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but upon the breaking up of the The conduct of the troops upon
ftates in the evening, the pensionary this occasion can never be too much
of Dort, whether through vanity, praised or admired, and should be
to sew his contempt of the stadt- received and adopted as a most ex-
holder, or to try the temper of the cellent model in all cases of sup-
people, while the means of their prefing civil commotions. Had the
ehastisement were at hand, ordered infantry, who were quiet lookers-
his coach to be driven through the on, undertaken to quell this riot,
gate. This was the signal of alarm, the Naughter, from the narrowness
the people immediately interfered, of the place, the closeness of the
both in preventing the design, and crowd, and the nature of their wea-
in endeavouring to discharge their pons, would have been immense ;
fury upon the adventurous pension- and when broken and intermixed
ary; the riot was violent, and those with the populace (which would
who were not engaged shuddered have been unavoidable) the conflict
for the consequences, nothing less must have been attended with loss
than a general massacre of the un to themselves. Nor would the del-
armed populace being expected. In truction have been small to the
this instant of terror and danger, people, if the cavalry had made
the horse guards rushed in with the that cruel use of their swords which
utmost violence upon the crowd, was so entirely in their power, and
flourishing their swords with ter- of which they made fo effective and
rible threats, and the most dread- happy a display. Whatever share
ful parade of execution. In little may be ascribed to discipline in this
more than a moment the tumultuous excellent conduct, no doubt can be
crowd were either overthrown by entertained but that a much greater
the horses, and lying in heaps upon was due to the private fentiments
each other, or dispersed and flying and disposition of the troops.
on every fide. Never was so violent This riot, together with the ge-
a tumult so suddenly quelled, and neral ill temper of the people, put
with so little mischief. Not a single a stop for some time to the delibe-
man was killed, nor a single wound rations of the states of Holland. So
given with the sword ; the horses many intercessions were made for
were the only combatants, and left the life of the unfortunate peruke-
many sore remembrances of their maker who had been taken up in
weight, and of the iron armour on the late tumult, that the sentence
their hoofs. It was no less remark- of death on him was changed to
able that only a single prisoner was an order of imprisonment for 20
made, where all lay at the mercy of years.
the victors. This unfortunate cul In the mean time, the dissensions
prit was a sober tradesman, the in the city of Utrecht became so
master of a house and family : he violent, that the ruling faction is-
had been so active in the commence- sued the singularly arbitrary decree,
ment of the riot as to be particu. that not more than two persons
larly conspicuous, which occafioned should, under any pretence, and
his being early secured ; and every under severe penalties, stop to con-
body was in expectation of his be- fer in the streets. They were not
ing hanged, as an example, the only in a ftate of hoftility with their
following morning.

fellow-citizens, and the states of


the province, but they few in the fion; and that so large a fum as face of their own immediate dele. 100,000 (amounting to something gates, who declared, that in confi- between seven and eight thousand deration of their oaths, and a full pounds) had been fent without a knowledge that the dignities con name ; but this last was probably ferred on the stadtholder in 1749 no more than a lare, to excite a fi. had been granted by the unanimous milar liberality from such an exvoice of all the regents of that ample. time, as the only means of preserv in the mean time the republie ing the nation, they could not in was torn to pieces and convulsed in any manner concur in depriving him all its parts and members. Nothing of them ; although, if any new re could be more deplorable than the gulation should, with his own con- face of tumult, riot, and confusion sent, and with the same unanimity which every where prevailed. Mabe adopted, they should by no means any of the towns presented little less oppose such a reform, but act in than a scene of continual civil war. concert with the states in general. The multitude of ill-connected petty This moderation in their delegates fovereignties, of which the republic could produce no corresponding ef- is composed, afforded room for a fect in the constituents, who, de- general, as well as for particular termined to support their violence degrees of anarchy, which could by arms, hired soldiers, and pro- not perhaps have been equalled uncured officers from all parts, and at der any other form of government. any expence, making every possible Nor has it possibly been known in preparation at the same time to any civil contention, in which reli. withstand a fiege vigorously if at- gion was not the object of the contacked, as they continually expect. teft, that the animosity and malice ed.

of the contending factions was car. If the subscriptions to the patri. ried to so extreme an excess as in otic funds (which were to support the present.

