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reduced to the necessity of becoming stricted, the celebration of the bull beggars or vagabonds, or, what may feasts, which had for so many cenbe considered as a calamity little less turies been the peculiar and favou. confiderable, being obliged to inlift rite diversion of Spain; a diversion in foreign service in the countries which foreigners had generally conthrough which they passed. fidered or represented as a proof of
The king has, however, revived the present barbarism, and an indi. the scheme with great vigour, and cation of the natural cruelty of the no less apparent effect ; so that there people: połtions which should be seems now to be a fair prospect of well weighed before they are in any its succeeding to advantage. Be- degree admitted ; and which, if at fides taking the remains of the old all just, are subject to much limita . settlers, amounting now to about tion. The English have been no 600, under his immediate protec. ' less reproached for their bull-baittion, and giving new animation and ing, boxing matches, quarter-staff vigour to their industry, he has and cudgel playing, with their gemade an importation of 500 Roman neral disposition to athletic exercatholic Swiss families. Whether cises, and eagerness to behold fierce it proceeds from improvements, de- combats, whether between their own rived from experience, in the regula- fpecies or other animals. tion, whether from habits of greater Perhaps it is not always confi. industry in the Swiss, whether the dered, in passing these censures, that climate is better suited to their con man is born to a state of contention ftitutions than to the natives of and warfare; that he is doomed to northern Germany, or whether struggle with difficulties, and is at from the operation of all these, and all times liable to be compelled to perhaps other causes, this colony oppose and to surmount dangers, or proceeds much more prosperously to perish in the encounter; and that than the former. This success has these are circumstances from which so much encouraged the king, that no condition of fortune, or state of he is making farther and greater society, can at all times secure him. importations, and upon a ftill more It behoves him therefore not to inimproved plan, of Germans, French, dulge in the idea that he is always and Swiss, to whom great advan- to slumber upon beds of roses; but tages are held out; their farms be- to strengthen his mind, and harden ing granted in perpetuity upon some his body, for the reception of those very easy terms, proper stock pro- hard conflicts, from which no humility vided for them at present, and a of character, nor innocency
of life, competent quantity of land tilled may poflibly afford him an exemp. and sown at his expence for each fa- tion. As man has profited, in many mily the first
instances of art and domestic econohas been found very great, and has my, from the example of inferior exceeded what even could have been animals, he need not think it be. imagined; but it is an expençe truly neath him to improve in the virtues Royal, and worthy of a king. of courage and fortitude from the
Among other domestic regula- example of the more generous and tions, the king has abolished, or at noble kinds, as that exhibited by least greatly circumscribed and re- the heroic part of his own fpecies
ean' rarely come within his imme. jesty hoped they would set an examdiate knowledge: otherwise, by the ple of compliance to the public, by indulgence of too refined a deli- their own conformity to this new cacy, and the affectation of a fen- regulation. The motive affigned in timental disposition, which is nei- the preamble to the edict for these ther suited to our nature or condi- prohibitions is, that the former tion, men may again fink into the practice occasioned a great destruc. deplorable situation of the Syba- tion of cattle, and the latter a great rites, and neither be able to endure waste of their time and labour, when the fighċ of blood, nor to hear of they might be so much more advandanger, until they found themselves tageously employed for the purposes overwhelmed in both. The rough of agriculture. The aligned momasculine exercises, and hard per. tive does not seem at all to hold fonal conflicts of the common peo. with respect to the suppression of the ple, are preparatives to war; they bull feasts, as the animals used in inure men to resistance, to place a these spectacles were actual wild confidence in their own powers and bulls, taken with great difficulty, address in action, to endure toils, and in an absolute state of nature, blows, and danger, and to feel all in the remotest forests; and these the pride and triumph of victory. are too fierce and untameable to adNeed it be remembered, that the mit almost the posibility of their be. conflicts of fierce animals were spec. ing
broken down to country service. tacles admired by the most cele
The liberal disposition to improve. brated, as well as the most elegant ment, at present prevalent in the nations of antiquity: and we may court of Madrid, is not, however, add, that it is a gratification, no confined to rural or domestic matways artificial and improper for a ters; it seems to reach to every reasonable being, to behold any crea- thing, and to every part of their ture exerting the generous energies extensive dominions. The king, reof his nature.
