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mob broke into the house of com- in both houses of parliament, and
mons at the time of its fitting, re several petitions were presented
proached the members with having against it. At length a sort of com-
fold themselves to Great Britain, promise took place. The most ob-
and called on them at least to diftri- noxious clauses, those relative to the
bate amongst the starving manufac- recognizance, and the imprisonment
turers fome share of the hire of their of hawkers, were withdrawn, and
iniquity. The guards being sent the bill, thus modified, passed with
for, put' an end to the riot without a pretry general concurrence.
any bloodshed, and two of the ring Notwithstanding the vigorous con-
leaders were apprehended and com- duct of the Irish government, the
mitted to Newgate.

city of Dublin continued, during the As there was great reason to be. whole course of the summer 1785, lieve that the people were greatly in- to be a scene of tumult and disorder. cited to these violent excesses by the No sooner was parliament risen, feditious and infiammatory libels than the expedient of non-importawhich were daily circulated in the tion agreements was again resorted public papers, prosecutions were to with greater zeal than ever. commenced against several of the These engagements spread themprinters ; and on the 7th of April selves into every quarter of the kinga bill was brought in by Mr. Fortter, dom.- They received the fanction “ for securing the liberty of the of several grand juries, and the mer.

press, by preventing the publica- chants of the trading ports found « tion of libels." By this bill it themselves compelled to subscribe to was enacted,

That the real prin- them. The enforcing of these pro« ter and proprietor of every news. hibitory compacts naturally devolv.

paper should make an afidavit of ed upon the lowest class of the peo« his name and place of residence, ple, and they proceeded in the exe*s and that the fame should be cution of this trust according to the

lodged in the stamp-office, to be most approved modes of popular dis,

produced as fufficient evidence in cipline. -- To keep these excefles si cases of prosecution for libels :- within fome bounds, the military " That they should further enter were posted in such parts of the city « each into a recognizance of sool. as were the most subject to tumult, « to antwer all civil suits that should centinels were placed to prevent or “ be instituted against them in fuch to give notice of the first appearance “ characters :—That they should of riot, and the garrison was kept in • take no money for putting in or constant readiness for action.

having in any flanderous articles, This untemporising difpofition in « 'under a severe penalty: and laft- government, drew on the lord lieu- ly, that the hawker of any un tenant, whose manners were in other

itamped inflammatory or libel. respects peculiarly adapted to ac" lous paper should be compelled quire the favour of that nation, an “ to prove from whom he received unusual share of popular odium, the " it, and should be subjected to im- effects of which he had frequently

prisonment ipfo facto by warrant the mortification of experiencing.-«of any justice of the peace.' In one instance the public theatre This bill was strenuously orposed was chosen to be the scene of mani.


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festing this ill-humour. He was re- Irish parliament, in January 1785,
ceived on his arrival in the house by the British cabinet, in concert with
the performance of a piece of music commisioners appointed on the part
called the Volunteers March. A ge- of Ireland, had formed a plan for
neral uproar ensued; the entertain- regulating and finally adjuiting the
ments of the evening were stopped ; commercial intercourse between the
and it was said that he narrowly ef- two kingdoms.
caped undergoing one of those ope. On the 7th of February, Mr.
rations which are usually inflicted Orde, the secretary to the lord lieu-
by the mob on persons who have the tenant, announced this system to the
misfortune to fall under their dif- house of commons, and on the rith,

a set of resolutions, which he had be Previous to the meeting of the fore laid on their table, were moved


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* Resolutions passed by the Irish house of commons. Resolved I. That it is the opinion of this committee, that it is highly important to the interest of the British empire, that the trade between Great Britain and Ireland be extended as much as poilible, and for that purpote that the intercourte and commerce be finally settled and regulated on permanent and equitable principles, for the mutual benefit of both countries.

Resolved II. That towards carrying into full effect fo desirable a settlement, it is fit and proper that all articles, not the growth of Great Britain and Ireland, should be imported into each kingdom from the other, under the fame regulations, and at the same duties, if subject to duties, to which they are liable when inported directly from the place of their growth, product, or manufa&ture; and that all duties originally paid on importation, to either country respectively, thall be drawn back on exportation to the other.

Resolved III. That for the same purpose, that it is proper that no prohibition should exist in either country againit the importation, uile, or sale of any article, the growth, product, or manufacture of the other; and that the duty on the importation of every such article, if subject ta duty in either country, should be precisely the same in one country as in the other, except where an addition may be nes cessary in either country, in consequence of an internal duty on any such article of its own consumption.

