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a viâim to oppression, yet for the tion, it probably produced no forpresent he appeared rather in the mal reply. Nor does it appear to character of a friendly neighbour have produced any cellation in the to both, and an amicable mediator, violence of the measures pursued wishing to reconcile the differences against the prince. The ruling and misunderstandings between the powers at the Hague, who repreparties, than the direct advocate of lented the states of Holland and either.

West Friezeland, in their answer to A hint was, however, about this the king's manifesto or memorial time thrown out by his minifters, upon that subject, took care to lose which seemed capable of inspiring no part of that high dignity apperfome prefent caution in the govern- taining to the most fupreme loveing powers of Holland, by thewing reignty. In thanking him for the the open grounds for serious claim regards he expressed to, and the inand discullion which he possessed in tereft he took in the affairs of the his own right, whenever he chose republic, after taking care to reto occupy them; and the ease with mind him that those two provinces which they might be applied to forin the principal part of that congive a fanction to sudden move. ftituent body, they proceed further ments, and to afford a cover for to observe, that it was owing enalarming measures, if their contests tirely to their particular respect for with the prince should be carried to him, and to the mutual regards and such an extremity as might render friendship subfitting between them, them necessary. It was intimated that they could at all enter into any to the Itates, that the king, in his explanation of their conduct upon own right, had matters of discullion the prefent occasion; but that from of a long standing to settle with thele motives, and to convince the them, and which nothing but a king that no duplicity was intended forbearance founded on friendship on their part, but that their views, could have permitted to remain so like their conduct, were open, manlong in a state of fufpenfion. That ly, and confiitent (as it became for as they had now found ic necessary vereigns in all transactions with any to enter into a regulation and settle of their servants, however highly ment of their limits in Brabant and exalted by posts or privileges they Flanders with the emperor, it would might be) they would inform him, be no less proper and necessary, that they could not in any manner that they condescended to pay a recede from their resolutions with similar regard to him, by an ade respect to the government of the jaitment of the disputed limits in Hague: that in other respects, in East Friezeland and Guelderland; all cases of contest with foreign in order thereby to prevent a re powers, they should at all times be Dewal of those differences which desirous to accept the king's friend, had heretofore taken place upon ly intervention and mediation ; but these subjects, and to pay that at that in what related to internal gotention to his claims and demands, vernment, to the security of the which their nature and justness re- state, to public tranquillity, and quired.

particularly to the appointment, As this was merely an intima- superintendance, or discharge of

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their own officers or servants, they paid to the stadtholder, in all his could on no account derogate from different capacities of captain getheir character of independent states, neral, governor of the Hague, and by admitting of any interference ; commander of the garrison, should and that he was himself too good a in future be paid only to the presi. judge, and too ftrict a maintainer dent of their committee, as the reof the rights of sovereignty, to ex- presentative of the states, and to pect or to approve of such a dero- the grand pensionary of Holland. gation.

This was in some time followed by. In other answers upon the same an order to discharge all the troops occafion, and about the same time, in general of the province from they disclaimed, in very loose and their oath of fidelity to the stadtgeneral terms, all oppressive and il- holder, and to prescribe a new oath, legal acts or defigns, either against by which they were bound to the the stadtholder, or any other of their states only. All these innovations servants; with the evidently im were submitted to by the troops in plied reservation, of being them- general, both officers and soldiers, felves the fole judges of what con with the greatest reluctance, and in stituted oppression or illegality. numerous instances with apparent They attributed the king's appli- indignation. As the differences incations to misinformation and mis- creased, the stadtholder's power of representation, hoping (with an ap- disposing of the regimental comparent fneer) that the stadtholder missions was suspended for an unlicould not possibly have been so for- mited time, and this essential branch getful of the relation in which he of his prerogative usurped. The stood with the republic, as to be the cause afligned, in answer to his remeans of conveying them; and add-monstrances, for this measure, was ing, that it would be placing all not so much a justification of a right the parties in a strange relative to assume, as a reason for the use of situation indeed, if he were to make

power,

so that the influence which complaints of them to the king; a * he derived from that authority mealure which in its confequences, “ in the army was not, in the preif admitted, would tend to leave « sent situation of affairs, deemed them nothing more than an empty " consonant with the security of the name and very shadow of sovereign “ state.” ty. They spoke in the same gene The domineering party no longer ral manner of civil commotions, of contained themselves within any

fort measures expedient for, their own of bounds; they laid the heaviest . fecurity, and of the necessity of hand of power over all those who putting an effectual stop to several gave marks of attachment to the abuses and encroachments which stadtholder's interest. The virulence tended to the "detriment of the and malice of the contention was country.

