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With regard to the mowing of grass, in weather ought ever to be avoided, if possigeneral, for hay, the workmen should be ble; and, however obvious this caution, it made to cut as low as possible, by which the cannot be regarded as superfluous, as it is crop is increased, and the remainder thrives unfortunately very often neglected. Barley better than it would do otherwise. Many is particularly subject to injury by wet, hands should be ready to assist, and five having no protecting husk ; and has a strong makers are not too many for every mower. tendency, when cut in this state, to run to The grass slıould be shaken out immediately malting : it should not only be cut dry, after the scythe. By the evening it should but immediately, if possible, be bound up, be raked into rows. The next morning it to prevent its being discoloured, which will should be again shaken and spread, and in otherwise easily occur. Peas grow so irrethe evening it should be put up into cocks. gularly as to make the sickle necessary. These being opened on the following mom- For removing the produce from the field, ing, after a similar process, may in fine long carts, moveable upon the axle, by weather be safely collected into the great which the whole load is moved at once upon hay cock at night. If successive rains come the ground, and lifted to the stack by peron to damage it, as it is stacked a peck of sons appointed for the purpose, are prefersalt should be strewed in layers on every load, able to other modes. Dispatch is thus obwhich will sweeten it and renderit palatable tained when particularly required, a circumfor cattle, which would not taste it without stance always worthy of regard. Instead of this preparation. The stack should be co. housing corn, stacking it is a far superior vered within a week after it is finished, and practice, as it not only, by the consequent a trench should be dug near it to carry off exposure to the air, carries what is called a any wet, if it be placed in a situation sub- finer countenance, but as it is more comject to damp. The hard hay of a poor soil pletely preserved from vermin than by beis little subject to firing, which often occurs ing deposited in a barn. Every sheaf should with respect to that made of succulent hier be made to incline downward from its top bage. The latter, therefore, requires longer to its bottom. Where they are laid hori. time for its making. To preserve as much zontally, rain will be taken in both above of the sap of grass as possible, without in- and below. The best form for a stack is curring the danger of firing, is the grand that of a cone, (the top of which should be practical problem of hay making.
formed with three sheaves united in a point) When the stems of culmiferous plants are placed upon a cylinder. The moment a totally divested of green, they are perfectly stack is finished the covering of it should, if ripe. Some farmers recommend that wheat possible, commence: materials should there. should be cut before this mature stage, not fore be previously collected. If much rain only to prevent any of the grain from shake should fall before this operation is performing out, but as being found to make more ed, it will be difficult, and perhaps impossiexcellent flour from being cut before per ble, to render the stack dry while it stands; fect ripeness, than after having attained it. and in order to prevent putrefaction, it will The latter observation may very safely be be often requisite to pull it down, and after controverted. But, as it is admitted that fully exposing every sheaf to the air, to reevery moment it remains standing after construct it. complete maturity, is critical, it may often The method of preserving potatoes has be judicious to commence the reaping of it already been suggested, and to go farther before the period of full ripeness. Wheat into detail on this subject, would exceed has been immemorially reaped instead of our limits. being mowed, and this method ought always
THRESHING. to be adopted, as from its high growth it The usual mode of threshing is attended becomes untractable to the scythe. When with the inconvenience of the straw being barley ground is purposely smoothed by very ofteu not thoroughly cleared, by which rolling, that crop may be cut down with the much grain is lost; and with that of affordscythe, which not only, from the greater ra- ing the workmen great and perpetual inpidity of its operation, removes that grain centives to depredation, which, perhaps, more effectually from the danger of being are rarely resisted, or at least are certainly shaken by winds, but brings with it a much often yielded to. A fixed threshing mill will greater proportion of the straw for manure, give comparative security against these than any other niode, a circumstance well evils; and one worked by two or three deserving attention. Cutting of corn in wet horses ray be purchased for from sixty te
a bundred guineas, and which, in eight circulation of the air. They should be kept hours, will thresh fifteen quarters of wheat. clear also of the misletoe, which is often exThe granary should be over this mill, and tremely injurious. Moss likewise should the corn may then, immediately after thresh- never be permitted to incumber them. The ing, be drawn up into it and deposited safe failure of crops, in particular years, is often under the key of the farmer. Fresh thresh- ascribed to what is called blight; but, to ed straw is better than old for feeding cat- adopt more intelligible language, is probably tle, and is best managed for them by being imputable to the great exhaustion of the cat into chaff.
trees by recent bearings; to prevent, or FRUIT TREES.
