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if they are harvested favourably, their straw is the proper season for planting this root. is valuable, and, at all events, may be con- After cross-braking them, to raise in a verted into admirable dung. By a bad small degree the furrows, well-rotted horse. crop of peas, the land is often filled with dung should be laid along them, on which weeds; but thongh a crop of beans should the roots should be laid at eight inches disbe extremely bad, the land may neverthe- tance. The plough should then pass once less be in the highest state of cleanness. round every row, to cover them. As soon The quantity of seed differs according to as they appear above ground, the plough the variety of the grain. About two bushels should be passed round them a second time, of the horse-beans per acre, in rows equi- laying on the plants about an inch, or somedistant, at eighteen inches, is a proper al- what more, of mould, in addition. When lowance, and February is the month in they have attained the height of six inches, which they should be put in.

the plough should go twice along the middle Buck-wheat is known to a vast majority of each interval, in opposite directions, layof the farmers of this kingdom only by ing earth first to one row, and then to anname. It has, however, numerous excel- other; and, to apply it more closely to the lencies, is of an enriching nature, and pre- roots, a spade should afterwards be used to pares well for wheat, or any other crop. cover four inches of the plants, and bury One bushel of seed is sufficient to sow an all the weeds. The weeds which arise af. acre, which is only abont the fourth part of terwards must be extirpated by the land, the expense of seed barley. It is sold at as the hoes would go too deep, and damage the same price as barley, and is equal to it the roots of the plants. From ten to fiffar the fatting of hogs and poultry. The end teen bushels will be sufficient to plant an of May is the proper season for its being acre, the produce of which may probably sown, and grass seeds may be sown with be three hundred bushels. Sets should be it, if the practice should be thought in any cut for some few before they are planted, instance eligible, with more advantage than with at least one eye to each, and not in with any other grain, unless barley may be very small pieces, and the depredations of excepted. Buck-wheat may be sown even the grub upon them may be effectually preso late as the first week in July, a circum- vented by scattering on the surface of the stance by which the period of tillage is con- land about two bushels per acre of lime siderably protracted, and an ameliorating fresh slaked. The most certain method of crop may thus be produced, after the usual taking them up, is to plough once round period has, from any unavoidable or casual every row, at the distance of four inchies, occurrence, been neglected.

after which they may easily be raised, by a Potatoes form a most important article of three-clawed fork, rather than by a spade, food, both for the human species and for and scarcely a single one will by this praccattle, and are an inestimable substitute tice be left in the ground. They may with for bread formed of grain, the best resource care be preserved till the ensuing crop, parin periods of scarcity of wheat; and, hap- ticularly by the allowance necessary till pily, when the crops of grain fail, through April being closely covered in the barn with redundant moisture, the potatoe is far from dry and pressed dowa straw, while the rebeing equally injured, and sometimes is even mainder for the ensuing part of the year is benefited by the wet season. The choice buried in a dry cave, mixed with the husks of soil for the culture of this root is of prime of dried oats, sand, or leaves, especially if importance. Potatoes never make palatable a hay or corn-stack is erected over it. nourishment for man if grown in a clay soil, Potatoes are subject to a disease called or in rank, black loam, although in these the curl, which has drawn the attention of circumstances they are well fitted for cattle, sagacious and experienced men, and sugand relished by them, and also produced in gested, in consequence, a great variety of great abundance. They grow to perfection for opinions on its cause and remedy. Some human food in gravelly and sandy soils. The kinds of this root, however, it is almost drill should be universally preferred for their unanimously agreed, are less susceptible of cultivation. In September, or October, the the disease than others, and the old red, the field intended for them should have succes golden dun, and the long dun, are the least sively a rousing furrow, a cross braking, of all so. One or more of the following and the operation of the cleaning harrow; circumstances may be most probably conand being formed into three-feet ridges, sidered as causing it ; frost, insects, the should remain in that state till April, which planting from sets of unripe and large pota

ides, the planting in old and exhausted the advantage of having turnips good till grounds, and too near the surface, or the

the spring grasses are ready for food has small shoots of the sets being broken off be greatly encouraged this practice. To prefore planting. Where certainty on any in vent the devastations of the fly, the most teresting subject cannot be obtained, the destructive enemy to a crop of turnips, the hints of the judicious are always desirable. most effectual method, as little dependance The methods most successfully exercised for can be placed on steepings, or on fumigathe prevention of the curl, are, to cut the tions, is to sow the seed at such a season sets from smooth, ripe potatoes, of the mid- that they may be well grown before the apdle size, which have been kept particularly pearance of the insect; and by well dungdry, to guard against the rubbing off the ing and manuring the ground, to hasten first shoots, and to plant them rather deeply their attainment of the rough leaf in which in fresh earth, with a mixture of quick the fly does not at all affect them. New lime.