fo great, that tumults were almost As a proof of the small continual; and while the rioters on

regard which they paid one fide were severely punished, 1785.

to the king of Prussia's even for petty exceffes, those on the remonftrances, they issued an order, other were protected in the groffeft that the military honours usually violence and outrage. They pro

ceeded

V

Dec. 19,

ceeded without restraint, and with- from the principles set out upon: out regard to general law, or parti- is observed in many controversies, calar conftitutions, to weed the ma that all pretences are false, and all gistracies of all those who were even motives unjuft. Without presuming suspected of any attachment to the to direct the judgment of our read Orange intereft, filling up their ers, we only point out the criterion, places with the most turbulent of and we apprehend it is to be fought their own party; and even sub.. in those grand objects, and that mitted to the democratic encroach. general line of policy, which chaments of the armed burghers, and racterizes each contending party ; thereby totally changed the nature and we are persuaded that all of the old constitution, in order to English readers entertain a favourcarry that favourite point. They able disposition towards that which bad taken the press entirely into cements the natural union between their hands : while the most scurri- the maritime powers and free conlous invectives were every day pub- ftitutions of England and the united lished, not only with impunity, but states, and which tends to secure in apparent encouragement against the a chief magistrate an effective auftadtholder, the most temperate writ- thority, but limited by law. ings in defence of his rights, or Although the republican party bare statement of their nature, sub carried their constitutional innovajected the publishers and the writers tions; and the violation of corporate to fevere and certain punishment. and private rights with little compa.

Not that the Orange party was rative resistance, the course of their even then entirely devoid of a

affairs was

not entirely smooth. disposition to excess and outrage, Man is so indefinable a being, that nor perhaps in their hour are they he frequently engages, in contempt more respectful of individual or of all dangers and hazards, in the constitutional rights. Certain it is, defence of trifles, at the same time however unfortunately, that the firit that he gives up objects of the operation of civil dissensions is to greatest moment to his security and suspend thofe very laws of which happiness, and fubmits to oppreieach party assumes to be the affertor. fions that embitter his existence, To judge truly of the merits of po. with scarcely a murmur. In the litical questions, we must refort to present instance, the wearing and the original cause of quarrel, and prohibiting of orange - coloured not look too minutely to the occa. cockades and ribbons seemed for a sonal infringements of right which time to be the great object of conintervene, and are in a manner in- test and animosity between the rival evitable in violent contests. The factions. Even the military, both disputed territory is trampled by officers and private men, notwiththose who defend as well as those ftanding their habits of implicit who invade it. We must not there. fübmiflion, became eager parties in fore, as many are apt to do, form this contest; and, in defiance of protoo hasty a conclusion to the disad. clamations and punishments, were vantage of mankind, and suppose, continually dying in the face of from the excesses that arise on all their employers and paymasters, by fides, nor even becaufe a departure wearing of this interdicted colour ;

fo

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so that it seemed for a time doubt. they seemed to escape the obiervaa ful, whether the very harsh exercise tion of the adverse faction in Holof very strong powers of govern- land, until they began to be perment could have fuppressed the dif- ceived in their consequences. The play of this ensign of party zeal, prince still retained the command without striking directly at the ex. of the forces of five . provinces, ittence of the manufacture.