flecting upon the number of tips The king of Spain has, however, and lives, both foreign and domel. prohibited the celebration of bull tic, which were every year loft upon feasts, excepting only in those cases the coasts of the kingdom, through where the profits arising from them the want of an accurate knowledge have been already asligned to some of them, and the imperfection of charitable, benevolent, or patriotic the old charts, which instead of bepurpose, and that no other fund has ing the guides to safety, frequently yet been appropriated to supply the led the unwary navigator into error deficiency. He has likewife prohi- and ruin, generously and humanely bited, under heavy penalties, the determined to remedy this evil. For use of more than two horses or mules the execution of this important purin gentlemen's carriages, within pose, Don Vincent Tofinode, a man the limits of any of the towns of the of fcience, and who presides in me kingdom. This injunction was at- marine academies, has ever since the tended with a circular letter to the conclusion of the peace with Eng. foreign ministers, enclosing a copy land, accompanied by able assistof the edict, and acquainting them ants, been assiduously' and succell. respectively, that his catholic ma. fully employed in surveying and Vou. XXVIII.
delineating the coasts of the king- Seas. After examining the wesleri dom. This is said to have been parts of the streight to the Capes done with unexampled care and ae Lunes and Providence, which they curacy, taking in the whole coaft found to be eleven leagues distant from Cape Saint Vincent to the from those called the Pillars and Streights of Gibraltar, and from Victoria, he returned to Port St. thence to the Cape de Creux, on the Jofeph. From thence the frigate coast of Coralonia, and including returned home through the itreights, the opposite Barbary shores. There kaving lost bat two men in the has not yet been time to publish the courfe of three months which they charts, but it is expected that they spent in that region of eternal winwill be found a great nautical im ter, tempefts, and defolation, which provement, and prove a treasure to had so long been the terror of marimariners.
ners. It is probable that this fhip was In the same fpirit, the king de- indebted for her unafual healthiness termined that the various accounts to she admirable and suceefsful meaof the Streights of Magellan, which fures adopted and published by caphave been given by the navigators tain Cook for the preservation of his of different nations, fhould be ex seamen. amined and corrected. For this
The exertions of Spain for the purpose a frigate was dispatched from improvement and increase of her Cadiz, under the conduct of Don naval power, have not only been Antonio Cordova of Lalo, who was unremittingly continued, but carfo fortunate as in a few months fully ried on with fresh vigour, and in a to execute his commission. This
more extensive degree, since the officer brought home an accurate conclufion of the war. This fyftem chart of the itreights, in which all will probably continue, fo long as the capes, bays, promontories, and the French influence predominates other remarkable objects on the op at the court of Madrid, and the fa. polite coasts, are distinctly laid down, mily compact retains its fall vigour. with their longitudes, latitudes, and This, however, ought not to cause any respective distances, ascertained by great alarm to those who daly weight astronomical observation. With all the temporary effect and fhort duthe delays incident to this material ration of any influence, and the frafervice, and to the unequalled tur- gil nature of family and all other bulence of that boisterous ciimate, political compacts. Money may enthey arrived in little more than five able princes to build or purchase weeks from their entering the great fleets, but that alone will be ftreights at Port St. Joseph, the found very unequal to the rendermost southern of the continent. ing them effective, or really formia From thenee Don Antonio went in dable. Bold and able feamen, with his barge to explore the channel of gallant and experienced officers, are St. Barbe, which lies three leagues treasures pot to be purchased. Most from that port, on the coast of the of the states of Europe possess a Terra del Fuego, where he found considerable number of large and the passage which had been long well-looking fhips of war, and these conjectured, but never before ascer exhibit a formidable appearance of tained, that leads into the South artillery : yet, what figure have they
ever made; or would they now make, two. The king has likewise opened in action ?