seed, it may also be observed, vegetates No plant thrives better even in the coldest more rapidly and vigorously than old; and part of this island than the turnip, and none the more healthy and vigorous the plants are more advantageous to the soil. Its in- are, the more likely they are to escape detroduction was an improvement of the most predation. The sowing of turnips with valuable nature. There is no soil which will grain is by many recommended in this connot produce it, when previously prepared nection, and stated to be highly efficafor it by art ; but the gravelly one is best of cious. all adapted to it. No root requires a tiner The culture of cabbages for cattle is a mould than the turnip, and with a view to subject well meriting the attention of the this object the land intended for it should be agriculturist. The cabbage is subject to exposed to frost by ribbing it after the few diseases, and resists frost more easily harvest. The season for sowing must be than the turnip. It is palatable to cattle, regulated by the time intended for feed- and sooner fills them than carrots or potaing, the later from the first of June to toes; and, in every respect but one, cabthe end of July, in proportion to the de- bages are superior to turnips. On all soils signed protraction of this feeding. The they require manure; whereas, on good field should be first ploughed by a shallow land, turnips may be raised without it. furrow. Lime, if necessary, should be then Fifty-four tons have been raised upon an harrowed into it. Single furrows, at the acre of ground, not worth more than twelve interval of three feet, should be drawn, shillings per annum. Some lands have proand dung laid in them, which should be duced sixty-eight. The time of setting then covered by going round it with the them depends on their intended use. If for plough, and forming the three-feet spaces feeding in November, plants, procured from into ridges. Wider rows answer no pro- seed sown in the end of July in the former fitable object, and with straiter ones a year, must be set in March or April ; if for horse has not room to walk. Thick sowing feeding in March, April, and May, they is far better than thin, bearing better the must be set in the beginning of the preceddepredations of the fly, and forming also a ing July, from seed sown in the previous protection against drought. The weeds February. Repeated transplantation may may, in many cases, be most effectually be applied to them with singular advantage. extirpated by women, without injuring the When they are of the large species, four crop ; and the standing turnips should be feet by two and a half are a full distance left at twelve inches distance from each for them. The best protection for them other. On average seasons, with good pre- from the caterpillar, by which these and paration, the produce from this number per greens in general are apt particularly to be acre may be considered as amounting to injured, is to pull off the large under-leaves, forty-six tons of valuable nourishment. For (which may be given to cows with great preservation, they may be stacked with benefit) on which the eggs of those instraw; and forty-two tons may be thus sects are usually deposited. Sowing beans secured by one load of straw, or of stubble among the cabbages is also considered a and old haulm. A method preferred by most effectual preventive of the nuisance. many is that of sowing late crops, even in Carrots require a deeper soil than any August, by which a succession of them re- other root, and when the soil does not mains on the field to be consumed on the naturally extend to the depth of twelve spot, even so late as the ensuing May, and inches, equally good throughout, it must

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be artificially made so for their culture, be luxuriant. In Jersey, the root has been which may be easily effected by trench- known and cultivated for several centmies, ploughing, Loams and sandy soils are the and is highly valued. It is considered as ouly ones in which they will flourish, and an excellent preparation for wheat, which, no dung can be used for them in the year atter parsnips, yields an abundant crop, they are sown, as it will inevitably rot without any manure them. The ground must be prepared for The profit of cultivating hemp-seed is by them by the deepest possible furrows, and, no means small. It requires, however, the when they are sown, about the beginning best land that can be found on a farm, or of April, it must be smoothed by a brake. which is made such by manuring. A richi, In large plots of ground, where horse- deep, putrid, and friable loam, is wirat it hoeing is requisite, three feet should be the particularly delights in ; and in addition distance between the drills. Where an to natural richness, forty cubical yards of acre or a little more only is employed, the dung per acre should be applied. Besides interval should not be greater than a foot, this original cost of land in natural richness and hand-hoeing will be found more con and preparation, it is to be considered that venient, and scarcely attended with greater hemp returns nothing to the farm yard, expense. From six to nine hundred bu- while corn will give straw, and the dungshels have been produced per acre of this hill is improved by green crops. The quesroot, where the land has been carefully tion concerning the propriety of its cultiprepared and attended to. As food for vation by any individual is not to be deterhorses, its culture is rapidly spreading. For mined, therefore, only from the circumoxen, milch cows, and pigs, carrots are stance of any price in the market, but is to admirably applicable and nourishing, and, be inferred from a view of all its bearings when boiled, turkeys and other poultry are and connections. For many crops, tillage fed on them with great success.