mitigate which exhaustion, the best appli. The culture of trees, for the purpose of cation is that of care, to bestow upon them deriving a fermented liquor from their juice, all the natural means of healthy and vigoremploys a great proportion of the land of ous vegetation. Excess of bearing, however, this as of other countries; and is, therefore, will inevitably impair strength. Gratting in an important branch of agricultural atten- the boughs, and when they are fully grown tion. The preparation of the juice of apples thinning the branches, will prevent excessive is more particularly attended to in the produce, and may be considered as a very British empire, than of that of any other probable method of procuring fiuit in mofruit; and the few remarks on the general derate quantities every year. As general subject which our limits will permit, will be
management, with respect to orchard contined to that fruit. The varieties of ap- grounds, it is a judicious rule to plant for ples are entirely artificial, nature having such, a broken up worn out sward, keeping produced only one species, which is the it under arable till the trees have attained common crab. But different culture pro- tolerable growth, when it may with advan. duces very great differences, which are pre- tage be laid down to grass, and be permitserved by artificial propagation. The seeds ted to remain in that state till the trees are of the finest flavoured apples, among the finally removed. After one set of graft. native species, should be sown in seed beds, stocks on the stem have become effete, a in an extremely rich soil; and the assistance second has been successfully applied : and of a frame, or even a stove, may be applied. thus, though the effect of age will at length In the first or second winter the plants prove fatal, the bearing of trees has been should be removed to the nursery; while often very long protracted. The pear tree they remain there, the intervals between is of much longer duration than the apple. them may be occupied with garden stuff, Both should be extirpated without relucwhich should not, however, crowd or over tance, when their produce no longer comshadow them; and weeds, whenever they pensates for the ground occupied by them. appear, should be extirpated. In pruning, particular attention must be given to the TIMBER TREES AND COPPICES. leader ; and, where there are two, the The planting of timber trees is an imporweakest of them must be cut off. The un
tant aid to general cultivation, particularly dermost boughs should be gradually remov in mountainous and moorish situations, ed, and not all in one season. The height where they afford shelter both for corn of the stem should be seven feet, or seven crops and cattle. Wherever plantations are and a half, as the crops on a tree of this formed in such situations, the aspect of the elevation are less exposed, and, indeed, the surrounding land is always improved, and tree itself is less susceptible of injury. When exhibits a richer verdure. When suddenly they have attained five inches in girt, which removed, the contrary effect takes place; theg will do in seven or eight years, they the efforts of buman industry are then im may be safely planted out. Tillage is fa- paired; the warmth of the soil is dissipatvourable, as the ground is thus stirred about ed; vegetation is pierced and chilled by them; and, where cattle are permitted to the unresisted blasts which sweep along feed among them, they are apt to injure its surface; and the cattle are benumbed and them, and, indeed, also to injure themselves stunted for want of protection from its fury. after the trees begin to bear, by the fruit In a flat and rich country, plantations of sticking in their throats; on which account ten operate injuriously ; and lofty hedge apple grounds, not in tillage, should be eaten rows, containing stately trees, check the bare before the season of gathering. Apple free passage of the air and light, prevent trees should be carefully cleared of a redun- the seasonable drying of the ground, and, dance of wood, which intercepts the free in a changeful and critical climate, the corn
is consequently delayed in its progress to- equal the number of years intended for their wards maturity, often cannot be gathered growth before cutting. The management in proper condition, and, sometimes, is com will thus be easy as well as profitable, and pietely ruined. These considerations will fall naturally, without agitation and embargenerally be sufficient to decide the ques- rassment, into the regular business of the tion of planting timber trees in particular year. These plantations may be sown either situations. Where the practice is thought in October or March. The land being in judicious with a view to the melioration of good order, it should be sown with corn or the soil, the larch, which is the quickest pulse, appropriate to the season and the soil, grower, and the most valuable of all the after which the tree seeds should be put resinous trees, will be entitled to a prefer- across the land in drills. Acorns and nuts ence. The most barren ground will answer must be dibbled, and the key berries scatall its demands for nourishment. For oak, tered in trenches, drawn by the hoe, at four better lands are indispersable. Beech trees feet distance. Osiers may often be cultiunder the protection of Scotch tirs, pre- vated to great advantage, yielding a profit viously planted for their shelter, will lay in the second, or at least in the third year; hold, eventually, even of a soil which pos- while a coppice requires 15 or 20, and an sesses neither clay nor loam, and thrive so oak a 100 years to attain to its maturity. rapidly as to require, in a short period, that the firs should be cut down to afford freer
CATTLE. air and ramification.