the ports of the Philippine islands This being, however, the æra of to all nations. reform and improvement in Spain, This last measure seems to give she is paying an unusual degree of some countenance to a report which attention to her foreign commerce has been currently spread, that the and to her colonies, (much furer and Spanish administration have for fome more permanent sources of naval time past had it in serious contemftrength) as well as to the other plation to break through that narparts of her political economy. row fyftem of policy, which has Among the instances of this atten- been so long and fo unremittingly tion, an East India company, under pursued, of restricting the commerce the name of the Royal Philippine, of Spanish America entirely to the was established in the beginning of mother country; and that now athe year 1785. The capital of this dopting more liberal ideas, and takcompany was fixed at 30 millions ing a more clear and scientifical view of livres, being something about of the nature both of trade and of 4.1,300,000 sterling; of which the colonies, they were actually digeftold Caraccas company, now united ing plans for opening a trade with with the new, furnished nine mil- foreign nations on the western coast lions, the king five, the bank of of South America, by the constiMadrid, and the inhabitants of the tuting of three free ports in the latPhilippine islands, three each; the ter; and that this design had been remaining ten millions were allotted so far advanced, that 'the ports of into shares of a thousand livres each, Baldivia in Chili, of Bonaventura and subscribed for by the public at in New Granada, and of Cinalea large. The company is charged in New Mexico, were those proposed with the equipment of the merchant for the purpose, and would probably fhips destined for Spanish America, be fixed upon. The cine which has which they are to Tupply with Eu- elapsed fince the circulation of this ropean merchandize, and to receive report, does not serve entirely to the products of those countries in overthrow its credibility, nor even return. A discretionary number of afford any absolute demonitration fhips are to proceed yearly from that the project is now abandoned, Acapulco to the Philippines, with if its former existence be admitted ; coined filver, corn, fruits, and such as a measure of so much novelty and other products or commodities of importance, involved in such a mulEurope or America as were found titude of complicated confequences, to suit the market ;'and with these of collateral connections and cir. they were to purchase the goods of cumances, could not but require India and China, for the fupply both much nicety of enquiry, as well as of the mother country and her co much previous and mature considelonies. The company are to have a ration.
council of administration at Aca Though the Spaniards have at all - pulco, another at Manilla, and a times endeavoured to cover, with a fupreme one at Madrid, which is to veil of impenetrable obfcurity and receive the correspondence and to secrecy, the state, circumstances, controul the conduct of the other and transactions of their colonies in
Southern America; endeavouring, ties ; and that they are too much as much as it was in human power, debilitated, and have been too long to seclude them from all intercourse broken down to the yoke, to be caand correspondence with the rest of pable of becoming even the princimankind, yet neither the penalties pals in any considerable commoof laws, the industry and vigilance tion. of power, nor the immensity of seas It is well known, that the old and desarts, can at all times prevent Spanish settlers and natives of that " the secrets of the prison house vast continent, have from time imfrom escaping. Most of the public memorial been exceedingly disconprints throughout Europe have for tented with many circumstances in some years abounded with accounts the government and internal admiof dangerous rebellions, and even niftration
niftration of those countries. That, expected revolutions, in Peru, Chili, in particular, the constant disposal and other parts of South America. of all places of trust and emolument It has even been pretended, that a to Europeans, has long been regarddescendant of the Incas was at the ed by them with the greatest jeahead of a numerous Indian army, lousy and resentment, and considerand making successful efforts to re ed as a badge of the most intolerable cover the throne, and to re-establish slavery. That the insupportable arthe empire of his ancestors. rogance of these new comers, the
Although the extravagance of haughty disdain they display, and these accounts was sufficient to de- the contemptuous insolence with stroy their credibility, even in those which, upon every occasion, they things that were possibly true, yet treat the natives, would alone be sufit may be gathered upon the whole, ficient to render them odious in the from the concurrence of circumstan- extreme : but when with these are ces which did not admit of doubt, reckoned their numberless other ill that the Spanish dominion in South qualities and vices; the avarice and America has for some years been oppression with which they rapidly considerably disturbed by commo- collect immense fortunes; and their tions of some sort or other. It hasty conveyance of them out of the would feem, however, in specula- country, as if its plunder had been tion (the dim lights afforded us not the only object of their miffion; it admitting of any clear view) that is not to be wondered at that such these disturbances could not have a system of oppression, rapacity, and proceeded entirely, if at all, from irritation, should beget a mortal the Indians : for, excepting the averfion to the native Spaniards, brave and unconquered nations of and no small dislike to the
governChili (who are not, however, capa- ment by which such enormities were ble of carrying on a distant or re admitted. gular war) we hold the Indians to These general causes, concurring be involved in too great a multitude perhaps with other local and partiof moral, physical,
and political in- cular ones, have undoubtedly laid capacities, to admit of their acting the foundations of some considerable with that vigour and union, which disorders and commotions in Spanish could alone afford the most distant America, although the means of prospect of recovering their liber. information are too imperfect to ad