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Another observation to be made that king was married to James the upon this entry is, that the year Fourth of Scotland, she played at 1392 cannot be justly fixed upon as cards soon after her arrival at Edinthe date of this invention, for though burgh 11. Charles the Sixth loft his senses at Cards had also found their way that time, yet he lived thirty years into Spain about the same time; afterward, so it will not be fair to for Herrera mentions $, that upon fuppose these cards were made the the conquest of Mexico (which firft year of his phrensy, but to take happened in 1519), Montezuma the middle year of these thirty, took great pleasure in seeing the which would bring it to 1407. At Spaniards thus amusing themselves. that time, indeed, this amusement And here it may not be improper feems to have become more general, to observe, that if the Spaniards as in 1426 * no person was permit. were not the first inventors of cards ted to have in their house “ tab. (which at least I conceive them to “ liers, eschiquiers, quartes," &c. have been), we owe to them unwhich last word I conclude to be the doubtedly the game of gmbre (with fame with cartes or cards t.

its imitations of quadrille, &c.), It seems moreover to afford a which obtained so long throughout strong presumption against Mr. An- Europe till the introduction of itis's explanation of the game ad whisk **. quatuor reges (known to our Edward The very name of this game is the First), that cards are not allud- Spanish, as ombre fignifies a man; ed to by such an article in the ward- and when we now say I am the omrobe rolls, because we hear nothing ber, the meaning is, that I am the about them, either in Rymer's Fo- man who defy the other players, and dera, or our statute book, till to. will win the stake. The terms for wards the latter end of the reign of the principal cards are

also Spanish, Henry VIIII.

viz. Spadill, Manill, Basto, Punto, This fort of amusement, how- Matadors, &c ++." ever, was not unknown to the court " The four suits are named from at least of Henry VII. for in the what is chiefly represented upon year 1502, when the daughter of them, viz. Spades, from espado, a

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* Monstrelet in anno-Menestrier is also quoted for a synod held at Langres, by which the clergy are forbid the use of cards so early as 1404. + Ludus chartaceus quartarum seu chartarum. Junius in Etymologico.

Whilft I am correćting this page for the press, Mr. Nichols (printer to the fociety) hath referred me to 4 Edw. IV. Rot. Parl. Membr. VI. where pleyinge cardes are enumerated amongst several other articles, which are not to be im. ported. In 1540, Henry VIII. grants the ofice custodis ludorum in Calesiâ, amongst which games cards are enumerated. Rymer in anno.

They are first forbid in Scotland by an act only of James the Sixth.
|| Appendix to the third volume of Leland's Collectanea, p. 284.

** This word indeed is most commonly written whift.
tt. To these I may add many others-as the being codillid frori cedillo-The
winning the pool from polla, which fignifies the stake-The term of trumps. from
the Spanin iriumfomas also the term of the act, which pervades molt European
languages, the Spanish word for this card being as.


sword; {word; hearts are called oros *,

* from ludes to the number of points which a piece of money being on each win the stake [. card ; clubs, baftos, from a stick or Upon the whole, the Spaniards club; and diamonds, copas, from the having given significant terms to cups painted on them.

their cards, the figures of which The Spanish packs consist but of they still retain, as well as being forty-eight, having no ten, which the acknowledged introducers of probably hath been added by the ombre, seem to give them the beft French, or perhaps Italians t. pretensions of being the original

The king is a man crowned as in inventors of this amusement. If our cards ; but the next in degree they had borrowed cards from the is a person on horseback named el French, surely they would at the caballo, nor have they any queen..

same time have adopted their names The third (or knave with us) is and figures, as well as their printermed foto (or the footman) being cipal games from that nation , inferior to the horseman.

which on the contrary (in ombre and Another capital game on the piquet at least) have been introduccards (piquet) we seem to have ed from Spain. adopted from Spain, as well as om- Nor do other reasons feem wantbre, it having been thence intro- ing why the Spaniards should have duced into France about 140 years excelled in card-playing before the ago. The French term of piquet other nations of Europe. hath no signification but that of a I have already proved by a citalittle'axe, and therefore is not taken tion from Herrera, that in 1519 from any thing which is remarkable Montezuma was much entertained in this game; whereas the Spanish in seeing the Spanish soldiers play name of cientos (or a hundred) al. at cards when they were first in pos

* The Venetians still use the Spanish cards, retaining the Spanish terms, except that of oros, which they render denari, fignifying equally pieces of money.