which were about equal in strength The prince stadtholder and his to those of Holland; so that from family, after sojourning for fome his retreat to Guelderland he lay considerable time at Middleburgh no longer at the mercy of his enein Zealand, when he found that the mies. From the attachment of the faction in Holland were proceeding troops to him, it was doubtful how to the utmost extremities againit far they might obey even the orders him, and that it became every day of their relpective states, in with.. more apparent, that nothing less drawing from his command, if such than an appeal to the last resort of a scene of disorder was once opened princes could preserve those remains as might afford a colour for discreof his authority which were still tionary conduct, or hold out a fancleft, had he even submitted to the tion to disobedience. lofs already sustained, removed at We are now, however, to look to length to the province of Guelder- several matters that preceded and land. This was the most judicious led to this last resource which the measure that he could possibly have prince adopted, of retiring with a 'taken; for, besides that the states of military force to his strong hold in that province, as well as of its neigh- Guelderland. Great expectations bour Utrecht, were entirely on his had been formed on both sides, from fide, and the little country of Over- the affemblage of the states of HolYffel, from its situation, entirely land and West Friezeland, which within his power whenever he found was to take place at the Hague in exertion abfolutely necessary, he the middle of March. Although was likewise within such a distance the stadtholder had no vote in that of the turbulent city of Utrecht, as assembly, it would have been his at least to protect the states of that duty to have attended, in order to province, whom they had already give his advice, and to lay such proobliged to retire to Amersfort, from posals and matters relative to pubi any obstruction or disturbance in lic affairs as he thought fitting, betheir proceedings at that place. fore them for regular discussion, had These were, however, but secondary not the late affronts which he reobjects, when compared with the ceived put it out of his power to great advantages which that fitua- return to that place, until he was tion would afford, if matters were restored to his former dignities and brought to a certain degree of ex- authority. The states themselves tremity, through the nearness of the seemed to entertain no small apprePruffian territories, which inclosed hension of the tumults which might Gueldres on two fides, with limits take place upon that occasion, from fo mixed and open, that the inter- the great and general attachment course could not be interrupted. of the inhabitants to the prince, Obvious as these advantages were; and the Itrong fensations of grief

and

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and indignation, which the novelty ple thewed such ftrong marks of and cause of his absence, with the dissatisfaction, and disposition to tupublic display of his degradation, mult, that the fixed bayonets, and were likely to produce.

firm conduct and countenance of the To obviate these disagreeable ef- soldiers, were absolutely necessary fects, after a day of public prayer to keep them in order. “But a new and fafting had been supposed to and very peculiar source of discord diffuse a serious disposition among remained still to be opened. A gate, the people, they issued a proclama- which derived its name from the tion a few days previous to the meet

stadtholder's office, and the particuing, strictly forbidding, under the lar use it was afligned to, poffeffed severest penalties, all the usual po. the fingular privilege (at least in pular marks of rejoicing, upon any modern times) of never being openpublic days or occasions whatever, ed, excepting when that first ‘maparticularly prohibiting the hoisting giftrate of the state was to pass of flags upon steeples or other places, through it upon public occafions, and the selling or wearing of any such as the present. The president badges of distinction, especially of of the assembly, to fhew the fullorange-coloured cockades and rib- ness of power, and to prepare the bands; which being a colour, they people for submission and acquiefobserve, not sanctioned' by autho. cence in all other novelties, ordered rity, could only be worn from the this interdicted gate to be opened, {pirit of party ; the delinquents, and a detachment of grenadiers whether fellers or wearers, being were assigned to the important fersubjected to the heavy arbitrary peo vice. This invidious measure was, nalties of imprisonment, corporal pu- beheld with the highest indignation nishment, and even death, to be dif. by the people ; but the terror of crecionally inflicted: encouragement the soldiers weapons, together with was held out to the most odious of the satisfaction of seeing that no atmen, informers; and in a degrading, tempt was made to pass through arbitrary, and probably injudicious the gate, (the prevention of which exertion of power, it was declared was now made the point of honour, that those who did not inform should when the first was given up) served be found equally guilty for the mis- to prevent their proceeding to any prision, and punithed as principals. actual violence.

The states at their The burghers of the Orange March 15th, firl meeting disap- party, considering this first invasion

pointed the public, of privilege as the prelude to farther when a prodigious crowd was alrea- outrage, held a meeting in the dy assembled, by an adjournment night, where, after deep debate, it to the following day. On that was determined to preserve, at all morning, to fix an idea of the ma events and hazards, the purity of jesty of their sovereign assembly, as their favourite gate from the last well as to awe the people, the gar- degree of violation. On the third rison were drawn out armed, and morning the stadtholder's gate was arrayed in their best uniforms, op. again opened, and matters posite the hall of the states. A conducted with a reasonable degree crowd of three or four thousand peoa of tranquillity through the day ; Vol. XXVIII.

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1786.

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