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The bill afterwards passed with them to report their proceedings at out a division.

the opening of every feffion. Mr. Pitt, on the 20th of June, But his Itrongest objection to the in consequence of a previous meflage bill was, the unlimited power it from his majesty to both houses of gave to the commiflioners to call for, parliament, moved, “That leave and take into their custody, all titles, * be given to bring in a bill for maps, plans, and documents, which

appointing commissioners to en- related to lands holden of the

quire into the state and condi crown. This, he said, was infti. « tion of the woods, forests, and tuting a court of inquisition un. “ land revenues, belonging to the known in any other, much less in * crown.” The bill was read a this country; it left every man first and second time without hay concerned without any thing like ing any particular notice taken of certainty of title or estate ; whereit, or at all challenging the atten ever a'reservation was made for the tion of the house. Upon its being delivery of copy deeds, it was inva. reported on the 29th of June, Mr. riably the custom to insert a clause Jolliffe strongly objected to its fur- that they should be made by perther progress. The commisioners fons appointed by the holder of the appointed by the bill were, he deeds, but at the expence of the faid, to continue in their office du. person claiming them. sing the existence of the bill it. Mr. Jolliffe concluded by moving felf, which was for three years, amendments for the protection of without being removable by his title deeds, and to oblige the commajesty, or by address or petition missioners to report their proceedof parliament. The appointment ings to the house ; which were imof the commissioners in Mr. Fox's mediately received without a divi. India bill, for the term only of one fion, and the bill passed the comyear more, though they were re

It was afteru ards attacked movable by address of parliament, with a considerable degree of sehad yet excited the greatest alarm verity in the house of and clamour, because they were not lords by lord Lough

July 7th. removable by the crown. This borough, who, upon the third readappeared the more extraordinary, ing, opposed it chiefly upon the as they were not concerned in mat- following grounds :-First, Because ters that had any particular relation the bill did not agree with his mato the crown ; neither did the bill jesty's message, on which it professed in question compel the commissioners to be founded: that message only to report their proceedings, or give authorized an enquiry to be made any security to the jublic that they into the state and condition of the would do their duty. Thus an im- woods, forests, and land revenues mense expence might be incurred, belonging to the crown; but the without producing any effect what. bill proceeded to alienate and disever.' This omission he added was pose of the land revenues of the the more unpardonable, since the crown, contrary to the usage of bill appointing the commissioners parliament, and inconsistent with of the public accounts compelled the respect due to the crown.



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Secondly, Because the bill repealed rence with the officers of the army
the acts of the 22d and 23d of or navy.
Charles the Second, and created a Mr. Crewe's bill, in setting aside
new power for the sale of those the votes of all persons holding
lands, without any exception of the places in the customs, excise, poft,
rents in the former acts reserved and stamp - offices, had done the
in behalf of divers persons, and for highest service to the constitution.
fundry good and wholesome pur- The bill he proposed, Mr. Marf-
poses in those acts mentioned. ham said, was so similar in its
Lastly, Because the powers granted principle and operation to Mr.
to the 'commiffioners were dange- Crewe's, that every argument
rous to the subject, and derogatory which was or could be adduced in
to the honour of the crown. It sub- favour of that bill, was equally
jected all persons holding of the applicable to the one in question.
crown, or holding eftates adjoining The minifter opposed the bill,
to crown lands, to an inquisition alledging that it stood upon very
into their ancient boundaries and different grounds from the bill
title deeds, at the mere motion brought in by Mr. Crewe, for
of the commissioners, without any which he had himself voted. The
other legal or ordinary process. Ít reason, he said, for passing that
tended to restrain the tenants of the act, was the necessity of reducing
crown from their accustomed rights the influence of the crown-an in-
and privileges; and the crown it- Auence which the house had pre-
self was deprived by it of the ma- viously declared had increased, was
nagement of its own estate, which increasing, and ought to be dimi-
it transferred to the commissioners. nished. If Mr. Crewe's bill had
The bill was nevertheless carried answered that purpose, then the
by a majority of ten, the house di- object contended for was gain.
viding ; contents 14, proxies 14; ed'; if it had not, it was unwise
non-contents il, proxies 7. to extend such principles as that