+ Our learned member (Dr. Douglas) hath been so obliging as to refer me to a miscellaneous work of M. Du Four, entitled Longueruana; in which the writer says, he had seen fome antient Italian cards leven or eight inches long, in which the pope was represented, and from thence (though a Frenchman) ascribes the invention of cards to the Italians. This is, however, a mere ipse dixit, without any other fact or argument.

Another of our learned members (Dr. Woide) refers me to a German public cation by Mr. Breithoff, in which he cites an authority, that cards were used in Germany so early as A. D. 1300, having been brought from Arabia or India.

Our late worthy member (Mr. Tuter) hath also been so obliging as to shew me some antient cards which belonged to Dr. Stukeley, and which were nearly of an equal length to those described by Mr. Du Four. The pack, however, was far from complete, and therefore little could be inferred from them. This was also the case with the pack of Italian cards mentioned by Mr. Du Four.

I See Du Chat's notes on that chapter of Rabelais, in which Pantagruel is said to have played at so many games.

Saintfoix (in his Essays on the Antiquities of Paris) informs us, that a dance was performed on the French theatre in 1676, taken from the game of piquet.

| The old Spanish term for cards is naipe, which Covarruvias suspects to be of Arabic origin : certainly it hath not the most distant affinity to the French carte. VOL. XXVIII.



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f 'ession of Mexico, which shews that any mention of it occurs either in this amusement must have for some Rymer's Fædera or the statutetime previous been rather common book ll. It is not improbable, howin Old Spain * Now Charles the ever, that Philip the Second, with Fifth succeeded to the crown of that his suite, coming from the court of kingdom in 1518, as well as to Charles the Fifth, made the use of the new conqueits and treasures of cards much more general than it the Western India, whilst his other had been, of which some presumpmost extensive dominions made his tive proofs are not wanting. monarchy nearly universal. France We name two of the suits clubs at the same time was at the lowest and Spades, when neither of those ebb, their king having been taken suits in the common cards answer at prisoner at the battle of Pavia in all such appellation. If the Spanish 1524. It is not therefore extraor- cards, however, are examined (which dinary, that the country in which fo I have the honour of presenting to great riches and such extensive ter-' the society), it will be found that ritories were united, should have each card hath a real club in the first produced the greatest number of of these fuits, and a real sword, efgames and gamesters.

pada (rendered by us Spade), in the It should seem that England hath second. no pretence to enter the lists with There seems to be little doubt, Spain or France for the invention therefore, but that the cards used of cards, unless Edward the First during the reign of Philip and Mahaving played ad quatuor reges should ry, and probably the more early be so considered; and I have alrea. part of queen Elizabeth, were Spady suggested, that the finding no- nish $, though they were afterwards thing further relative to this pastime changed for the French, being of a till 1502 † affords a strong pre- more simple figure, and more easily sumption that the quatuor reges were imported. It appears indeed by a not playing cards 1.

proclamation of this queen, as also During the reigns of Henry VIII. of her succeffor , that we did not and Edward VI. this amuse- then make many cards in Eng. ment seems not to have been very land, though the amusement had common in England, as scarcely become fo general in the reign of

• In 1584 a book was publihed at Salamanca, entituled, Remedio de Fugadores.

+ When James the Fourth played with his destined consort at Edinburgh.

I The figured cards, as king, queen, and knave, were sometimes called coat, and not court cards as at present. The knave probably was the prince their fon, as Chaucer twice applies the term knave child to the fon of a sovereign prince. The same may be obferved with regard to valet in French. See De la Royne's noblesse, and Du Frelve, in voce valettus. ll See however ante, p. 112, note to

Philip also introduced the Spanish dress and music, at least there is a fonnet of Sir Philip Sydney's, which is to the air of “ Se tu Senora no dueles demi," and which therefore must bave been a tune in vogue.

& See a Collection of Proclunations in the library of the society, vol. III. P. 5; and vol. IV. p. 31.



gan *

king James, that the audience at made in Spain at that time were in the play-houses used thus to divert the greatest vogue. themselves before the play, be- The two words which follow are

French, (faietes par, or made by), But I have been furnished by our which were probably in that lanworthy and learned member (Mr. guage, that the French reader might Aftle) with a ftill more decisive more readily understand the adverproof that cards were originally tisement, than if the whole was in made in Spain, which I send here- Spanish. Thus a London fhopwith for the inspection of the so- keeper would write on his shop in ciety.