should be given with caution. With hemp The ease with which parsnips are culti- such caution is unnecessary, as its rank and vated, and the great quantity of saccharine luxuriant growth proves fatai to all those and nutritious matter which they contain, weeds by which corn would not only be inin which they are scarcely exceeded by any jured, but destroyed. From the autumn vegetable whatever, render them well wor preceding to the time of sowing hemp, the thy of the attention of the husbandman. land should be three or four times ploughed, Though little used in Britain, they are highly and be well harrowed to a fine surface. The esteemed in many districts of France, in some quantity of dmg should be proportioned to parts being thought little inferior to wheat the deficiency of the soil; and when the as food for man. Cows which are fed with culture is continued from year to year, a them are stated to give as much milk as they plentiful dressing must be every time apdo in the months of summer. All animals plied. About twelve pecks should be sown eat them with avidity, and in preference to per acre: and as the destruction of weeds potatoes, and fatten more quickly upon in the tillage is here no object, the broadthem. In the cultivation of them the seed cast method is universally preferable to the should be sown in the autumn, inmediately drill. It will' be ready for pulling in Auafter it is reaped. When the seed is put in gust, or about thirteen weeks after it is at this season, the plants will anticipate the growth of weeds in the following spring. Flax, with due attention, will repay its Frost never does them any material injury. cultivation ; but, generally speaking, in The best soil for them is a deep, rich loan. this country the same land and manure may Sand is next suitable to them; and in a be more conveniently and profitably apblack, gritty soil they will flourish, but not plied. Two bushels an acre is the requiin gravel or clay. In the deepest earth site quantity of seed, and the land, if it be they are always largest. In an appropriate not particularly rich by nature, must be soil no mamure is necessary for them, and rendered so by art, must be worked to a a very good crop has been obtained for three fine surface, and be kept perfectly free from years in succession, without using any. The weeds. seed should be sown in drills, at the dis The preparation for rape-seed is the same tance of eighteen inches, for the greater which is necessary for that of turnips. It convenience of hoeing; and by a second hoe. is a crop subject to great injury, and exing and a cautious earthing, by which the tremely uncertain. In the conquered counleaves may not be covered, the crop will tries in the north of France, the practice is

VOL. 1.


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to sow it in a seed bed for transplantation, plants should be inserted in rows, at eight which is begun in October, and if there be feet distance from each other, and about no frost in November, is continued through six feet from hill to hill. Four fresh cut. that month, when the plants are about two tings should be planted in each spot which feet long.

Were this operation to take is to form a hill. In April they should be place earlier, they would be more secure poled, an operation requiring that critical from the frost. Dibbling is employed for accuracy, which, depending on changeable the purpose, and the plants are set at about and casual circumstances, can be derived the distance of eighteen inches by ten. In a only from experience. The binds must next favourable year the profit is considerable, as be tied to the poles. The superfluous vines indeed it onglit to be, to compensate for the must be pruned about Midsummer, and are frequent and inevitable failure attending this a useful food for cows. September is the cultivation. An indispensable point in re month for pulling them. But the manage. gard to this article, is to catch at opportuni ment of hops is a subject most operose and ties of fine weather, for the purpose of reap- delicate, requiring extreme experience, ating and threshing, which must be done in tention, and dexterity; and the details of immediate succession. In reaping, extreme which would, if extended only equally to its care is requisite, to prevent the shedding of importance, occupy bulky volumes. the seed. Both in lifting it from the ground and conveying it to the barn floor, the ut

COURSE OF CROPS. most attention must be applied. As rain, No subject of greater importance has been at this critical period, may be considered treated by modern writers in husbandry, nearly fatal to this produce, celerity of ope than the succession of crops. Before the tation is of the first consequence, and as present reign, although a considerable num. many assistants as possible should be pro

ber of writers on agriculture existed, this cured, and not a moment of fine weather

topic was little treated, and by many scarce. should be suffered to pass unimproved. ly adverted to. It has at length obtained

The cultivation of hops demands a greater something approaching to that attention capital than that of any other plant. The which it merits. The main principles upon cost of the first year's preparation and plant which all practices on this subject proceed ing will amount to about eighty pounds per are, that some crops are more exhausting acre, and the subsequent annual expense will than others : that some, although of a very be little less than half that sum; and after all impoverishing character, yet by being conthe expense, preparation, and attention,