A protest against this bill, con bill contained, where no benefit
taining the objections already men arose from their operation.
tioned, and some other additional At the saine time Mr. Pitt al-
ones, was afterwards signed by his lowed that Mr. Crewe's bill might
lordship the earl of Carlisle, the be said to have gone a good way in
duke of Portland, the earl of Sand- destroying that influence which in
wich, and the bishop of Bristol. matters of election ought effectually

An attempt was made this session to be eradicated: but there were by the Hon. Mr. Marsham to ex other grounds of objection which he tend the disqualifications respecting had to the present bill, and which the power of voting at elections, he felt to be insurmountable. The contained in the bill generally persons disqualified by Mr. Crewe's known by the name of Mr. Crewe's bill were of such a description, that bill, to persons holding places in the very burthens imposed upon the the

navy and ordnance - office.- public were conducive to their priThese places he added were all of vate interests; and therefore they a civil nature, and had not the were peculiarly unfit to elect molt diftant connection or interfe- the members of that assembly,



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whose bufiness it was to impose concerned, namely that one body
those burthens. Again, the officers extended over the whole kingdom,
of the excise and customs pervaded whilst the other was confined to a
the whole kingdom; whereas the few places, it only proved, when
present description of men taken in its fullest extent, that as
confined only to particular parts of the officers of the revenue were more
the coast. There exifted another numerous and more diffused than
difference between them, which the servants of the navy and ord-
was to be taken into consideration : nance, the disqualifying of the lat-
the revenue - officers were com ter, although an useful and necef-
pletely under the influence of go. fary regulation, was not so in the
vernment, but the persons employ- fame degree, and to the same ex,
ed in the departments in question tent, as the disqualification of the
were subject to no controul whatever; former. Next, it had been urged
they were at all times capable of that the influence of the persons in
procuring what was equal to their question had not been felt; but
present salaries in foreign services, would it, Mr. Fox said, be argued,
or with our merchantmen at home. that because the influence might
If the present bill passed, the whole be either dormant or unsuccessful,
corps of our naval artificers might that it therefore did not exist? It
carry their skill and industry to a had also been suggested, he said,
foreign market, and there did not that the naval artizans, if deprived
exist a maritime country that would of their votes, would hire them.
not grant them their own terms. selves to foreign powers; but such
Lastly, he added, that it did not a supposition, he added, was too ri.
appear, that the influence of the diculous to be treated seriously,
persons in question was ever felt in They were to go abroad, he sup-
those parts of the kingdom where, posed, to have voices in the ap,
if at all, it must be the more pre- pointment of members of parlia.

ment in France, or were to in
Mr. Fox made some observations fluence the elections of Spain, or
on the minister's reasons for reject- were to look for a share in the
ing the proposed measure. He be- aristocracy of Holland.
gan with observing, that it was al- cluded by seriously calling the at-
lowed that no degree of influence tention of the house to the con-
with respect to elections ought to fideration of the present influence
remain in the crown ; but if de- of the crown, and to the conse:
priving the revenue-officers of the quent necessity of applying the re-
right of voting tended to reduce that medy now proposed. After some
influence, the depriving those other further debate Mr. Marsham's mo-
fervants of the crown muft necef- tion for the second reading of his
sarily reduce it still more.

bill was negatived by a majority of With respect to the distinction 76; the numbers being for the made between the different persons question 41, against it 117.

He con

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Accufation of Mr. Hastings.--Speech of Mr. Burke on opening that business

in the house of commons; he gives the reasons for his undertaking it; reminds the house of their former proceedings; siates three different modes of accusation, prosecution in the courts below, bill of pains and peralties, impeachment ; obje&tion 10 the two former modes; his plan of condučting the last ; general observations on the whole ; he moves for a variety of India papers and documents ; debates thereon ; Mr. Dundas's defence of himself ; Mr. Pitt's argument on the fame fide ; answer to objections by Mr. Burke ; rights and privileges of an accuser; the production of papers relative to the treaties with the Mahrattas and the Mogul objected to, on the ground of disclosing dangerous fecrets ; answer to that obje&tion ; papers refused on a division ; motion renewed by Mr. Fox, and rejected. Mr. Burke delivers in twenty-trvo articles of charge against Mr. Hastings; Mr. Hastings petitions to be heard in his own defence ; conversation thereon ; Mr. Hastings heard at the bar ; bis defence laid on the table : first charge, respecting the Rohilla war, moved by Mr. Burke ; his introductory Speech ; list of speakers on both sides ; charge rejected on a division : second charge, respecting Benares, moved by Mr. Fox ; supported by Mr. Pitt ; carried by a large majority ; indecent reflections of Mr. Hajlings's friends thereupon.-Mr. Dundas's Bill for amending the India act of 1784 ; its arbitrary principles strongly opposed; defended by Mr. Dundas ; palles both houses. -King's speech. --Parliament prorogued.

