand Cairo. When undrefled a napkin is tied
HE hot baths, known in round the middle ; sandals are put

the remotest ages, and ce on, and a narrow passage is entered, lebrated by Homer, who paints the where the heat first begins to be manners of his times, have here felt; the door shuts, and twenty preserved all their allurements and paces further a second opens, which falubrity; necessity has rendered is the entrance to a passage at right them common in a country where angles with the first. Here the heat perspiration is abundant; and plea- augments, and those who fear to sure has preserved the practice. Ma- expose themselves too suddenly to its homet, who knew their utility, has effects stop some time in a marble made the use of them a religious hall before they enter. The bath precept. They have been superfi- itself is a spacious vaulted chamber, cially described by most travellers; paved and lined with marble ; bebut as the habit I am in of frequent- side it are four small rooms : ing them has given me leisure to vapour continually rises from a examine them attentively, I shall fountain and cistern of hot water, endeavour to be more particular with which the burnt perfumes and satisfactory *.

mingle t. The first apartment at enter The bathers are not, as in France,

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* I have seen the haths of the principat cities of Egypt; they are all made on the same plan, seldom differing, except in fize; thus an exact description of one will include the others.

† Perfumes are only burnt when it is the desire of the persons bathing. By mingling with the vapour they produce a molt agreeable effect.

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imprisoned in a kind of tub, where caite, youngest of the daughters of the body cannot rest at its ease ; but, the king of Pylos, led the son of reclining on a spread sheet, and the Ulysses to the bath, washed him head fupported on a small pillow, with her own hands, and, having they freely take what posture they rubbed his body with precious ointplease, while clouds of odoriferous ments, clothed him in rich garments vapours envelope and penetrate and a shining mantle.” Nor were every pore.

Pififtratus and Telemachus worse Having reposed thus some time, treated in the palace of Menelaus I, a gentle moisture diffuses itself over the beauties of which having adthe body; a servant comes, gently mired, they were conducted to presses and turns the bather, and marble basons, in which the bath when the limbs are flexible, makes prepared, where beauteous the joints crack without trouble slaves washed them, rubbed them then masses *, and seems to knead with odorous oils, and clothed them the body without giving the flight- in fine garments, and magnificent cft sensation of pain.

furred robes g.This done he puts on a stuff glove The room into which the bather and continues rubbing long, and retires has two water cocks, one for freeing the kin of the patient, cold, the other for hot water; and which is quite wet, from every kind he washes himself. The attendant of scaly obstruction, and all imper- presently returns with a depilatory ceptible particles that clog the pomatum ll, which instantly eradipores, till it becomes as smooth cates hair wherever applied. It is as fatin ; he then conducts the ba- in general use both with men and ther into a cabinet, pours a lather women in Egypt. of perfumed soap on the head, and Being well washed and purified, retires.

the bather is wrapped up in hot The ancients honoured their guests linen, and follows his guide through till more, and treated them after a various windings which lead to the more voluptuous manner. While outward apartment, while this inTelemachus was at the court of sensible transition from heat to cold Neitor to

so the beauteous Poly- prevents all inconvenience q. Be* Masser comes from the Arabic verb masses, which signifies to touch lightly. + Odyssey, Book III.

Odyssey, Book IV. Ś I translate the words graivaş óvraş (Thaggy mantles) furred robes, though I am sensible no translator has so rendered them, because it seems to me the poet intended to describe a custom which still remains in the East, of covering the bather with furred garments when he leaves the hot bath, to prevent a stoppage of perfpiration, at a time when the pores are exceedingly open.

U Made from a mineral called rusma, of a dark brown colour. The Egyptians give it a light burning, then add an equal quantity of lack lime, and knead them up with water. This grey paste will make the hair fall off in three minutes, without giving the lightelt pain.

Delicate people stop some time in the chamber next the bath, that they may feel no inconvenience by going too suddenly into the air. The pores being exceedingly open, they keep themselves warm all day, and in winter lay within doors,

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ing come to the alcove, a bed is lead us to believe that the two hours ready prepared, on which the per- of delicious calm which succeed son no sooner lies down than a boy bathing are an age. comes, and begins to press with his Such, Sir, are these baths, the use delicate hands all parts of the body, of which was so strongly recomin order to dry them perfectly: the mended by the ancients, and the linen is once more changed, and pleasures of which the Egyptians the boy gently rubs the callous kin still enjoy. Here they prevent or of the feet with pumice-stone, then exterminate rheumatisms, catarrhs, brings a pipe and Moka coffee *. and those diseases of the skin which