A considerable part of the stock of a farThe use of small plantations of timber on mer must always consist of cattle; and the large estates is very considerable. A vast maintenance and management of these, quantity of posts, spars, and rafters, for build- therefore, must ever be an object of great ings of every description on the farm, is per- consequence; and in proportion to the numpetually called for in such circumstances, ber of them which he keeps for sale, in and will thus be fully supplied on the spot; addition to those which he employs on acwhereas the want of it is attended with ex count of their immediate service and labour, treme expense and inconvenience. Plant- the importance of the subject is increased ing should commence in October, and may to him. Whether, in the latter point of be continued till April, excepting during view, oxen or horses are more advantageous frost. Injuries from cattie must be effectu- has been a long agitated question. In situally guarded against in plantations, in their ations in which there is a breed of cattle infant stage, which are as easily ruined as particularly adapted to work, and such situfields of corn. The fences, therefore, should ations do occur, the employment of the ox be kept in the best possible repair. may probably be most beneficial. And
With respect to coppices the caution when a farm is of so great extent that a about cattle is equally necessary. When considerable number of beasts may be ancoppices have attained the age of fourteen Dually bought at a small expense, and no years, they may, generally speaking, be cut inconvenience may be incurred by turning down more profitably than at any other out those to fatten which are ill qualified age; and the most advantageous method after for labour, the same preference may be this, is to sort out the wood for appropriate wisely made. Bulls are on some accounts purposes, whether for fuel, hoops, or hop to be preferred to oxen, being procured at poles; which arrangement will, in almost a cheaper rate, and more active and perseall cases furnishing such varieties, abun- vering in labour. In other cases than those dantly compensate for the time taken up just mentioned the question will be decided in making it. In some situations, as in differently. The activity of the horse is Surry for stakes and edders, in Gloucester- extremely superior to that of oxen, and it shire for cordwood, in Yorkshire for railing, is more applicable to different species of these articles yielda considerable advantage; employment. Its hoof is less susceptible and as they are sure of a market within a of injury; and, with respect to well managed small distance, which with respect to the farms, in which dispatch is more required carriage of so bulky a commodity, is a point than absolute strength in the operation of of the first consequence, an annual fall of ploughing, the quickness with which the wood appucable to these purposes may be horse completes the business in comparison desirable. The ground appropriated for with the ox, will, it may be presumed, at its growth should be divided into that num- length generally diffuse that preference of ber of sowings or plantations, which will the one to the other, which is obviously in
creasing every day. Yorkshire is the most judges will decide on their worthi. Smalldistinguished part of England for the breed ness of dewlap, and the barrel form of carof horses, particularly for the saddle, and the case, both in the fore and hind quarters, are black cart horse of the middle coumties has also justly insisted upon as points of excelbeen long celebrated. In the north of Eng. lence. A curled hide is indicative of a land, a very valuable breed from Lanarkshire thriving beast, and worthy of observation in in Scotland has lately been encouraged, of the choice of these animals. A still more extreme activity, though not fit for particu- favourable symptom is a softness or sleekness larly heavy draught, passing over a vast sur of skin. Indeed the nice touch of the hand face of land in a short time, and highly usetul, is requisite in the judge of cattle, perhaps therefore, not only in ploughing, but in the nearly as much as the keen observation of general work of a farm. The Norfolk manage the eye. Oxen that have been worked are ment of horses, as instruments of agriculture, more valuable to graziers than others, as not is considered by many as the cheapest that only fattening with greater rapidity, but furcan be practised. In the winter months their nishing more excellent beef. After working sole rack meat is barley straw. In the most till the age of fourteen years, which is within busy season a bushel of corn is thought an two of the usual extent of their natural life, ample allowance, and the chaff of oats, they have often supplied most tender and which is far preferable to that of barley, is admirable meat. universally mixed with it. They are in sum It is a consideration of great importance mer kept out all night, and their feed is ge to the grazier, that he should always secure nerally clover only. A great saving in the such a stock of winter food for his cattle, as maintenance of horses has been obtained by will maintain them during that season, rethe substitution of roots for grain. Turnips serving them for the spring market, which and potatoes have been given them in a raw is always superior to that of autumn. From state, in which case, if hard labour is requir- the beginning of March to that of June, the ed of them, some corn in addition may be change of prices will be completely in his expedient. If these roots are boiled, how- favour; and in order to avail himself of this, ever, the corn may without injury be dis he must so arrange his affairs as to procure pensed with. Carrots are better for horses an adequate stock of winter maintenance. than potatoes, and both are thought ex Whatever food is used for this porpose betremely serviceable in preventing various sides hay, the latter is always to be implied, disorders to which they are subject, particu- and from seven to fourteen pounds a day larly the grease. Carrots are deemed an should always be allowed to each beast. effectual cure for what is denominated thick For hastening the process of fattening an ox, wind in horses, and to broken winded ones, linseed cake has been found superior to every are of admirable use in palliating the com other article. its price, however, of late plaint.