sumed on the farm, return to it as much as which may be employed, no crop is more pre- they deducted originally from it, and, percarious. The serious consideration of a farmer haps, even more: that some admit profitis demanded, before he resolves to introduce able tillage and accurate cleaning, during this plant where it has not been usually cul- their growth; while by others the land is tivated. And not only the circumstances almost unavoidably rendered foul by weeds, already mentioned, but that of the accessi- is exhausted without return, and, wiien they bility or distance of manure, (for which the are applied in succession, will be extremely largest quantities are called for by hops,) and and fatally impoverished. By experience the fact, that a small solitary hop ground much is found to depend on a certain arseldom thrives like those which cover a large rangement of crops of these different and extent of country, from whatever cause this opposite characters; and in no one circummay proceed, should be fully weighed. Ruin stance is the theory or practice of husbandry, may easily follow the want of adverting to in the present day, so materially advanced these and other considerations, and they as in relation to this subject. Unless this cannot therefore be too strongly impressed department be well understood, the efforts on the sanguine adventurer. A flat deep of the farmer in others are either abortive or bog, in a sheltered situation, makes an ex injurious. An important difference is obcellent hop soil, constituting, indeed, a natu servable between culmiterous and legumiral dunghill. For the application of such nous plants, or those which are cultivated land to hops, the chances are favourable. for their seed, and such as are raised for The best preparation for this plant, when their roots. The former bind the soil, while such a spot as this does not occur, is made the latter unifornly give it openness and by two successive crops of turnips or cab freedom. The former also are decidedly bages, fed off by sheep, early enough for the more exhausting, though unquestionably, in ploughing and planting in March. The themselves, the most profitable. No soil

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can bear them in long and uninterrupted or sheep. These exceptions can never inter. succession. And, on the other hand, without fere with the general rule as such, that that the interposition of them among leguminous farm will be most productive and profitable, crops, the soil in which the latter grow would in respect to grain, on which is kept the by their loosening quality become deficient greatest quantity of sheep and cattle. Two in the tenacity which is necessary for vege crops of white corn ought never to be pro. tation. Some crops are rendered valuable duced from a field in immediate succession. chiefly from their preparation for others, In reference to several varieties of soil, it that are more valuable, of a different kind. may be useful to give a succession of crops The husbandmen of a former age sowed fie. which has been recommended by a gentlequently in succession that species of grain man of considerable judgment and experiwhich they wished to possess abundantly :

It should be observed that on this whereas, by this practice their object was plan the crops must be all particularly well often, at length, completely defeated. And hoed, and kept properly clean; and that the if wheat, oats, or barley, were for a certain turnips, peas, and beans, must be put in period sown in the same tield, the land

double rows, on three feet ridges; the cabwould eventually, and that in no long time, bages in single rows of three feet ridges. scarcely return the seed which was put


Clayey-loams. into it. That rotation is admitted to be best which Turnips or cabbages Turnips or cabbages


Oats enriches the land with abundant manure,

Beans and clover Clover preserves it best from weeds, pulverizes the


Wheat soil most effectually when it is too tenacions, and binds it most completely where it is Turnips or cabbages Turnips or cabbages


Barley naturally too open. As a general rule, those

Beans and vetches Beans who are engaged in agriculture cannot, with


Wheat a view to these purposes, have the impor

Peat earth. tance of providing food for large quantities Rich loums and sandy loams. of cattle too repeatedly and emphatically Turnips & po- Beans Turnips Turnips recommended to them. Indeed by attend tatoes Barley Barley Barley ing to this circumstance, larger quantities of Barley Peas Clover Clover grain are produced than by any other mode, Clover Wheat Wheat Wheat while that produce of the land which con Wheat Ad infin. Potatoes Potatoes sists of milk, butter, cheese, butcher's meat, Beans

Barley Barley and other articles connected with cattle, is Barley

Peas Peas nearly so much clear gain. Grass prepares Peas

Wheat Wheat a turt, which when broken up constitutes

Wheat the most valuable of all known manures.

Chalky subTurnips, cabbages, beans, peas, and a va

Grarels, stralum.

Light lands. riety of other similar food for cattle, supply admirable opportunities for cleaning anđ Turnips Turnips

Turnips pulverizing the soil by repeated hoeings;

Barley Barley Barley
Clover Clover

Clover and rye.grass the close covering which they bestow on

Wheat Wheat

Clover and rye-grass the land, sinothers those weeds which the

Potatoes Potatoes Clover and rye.grass hoe does not destroy, and they leave the land, besides, in a state of increased and Barley Barley Peas great fertility. Certain exceptions to the

Peas Peas

Wheat Wheat necessity of rearing cattle may undoubtedly occur, as, near towns and cities, the easy accessibility of dung will supersede very In converting artificial grasses into hay considerable preparation of it on the pre the method should be different from that mises. Lands also may possibly be so rich used with natural ones. They should for a as to require neither cattle nor sheep, and day or two lie in swath, after which, being like some which are said to lie near the carefully turned, they should remain for a river Garonne, in France, might produce day or two longer: by which easy and siineven bemp or wheat in perpetuity. Certain ple process the hay is, in good weather, sufcrops, moreover, may happen to be in such ficiently made. After remaining two days particular demand, as to make it desirable to in cocks, these should be carted to the cultivate them by fallow, and not for cattle stack.

Wheat or rye


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