Coming from a bath filled with the want of perspiration occasions. hot vapour, in which excessive per- Here they find a radical care for that spiration bedewed every limb, into fatal disease which attacks the powa spacious apartment and the open ers of generation, and the remedies open air, the lungs expand and re- for which are so dangerous in Euspire pleasure : well kneaded, and rope f. Here they rid themselves as it were regenerated, the blood of those uncomfortable sensations fo circulates freely, the body feels a common among other nations, who voluptuous eale, a flexibility till have not the same regard to cleanthen unknown, a lightness as if re- liness. lieved from fome enormous weight, The women are passionately fond and the man almost fancies him- of these baths, whither they go at self newly born, and beginning firft least once a week, taking with them to live. A glowing consciousness flaves accustomed to the office, of existence diffuses itself to the More sensual than men, after the very extremities; and, while thus usual process they wash the body, yielding to the most delightful fen- and particularly the head, with rosesations, ideas of the most pleasing water. There their attendants braid kind pervade and fill the soul; the their long black hair, with which, imagination wanders through worlds instead of powder and pomatum, which itself embellishes, every where they mingle precious effences.drawing pictures of happiness and There they blacken the rim of the delight. If life be only a succession of eye-lid, arch the brows with cobelt, ideas, the vigour, the rapidity, with and stain the nails of their hands which the memory then re-traces all and feet of a golden yellow with the knowledge of the man, would hennall. Their linen and their

* The whole expence of bathing thus to me was half a crown ; but the common people go fimply to perfpire in the bath, wash themselves, and give three half-pence or two-pence at departing.

+ Tournefort, who had taken the vapour bath at Constantinople, where they are much less careful than at Grand Cairo, thinks they injure che lungs; but longer experience would have convinced him of his error. There are no people who practise this bathing

more than the Egyptians, nor any to whom such difeases are less known. They are almost wholly unacquainted with pulmonic complaints.

# Tin, burnt with gall-nuts, which the Turkish women use to blacken and arch the eye-brows.

H A shrub common in Egypt, which bears some resemblance to the privet. The leaves.ctopped and applied to the skin, give it a bright yellow colour.

robes

are

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robes having been past through the The excessive jealousy of the
fweet vapour of aloes wood, and Turks makes them pretend, that
their dressing ended, they remain in in this warm climate, where nature
the outward apartment, and pass is so powerful, and women
the day in feasting, while finging irresistibly prone to pleasure, an
girls come and dance, and sing intercourse between the sexes would
foothing airs, or recount amorous be dangerous ; they therefore abuse
adventures.

the right of strength, and hold them
The days of bathing are festive in slavery, though they thereby in-
days among the Egyptian women ; crease the violence of their pafsions,
they deck themselves magnificent- and make them ready to seize the
ly, and under the long veil and first opportunity of retaliation: ig-
mantle which hide them from the norant, no doubt, that though free
public eye wear the richeit stuffs. women may be won, llaves need
They undress themselves in pre- no winning."
fence of each other, and their va-
nity extends to their very drawers,
which in winter are made of stuffs An Account of the Almai, or Egyp-
inwove with silk and gold, and in tian Improvisatore, their education,
summer of worked muslin, Ruffles dancing, muufic; and the passionate
and lace are unknown to them, but delight the natives take in thefe
their shifts are made of cotton and attrelles. From the same work.
filk, as light and transparent as
gauze. Rich falhes of Callimire *

Grand Cairo. bind up their floating robes, and

her , amidst the black hair that ihades Almai, or learned; which title they their temples, while diamonds en obtain by being more carefully rich the Indian handkerchief with educated than other women. They which they bind their brows. Such form a class very famous in the are the Georgians and Circassians, country, to be admitted into which whom the Turks purchase for their it is necessary to poffefs a fine voice, wives. They are neat to excess, eloquence, the rules of grammar to and walk in an atmosphere of per- and be able to compose and sing exfumes; and, though their luxury is tempore verses, adapted to the ochidden from the public, it surpasses cafion. The Almai know all new that of the European women in their songs by rote, their memory' is

ftored with the beit Moals I and

tales,

two crescents of fine pearls iparkle “E has hetimas well as Italy,

own houses.

* The wool of Cassimire is the finest in the world, surpasling silk itself. The fashes made from it cost about five-and-twenty pounds each; they are usually embroidered at both ends, and though three French ells long, and one wide, may be drawn through a ring,

† The quantity in Arabic and Latin verses is the same, to which the former adds the various measure and rhyme of the French. These advantages cannot unite, when a language is well fixed. 1 Frizie moto S, which bew?. death of a 12:9, or the ters of love.

Abuiteda

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