years has been more than proportional to The practice of soiling horses, instead of this advantage. Carrots complete their fatturning them to grass in summer, is by many ting with a nearly equal degree of celerity; experienced men thought by far the superior and an ox will eat a sixth part of his weight method. The produce thus managed goes
of this root every day; at which rate an ox three times as far as if consumed in the of sixty stone may be supported by the field. The injury done by feeding pastures produce of an acre of these roots, for upwith horses instead of sheep or oxen, an in- wards of five months. Two beasts, of the jury very material and obvious, is avoided; weight just mentioned, if half fat when put and the dunghill, which, in all situations at a to carrots, might become completely so by distance from towns and cities, is an invalu- consuming the produce of an acre. Cabable object, especially if plentiful littering bages are but little inferior for the purpose be allowed, is sufficiently benefited to com
to carrots and oil cake. An ox will eat of pensate for this expense of their keeping. them nearly one fifth of his weighit. Turnips
Black cattle, intended for feeding, should are the most common description of winter be chosen for their being short legged, which food, but possess not the same fattening quality is almost uniformly connected with quality with the substances enumerated; a general good make. Straightness of back is and being a crop susceptible of various inanother important recommendation, and the juries, are much less to be relied on than more perfectly straight they are, while at the many others. Of these the consumption of same time they are very broad and fat on twenty-five ton is deemed necessary to fatthe loins, the more readily experienced ten a beast of about sixty stone.
In consequence of eating succulent plants, with all those of short or middling wools. and particularly clover, beasts are apt to For severe and mountainous moors, the swell greatly and very dangerously, in which black-faced and coarse.wooled Scotch sheep case, driving them about with great rapidi- are by far to be preferred, being able to ty is often practised with success, though a sustain the most rigorous weather, and to still more effectual method is to stab them live on the most scanty food. Instead of between the ribs and hip bone to the depth putting sheep, after the above-mentioned of about four inches. A flexible tube has purchases, to the highest feed, and pushing also been frequently passed through the them to perfect fattening, the better way mouth into the gullet, by which the air, is to keep them tolerably well till March, which causes this disease, is easily dis and to begin then to fatten them, by which charged.
method they will be fit for sale at a season The practice of stall-feeding, or keeping of more advanced price; and upon this plan the cattle in the house at every season of the purchase money is, with good managethe year, and feeding them, when practi- ment, generally doubled, and the fleece cable, with green food, where there is found an additional clear advantage. Whatabundant litter, is considered by excellent ever be the nature of the stock, towards judges as the best method of turning to ac the middle of May they should be turned count the produce of the soil. Double the into their summer grass, and, in an inclosed usual quantity of manure also is thus pro tarm, the division of the fields into different duced; and the annoyance of the cattle in parcels intended to be fed is an object of any great degree by flies and insects is ef great importance. It is justly thought, that fectually precluded. This plan has been in large parcels they do not thrive equally long and extensively practised in Germany, well as in small ones, and the waste of food and is making its way in England, under is cansiderably greater. It will be found, the encouragement of many judicious agri- that in flocks of from ten to twenty the culturists. Not only may grass be thus same farm will keep considerably more than employed for food more profitably than in in one fock. The number should be apany other way, but boiled roots may be propriated to each field according to what used with extreme advantage, with a view it is enabled to carry, and suffered to reeither to maintain or to fatten cattle; and, main, without any other change than what ridiculous as the idea of this management depends upon the state of individuals from for a vast number of cattle and horses might accident or season. They will thus inevitat first appear, it is found capable of being ably flourish. By adhering to the practice performed with the aid of a steam engine of folding, which, however, in certain cases by one superannuated attendant. The roots may be necessary, much loss is often sus. may be permitted to retain their original tained; much food is spoiled; and injury form, or may be mashed and converted into arises from numbers being so closely crowdthick soup, as is deemed most eligible. ed together: and although the practice
Cleanness and temperate warmth in the may be highly beneficial, as preparative process of fattening beasts for human food for corn, this advantage is often too dearly are of the utmost importance; and it has paid for. Another point of very considerbeen philosophically remarked, that analogy able consequence with respect to sheep is will lead us to conclude what observation the practice of close feeding,
Even in Justifies from fact, that whatever tends to pasturage shorn completely to the ground form in beasts a state of feeling unirritated the herbage is found rapidly to spring up; by fear, vexation, or pain, must tend to and when drought is observed nearly to deshorten the period necessary for advancing stroy the produce of fields treated in a difthem to their maturity of size and excel- ferent manner, by being permitted to run lence.
to bent, such as are managed in this close way are in comparison at least highly pro
ductive. In all plants cultivated for pasture Towards the end of August the annual the moment the seed stem runs, the grand purchase of wether lambs for an estate on effort of the system is directed to the forwhich regular flocks are not kept generally mation of the seed, and the way to produce takes place. These are justly preferred for the greatest abundance of leaves, therefore, stock to all others. The new Leicester is to prevent the rising of these stems, which have the advantage in competition with all by close feeding is of course effectually ac. the long-woolled breeds, and the South Down complished.