Resolved IV. That in all cases where the duties on articles of the growth, product, or manufacture of either country are different on the importation into the other, it would be expedient that they should be reduced, in the kingdom where they are the highest, to the amount payable in the other, and that all iuch articles hould be exportable from the kingdom into which they shall be imported, as free from duty as the similar commodities or home manufactures of the same kingdom.

Resolved V. That for the same purpose, it is also proper that in all cafes where either kingdom shall charge articles of its own consumption with an internal duty on the manufacture, or a duty on the material, the fame manufacture, when in.. ported from the other, may be charged with a further duty on importation, to the Tame amount as the internal duty on the manufacture, or to an amount adequate to: countervail the duty on the material, and shall be entitled to such drawbacks or, bounties on exportation, as may leave the same fubieci to no heavier burthen than: the home-made manufacture ; such further duty to continue so long only as the internal consumption thall be charged with thie duty or duties, to balance which it


and agreed to by the house without a speech of confiderable length with
much discussion, and without any moving the following general reso-
material alterations. The concur lution : “ That it was highly impor-
rence of the house

peers being

tant to the general interests of the foon after obtained, these resolutions “ empire, that the commercial in. were immediately transmitted to " tercourse between Great Britain England, as the proposed basis, on the " and Ireland should be finally adpart of that country, for an equitable justed, and that Ireland should be and final adjustment.

“ permitted to a permanent and Almost immediately after their ar “ irrevocable participation of the rival, the business was opened before “ commercial advantages of this a committee of the house of com country, when her parliament mons by Mr. Pitt, who concluded “ should permanently and irrevocashall be imposed, or until the manufacture coming from the other kingdom Mall be subjected there to an equal burthen, not drawn back or compensated on exportation.

Resolved VI. That in order to give permanency to the settlements now intended to be established, it is necessary that no prohibition, or new or additional duties, fhould be hereafter imposed in either kingdom, on the importation of any article of the growth, product, or manufacture of the other, except luch additional duties as may be requisite to balance duties on internal consumption, pursuant to the foregoing resolution.

Resolved VII. That for the same purpose, it is necessary further that no prohibitions, or new additional duties, should be hereafter imposed on either kingdoms, on the exportation of any article of nalive growth, product, or manufacture, from thence to the other, except such as either kingdom may deem expedient from time to time, upon corn, meal, malt, flour, and biscuit; and also, except where there now exists any prohibition, which is not reciprocal, or any duty, which is not equal, in both kingdoms; in every which case the prohibition may be made reciprocal, or the duties raised so as to make them equal.

Resolved VIII. That for the same purpose, it is necessary that no bounties whatfoever should be paid or payable in either kingdom, on the exportation of any article to the other, except such as relate to corn, meal, malt, flour, and biscuits, and such as are in the nature of drawbacks or compensations for duties paid ; and that no bounties Mould be granted in this kingdom, on the exportation of any article imported from the British plantations, or any manufacture made of such ar. ticle, unless in cases where a similar bounty is payable in Britain on exportation from thence, or where such bounty is merely in the nature of a drawback, or compensation of or for duties paid over and above any duties paid there on in Britain.

Resolved IX. That it is expedient for the general benefit of the British empire, that the importation of articles from foreign itates should be regulated from time to time, in each kingdoin, on such terms as may afford an effectual preference to the importation of similar articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the other.

Resolved X. That for the better protection of trade, whatever sum the grofs hereditary revenue of this kingdom (after deducting all drawbacks, re-payments, or bounties granted in the nature of drawbacks) shall produce annually, over and above the sum of £. should be appropriated towards the support of the naval force of the empire, in fuch manner as the parliament of this kingdom Ihall direct.