English that he fold vermicelli, [This was an impression from a though he retains the Italian term block of wood, and undoubtedly the of vermicelli (or little worms) for cover of a pack of cards. The in- the ware he wants to dispose of. fcription upon it is as follows :]

But this is not the whole that may Cartas finnas faictes par Je be inferred from this curious cover, (supposed contraction for Jean or for at each corner are the figures John) Hauvola y (Edward War- from which the four suits of cards man) the last name having been in- are denominated in Spain, viz. ferted in a new piece of wood, laid cups, fwords, clubs, and pieces of into the original block.”

money, whilst at the top are the arms The first words of this inscrip- of Castille and Leon. tion, viz. cartas finnas (superfine It seems fairly therefore to be incards) are Spanish, which are fol. ferred from the superscription on lowed by two of French, (viz. this cover, that cards could not be faictes par, or made by) Jean Hau- then disposed of to advantage in vola, y (y is generally used in Spa- France, unless there was some apnish for the conjunction and), and pearance of their having been orithe two last words, viz. Edward ginally brought from Spain, where Warman, were not in the block of being first invented they were prowood, when first cut into.

'bably made in greater perfection. The whole of this inscription, I begin to be sensible, that what being rendered into English, runs I have thus ventured to lay before thus :

the society on the first invention of Superfine cards made by John cards is rather become of an unreaHauvola, and (Edward Warman),” fonable length ; from their wonted the last name being an addition in goodness to me, however, I will the room of John Hauvola's first trespass a little longer upon their partner.

time, by adding some few observaNow I conceive that this adver- tions, which have occurred with tisement was used by a card-maker regard to some of the


which resident in France, who notified the formerly had obtained the greatest wares he had to sell in the Spanish vogue. terms of cartas finnas, or superfine Primero (undoubtedly a Spacards, because those which had been nish game) seems to have been

* Mr. Malone's Supplemental Observations on Shakespeare, p. 31.
+ Falitaff complains that he never had any luck since he forswore Primero.


I 2

chiefly played by our gentry till Whisk was introduced, which now perhaps as late as the Restoration. prevails not only in England, but Many other games however are in most of the civilized parts of mentioned in Dodfley's Collection Europe. of Old Plays, as “ Gleek, Crimp, If it may not be possibly supposed Mount-Saint, Noddy, Knave out that the game of trumps" (which I of Doors, Saint Lodam, Poft and have before taken notice of, as alPair, Wide Ruff, and Game of luded to in one of the old plays Trumps."

contained in Dodfley's Collection) To Primero the game of Ombre is Whisk, I rather conceive that the succeeded, and was probably in- first mention of that game is to be troduced by Catharine of Portugal, found in Farquhar's Beaux Stratathe queen of Charles the Second, as gem, which was written in the very Waller hath a poem

beginning + of the present century. “On a card torn at Ombre by the queen.” called swabbers t, which were pof

It was then played with what were It likewise continued to be in fibly so termed, because they, who vogue for some time in the present had certain cards in their hand, century, for it is Belinda's game in were entitled to take up a share of the Rape of the Lock, where every the stake, independent of the geneincident in the whole deal is so de- ral event of the game ll. The forfcribed, that when ombre is fors' tunate, therefore, clearing the board gotten (and it is almost so already) of this extraordinary stake, might be it may be revived with posterity from compared by seamen to the fwabthat most admirable

poem *. bers (or cleaners of the deck) in I remember moreover to have which sense the term is still seen three-cornered tables in houses used. which had old furniture, and which Be this as it may, whisk seems were made purposely for this game,

never to have been played upon the number of players being only principles till about fifty years ago, three.

when it was much studied by a set Quadrille (a species of ombre) of gentlemen who frequented the obtained a vogue upon the disuse of Crown coffee-house in Bedfordthe latter, which it maintained till Row $ : before that time it was

* As for the game at chess in Vida's Latin poems, I never could follow it, after line 220, when several pawns are taken on each side without being particularised. The Latin however cannot be too much admired of this elegant poem, nor the description of many moves.

+ In 1664 a book was publifhed, entituled, The Compleat Gamefter, which takes no notice of whisk, though it does of ombre and piquet. I “ The clergyman used to play at whisk and swabbers." Swift.

swabbers therefore much resemble the taking up part of the stake for the aces at quadrille, and are properly banished from a game of so much skill as whilk, because they are apt to divert the player's attention.

$ I have this information from a gentleman who is now eighty-six years of age. The first lord Folkstone was another of this set.

They laid down the following rules:

To play from the strongest suit, to study your partner's hand as much as your own, never to force your partner unnecessarily, and to attend to the score.


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