Their riots were acthe numberless petty armaments of cordingly, and perhaps it may be this time) were really as large as faid, according to the peculiar gerepresented, it would indeed be af. nius and temper of the people, tonishing, considering the heavy fierce, cruel, and bloody. Multilosses which individuals as well as tudes of people were said to have the republic had sustained by the been sacrificed, without count or war with England, and the subse- enquiry, in these tumults, while the quent prodigious expences and da- canals served commodiously for the mage occasioned by the contest with inftant in hiding the effects of their the emperor, first in the preparations mutual enormity. for war and the overflowing of the The debates in the assembly of country, and lastly in the purchase the states of Holland, upon the subof peace, and the reparation which ject of restoring the stadtholder to they were compelled to make to his his dignity, or at least to the go. subjects for their damages. It was vernment of the Hague, were confaid, that subscriptions from indi. ducted with a degree of heat and viduals of eight or ten thousand fp. vehemence said to be unequalled in sins were common upon this occa. the Dutch councils. Every method

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was accordingly used, that the na even of the whole anion to dispor-
ture of such proceedings will ad- fess him of dignities and powers
mit, in order to conceal the parti. which were in the fullest manner
culars of what passed in that assem. rendered hereditary in his family,
bly from the knowledge of the peo- yet, waving that question for the
ple. The count de Maillebois, who present, he observes, that it would
was supposed to be the secret mover at least be necessary, in order to
of moit, if not all, of the harsh give any colour of sanction to such
measures adopted against the stadt a proceeding, that the retraction
holder, was now become so extreme- should be attended with the same
ly odious, at least with one party, unanimity which prevailed in the
that he was very generally burnt in donation.
effigy in those places where they Though this letter was considered
were prevalent.

as amounting to a defiance by the After various debates upon the most violent of the adverse fačtion, fubject, the grand question, with re- yet it induced the states of Holland spect to the command at the Hague, to a re-confideration (perhaps merewas carried against the prince of ly for form) of the late resolution ; Orange in the assembly of the states the result of which was only a farof Holland by a single vote, the ther confirmation of the measure,

numbers being ten to by a declaration that it was strictly July 27th. nine. A proteit was im- legal, and in all respects consonant mediately entered by the equestrian to the constitution, and to the spirit order, as well as by the deputies or of the general union. representatives of some towns against The death of the late king of this resolution, as being premature Prussia, and the accession of the and violent, as well as unconstitu- present monarch, to whose fifter the tional and illegal.

Itadtholder is married; could not be This resolution was not filently supposed to weaken his interest at acquiesced in by the stadtholder. the court of Berlin. The new king He transmitted a strong letter to the indeed did not leave it long in ftates of Holland, in which, after doubt what part he was determined taking notice that he could confi- to take in favour of his brother-inder this resolution as nothing less than a violent outrage upon his dig. Sept. 2d. law. For he scarcely had

time to feel himself well nity and authority, and an usurpa. in the throne, before he dispatched tion upon a right which did not ad- a long letter, fully declaratory of mit of being doubted ; after ob- his sentiments, to the states general; serving the defect of unanimity a. and, to give the greater weight to mong themselves, and the closeness them, it was conveyed by no less a of the division upon which a queso person than the count de Goertz, tion of such importance was carried; his minister of flate, in the character he denies the legality of any one of envoy extraordinary and plenimember of the confederacy depriv- potentiary. ing him of rights which had been In this nervous and spirited letunanimously conferred upon him by ter he refrains from entering into the whole union ; and, though he any particular detail of the injuries by no means acknowledges the right offered to the fladtholder, referring