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bly secure an aid out of the sur Such was the general outline of “ plus of the hereditary revenue of the proposed system on its first ap" that kingdom, towards defraying pearance. In the outset, both those " the

expence of protecting the ge- within and those withouc doors seem. “ neral commerce of the empire in ed to comprehend but little, and to “ time of peace.”

be still less concerned about an ob. Mr. Pitt, after taking a review of ject of such extent and importance. what had already been granted to A fortnight elapsed before the fubIreland by the British parliament, ject again made its appearance ; observed, 'That the concessions now during which interim a report, proposed to be made to that king- prepared by a committee of the dom, in order to put the two coun

board of trade and plantations, was tries on a fair and equal footing, he laid by the minister upon the table thould reduce to two heads :

of the house of commons, to aslift its First, The importation of the pro- deliberations. This report was ftat. duce of our colonies in the West Indies ed to be founded upon the declaraand America through Ireland into tiens and opinions of some cf the Great Britain.

principal manufacturers and mer. Second, A mutual exchange between chants in the kingdom, who had the two countries of their respective been examined by the above-menfroductions and manufactures, upon tioned committee ; and its particuequal terms.

lar object was to prove the expedi. With regard to the first, he allow- ency of that part of the system which ed it had the appearance of militat- related to reducing the duties paying against the navigation laws, for able upon the importation of Irish which England had ever had the produce and manufactures into Great greatest partiality. But as she had Britain, to what the same sort of ar. already allowed Ireland to trade im- ticles were charged with in this mediately and directly with the co country*. lonies, he could not see how the im In the mean time the merchants porting of the produce of those co and manufacturers who had been lonies circuitously through Ireland examined before the committee, into Great Britain could injure the joined by great numbers of others colonial trade of this country, which from every part of the nation, met was a direct one, and therefore to be together for the purpose of taking made at a less expence and risque, the Irish propositions into their con. than that which was circuitous. fideration.-During the course of In return for these concessions on their proceedings it appeared, that

part of Great Britain, he pro- the opinions of the former were in pored that Ireland should agree to direct contradiction to the inferenthe

payment of a certain ftipulated ces which had been drawn from their fum yearly out of the surplus of her examination in the report laid be. hereditary revenue, towards defray- fore parliament.. Whether this was ing the general expences of the ema occafioned by any change which, pire.

upon a fuller consideration, had ta.


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* See resolutions 3 and 4, page 13 ante.



1786. ken place in the minds of the mer- receiving the petitions, and hearing chants and manufacturers themselves, the evidence of manufacturers and or whether the committee of the merchants of every description. board of trade and plantations had This laborious and minute mode #trained and perverted their decla- of investigation being gone through, rations, it is not easy to determine. the propolitions were again brought However, the consequence was, that

forward by Mr. Pitt, on it threw a considerable degree of

May 12th,

the 12th of May, but ufferedit upon the report itself, and


with a variety ofamendseemed to point out the neceffity ments, variations, and additions.there was for the house of commons To the original set of propositions, to examine the different commercial ten new ones were added, some of and manufacturing bodies concern- them only supplemental to, and exed, at their own bar. This mode of planatory of the former, but several proceeding gave the first check to containing much new and important The system in its progress through matter; we shall therefore lay them the house, whilst without doors it be. as they now stood, at large before our came more unpopular, in proportion readers, in the note below*. as it became more thoroughly in The chief objects of the additiveligated.

onal propositions were to provide, March ard

During the months ift, That whatever navigation laws

of March and April, the British parliament should hereApril 1785. and until the middle after find it necessary to enact for of May, the house was occupied in the preservation of her marine, the


* 1. That it is highly important to the interests of both countries, that the com. merce between Great Britain and Ireland should be finally regulated on permanent and equitable principles, for the mutual benefit of both countries.

II. That a full participation of commercial advantages should be permanently secured to Ireland, whenever a provision, equally permanent and secure, thall be made by the parliament of that kingdom towards defraying, in preportion to its growing proiperity, the necesary expences in time of peace, of protecting the riade and general interests of the empire.

III. That towards carrying into full effect so desirable a settlement, it is fit and proper

that all articles, not the growth or manufacture of Great Britain or Ireland, “ except those of the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any of the 5 countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope, to the Streights of Magellan," lliould be in:pcrted into each kingdom from the other reciprocally, under the same regulations, and at the fame duties (if subject to duties) to which they “ would “be” liable when imported dire&tly from the “ country or place from whence 66 the fame may have been imported into Great Britain or Ireland respectively, as *c the case may be ;” and that all duties originally paid on importation into either country respectively, except on arrack and foreign brandy, and on rum, and ail forts of strong waters not imported from the British colonies in the West Indies, fall be fully drawn back on exportation to the other, “ But, nevertheless, that 6 the duties shall continue to be protected and guarded, as at present, by withia bolding the drawback, until a certificate from the proper officers of the revenue,

in the kingdom to which the export may be made, shall be returned and com“ pared with the entry outwards.'

IV. That

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