E have before related, that suffered to remain a mere calumny W

on the first day of the sel on the page of their journals ; at, fion Mr. Burke was called upon by the fame time he lamented that the

agent of the late governor gene. the solemn business of the day ral of Bengal to produce the cri- should have devalyed upon him by minal charges against Mr. Haf- the natural death of fome, by the tings in such a shape as might ena political death of others, and in able parliament to enter into a full some instances by a death to duty discussion of his conduct, and come and to principle. It would doubtto a final decision


less, he said, have come forward On Friday the 17th of February, with much more weight and effect in Mr. Burke brought this subject be- the hands of the right honourable fore the house of commons: after gentleman who had induced the defiring the clerk to read the 44th ħouse to adopt those resolutions, and 45th resolutions of censure and or in those of another gentleman, recal of Mr. Hastings, moved by who had taken an active part in Mr. Dundas on the 29th of May the select committee, and then 1782, he said that he entirely agreed enjoyed a confidential post in in opinion with the friends of that the Indian department, the secregentleman, that the resolution tary of the board of controul; but which had been read should not be as he could not perceive any inten

tions of the kind in either of those of particular cases, had each at dir members, and as he had been per- ferent times been adopted. The sonally called upon, in a manner first was to direct his majesty's athighlý honourable to the party in- torney general to prosecute; from terested in the proceeding, but in a this mode he acknowledged himself manner which rendered it impossible totally averse, not only because he for him not to do his duty, he had not discovered in the learned Mould endeavour to the best of his gentleman, whose respectable cha. power to support the credit and racter and professional abilities had dignity of the house, to enforce its advanced him to that high official intentions, and give vigour and ef- fituation, that zeal for public juffect to a sentence passed four years tice in the present instance, which ago; and he trusted that he should

was a necessary qualification in a receive that protection, that fair public prosecutor ; but more efpeand honourable interpretation of his cially, because he thought a trial in conduct, which the house owed to the court of King's Bench, amidst those who acted in its name, and a cloud of causes of meum and under the sanction of its authority. tuum, of trespass, assault, battery,

Having endeavoured upon this conversion, and trover, &c. &c. not ground to remove the odium of ap. at all suited to the size and enorpearing a forward prosecutor of mity of the offender, or to the compublic delinquency, Mr. Burke plicated nature and extent of his called back the recollection of the offences. Another mode of prohouse to the several proceedings ceeding occafionally adopted by the which had been had in parliament house was by bill of pains and penalrespecting the mal-administra- ties; this mode he also greatly dis. tion of the company's affairs in approved of, in the first place, as India, from the period of Lord attended with great hardship and Clive's government down to the injustice to the party prosecuted, by reports of the secret and select com- obliging him to anticipate his de. mittees, the resolutions moved fence; and secondly, as putting the thereupon, and the approbation re house in a situation which, where peatedly given to these proceedings the nature of the case did not absoby his majesty from the throne. – lutely require it, ought carefully to It was upon the authority, the sanc- be avoided, that of thifting its chation, and the encouragement thus racter backwards and forwards, and afforded him, that he refted his appearing in the same cause one day accusation of Mr. Hastings, as a de. as accufers, and another as judges. linquent of the first magnitude. -The only process that remained,

After going through an infinite was by the ancient and constituvariety of topics relative to this tional mode of impeachment; and even part of his subject; he proceeded in adopting this process he should to explain the process which he advise the house to proceed with all should recommend to the house poslible caution and prudence. It to pursue. There were, he ob had been usual, he oblerved, in the ferved, three several modes of


first instance, to resolve that the ceeding against state delinquents, party accused should be impeached, which, according to the exigencies and then to appoint a committee to


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