them for that, as well as for his own to his rights, and enabling him to sentiments upon the subject, to cer return with honour and propriety to tain specified letters or memorials the resumption of his high offices at transmitted by his uncle and pre the Hague : offering his own coundecessor, both to their high mighti fel and mediation, if it were necesnesses, and to the states of Holland fary, in conjunction with other friends and Weft Friezeland; every part of and neighbours of the republic, to which he now, for himself, renews bring all remaining differences and and confirms. He takes care to re matters of debate to an equitable, move every objection to his inter- final, and happy termination, and ference, as being unwarranted, in in a manner that would be equally trusive, or dictatorial to a sovereign consonant to the honour and true inftate, by thewing that the long and tereits of all the parties. He farther . tried friendship which had for two informed the states, that they were centuries subfisted between his pre to receive and consider all commudecessors and the republic, would nications from the count de Goertz even have demanded his friendly as coming directly from himself. and mediatorial interposition in the This early display of the new present unhappy and dangerous state king's character seemed to afford no of their civil diffenfions : that, ex small indication, that though the clusive of friendship, his situation great Frederic was no more, the as their nearest neighbour, and the spirit and vigour of his councils vicinity of a part of his dominions were by no means departed. to their territories, muft neceffarily The states of five of the provinces prevent his being indifferent to any referred the confideration of the king violent or essential change that was of Prussia's letter to the committee attempted to be made in the consti- for foreign affairs; but those of tution of the republic: but that, in Holland and West Friezeland, perdependent of these causes, the near fevering in their fyftem, and bating relation in which he stood with the nothing of their usual obstinacy, prince stadtholder, and the affec- declaring their adherence to the retion which he bore for the princess solution of the preceding December, his sister, rendered it impossible that againt the admillion of any foreign he could be unconcerned in feeing interference in the regulation of them degraded from their high rank their domestic affairs, would pay no and dignities, and the stadtholder attention whatever to the letter. arbitrarily deprived of his rights The court of Versailles, conscious and prerogatives.

of having the game so effectually He therefore strongly but ami in her own hands as to render all cably presied the states general to

the lates general to public intervention in the affairs of use their powerful mediation in the Holland, on her side, totally unne. most serious manner with the states cessary, could have no disposition of Holland and Welt Friezeland, to admit the interference of other for settling the present differences; powers, whose views and principles and to take such other measures as

The knew to be diametrically oppomight appear necessary for healing site to her own.

She had accorthe dangerous dissensions fo glaring- dingly presented to the states, fome ly prevalent, for restoring the prince confiderable time before, as a

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guarded precaution against what and outrage offered to their fovewas like to happen, a memorial reignty, muft, if persevered in or couched in very equivocal terms, in repeated, lead to an immediate dis. which, after much parade of the solution of the union, determined French king's friendship and re at length to remove this bone of gards, and of his attachment to the internal and external contention, subsisting alliance between them, by applying force as the last remehe declares his wishes to see those dy for the eradication of the evil. abuses reformed, which had occa They accordingly passed a writfioned internal diffenfions in the re ten resolution, tantamount in effect public, and that he should be happy to a commiflion, charging the prince to see tranquillity restored upon the stadtholder, as captain general, ima true principles of its conftitution; mediately to lend a sufficient numbut that, without pretending to med. ber of troops, under the conduct dle in the internal government of of an experienced officer, to these the seven provinces, he would on towns, with injunctions to continue the contrary use his utmost endea- there until further orders ; but that vours to prevent their high mighti- if the inhabitants were to make any neffes being troubled from without refillance to the performance of this as well as from within.

service, such officer was authorized, The republican party was now in spite of all obstacles, to support become so insolent, and their vio. the sovereign authority of their nolence so extreme, that they seemed bie mightinesses, by proceeding to not only to cast off all obedience to force and violence in the establishe their own laws, but all regard to ment of thofe garrisons. those of nations, and all respect to The states likewise wrote to the foreign sovereigns. A courier from magiftracies of both towns (who the court of Berlin to that of Lon.

were equally disobeyed and slighted don, upon his return was stopped, with themielves by the turbulent and narrowly escaped being rum- burghers) inclosing a copy of their maged, and his dispatches examined, resolution, and requiring them to by the populace in the town of give every assistance in their power Woerden. This outrage obliged to the troops ; and particularly to the count de Goertz formally to exhort the inhabitants to the most demand a passport from the itates docile fubmission to all injunctions general for a courier he was send- that might come from their asseming with dispatches to the king his bly. master.

General Spengler, with four re, The states of Guelderland, after giments, and proper artillery, was various strong remonftrances, couch. appointed by the stadtholder to this ed in terms of great indignation service, with strict injunctions, if to those of Holland, for the encou- possible, to avoid the shedding of ragement which they had given, blood. The armed burghers of and the support they promised, to Hattem, being reinforced by as the refractory or rebellious burghers many volunteers as money or party in their towns of Hautem and El. zeal could procure from different bourg, declaring that fuch an undue quarters, exhibited a great parade interference in their government, of making a most obsținate resis,


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