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invention of tire arms, a part of the infantry pull it harder forward on. “Cheek or ease, were armed with bows.

or run up the bowling,” that is let it be more Lewis XI. first abolished the use of them slack. in France, introducing, in their place, the BOWSE, in the sea-language, signifies halbard, pike, and broad sword. The long as much as to hale or pull. Thus bousing bow was formerly in great vogue in Eng- upon a tack, is haling upon a tack. Bowse land, and many laws were made to encou away, that is pull away all together. rage the use of it. The parliament under BOWSPRIT, or Boltspit, a kind of Henry VIII. complaining of the disuse of mast, resting slopewise on the head of the long bows, heretofore the safeguard and de- main stem, and having its lower end fastened fence of this kingdom, and the dread and to the partners of the fore-mast, and farterror of its enemies.

ther supported by the fore stay. It carries Bow, in music, an instrument, which, the sprit-sail, sprit-top-sail

, and jack-staff, being drawn over the strings of a musical and its length is usually the same with that instrument, makes it resound. It is com-, of the fore-mast. posed of a small stick, to which are fastened BOWYERS, artificers, whose employ. eighty or an hundred horse hairs, and screw ment or occupation it is to make bows. which serves to give these hairs the proper There is a company of bowyers in the city tension. In order that the bow may touch of London, first incorporated in 1623. the strings briskly, it is usual to rub the BOX. See Buxus. hairs with rosin. The bow of the violin is The turner, engraver, carver, mathemanow about 28 inches long.

tical instrument, comb, and pipe makers, Bow, among artificers, an instrument so give a great price for this wood by weight, called from its figure; in uze among gun as well as by measure. It makes wheels or smiths, locksmiths, watch-makers, &c. for shivers, pins for blocks and pullies, pegs for making a drill go. Among turners, it is the musical instruments, nut-crackers, weavers' name of that pole fixed to the ceiling, to shuttles, collar-sticks, bump-sticks and dreswhich they fasten the cord that whirls round sers for shoemakers, rulers, rolling-pins, the piece to be turned.

pestles, mall-balls, beetles, tops, tallies, Bow of a ship, that part of her bead which chess-men, screws, bobbins, cups, spoons, is contained between the stern and the af- and the strongest of all asle-trees. ter-part of the fore-castle, on either side ; The box-tree formerly grew in great so that a ship hath two bows, the starboard plenty, near Dorking in Surry, but only a and the larboard, or, as they are sometimes few of the large trees are now left. Boxcalled, the weather and the lee bow.' wood is chiefly imported from the Levant,

BOWLING, the art of playing at bowls. sometimes from Spain. The first thing to be observed in bowling BOYAU, in fortification, a ditch covered is, the right choosing your bowl, which must with a parapet, which serves as a commube suitable to the ground you design to run nication between two trenches. It runs on. Thus, for close alleys, the flat bowl is parallel to the works of the body of the the best; for open grounds of advantage, place, and serves as a line of contravallathe round byassed bowl; and for plain and tion, not only to hinder the sallies of the level swards, the bowl that is as round as a besieged, but also to secure the miners. ball. The next is to choose your ground; But when it is a particular cut that runs and lastly to distinguish the risings, fallings, from the trenches to cover some spot of and advantages of the places where you ground, it is drawn so as to be enfiladed, or bowl.

scoured by the shot from the town. Bowling, Bow-LINE, in a ship, a rope BOYLE (ROBERT), one of the greatest made fast to the leech or middle part of philosophers, as well as best men, that any the outside of the sail : it is fastened by country has ever produced, was the seventh two, three, or four ropes, like a crow's foot, son, and the fourteenth child, of Richard to as many parts of the sail; only the mizen Earl of Cork, and born at Lismore, in the bowling is fastened to the lower end of the province of Munster in Ireland, the 25th of yard. This rope belongs to all sails, except January, 1626–7; the very year of the death the sprit-sail and sprit-top-sails. The use of the learned Lord Bacon, whose plans of of the bowling is to make the sails stand experimental philosophy lie afterwards so sharp or close, or by a wind.

ably seconded, that it was said of him, that “Sharp the bowling,” is hale it taught, or he was the person designed by nature to pull it hard. “Hale up thie bowling," that is succeed to the labours and inquiries of that

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extraordinary genius. While very young, Ward, Willis, Wren, &c. It was during he was instructed in his father's house to his residence here that he improved that read and write, and to speak French and admirable engine the air-pump; and by nuLatin. In 1635, when only eight years old, merous experiments was enabled to discohe was sent over to England, to be edu ver several qualities of the air, so as to Jay cated at Eton school. Here he soon disco- a foundation for a complete theory. But vered extraordinary powers of understand. philosophy, and inquiries into nature, ing, with a disposition to cultivate and im- though they engaged his attention deeply, prove it to the utmost.

did not occupy him entirely; as he still After remaining at Eton between three continued to pursue critical and theological and four years, his father sent him and his studies. He had offers of preferment to enbrother Francis, in 1638, on their travels ter into boly orders, by the government, afupon the continent. They passed through ter the restoration. But he declined the France to Geneva, where they settled for offer, choosing rather to pursue his studies some time to pursue their studies : here he as a layman, in such a manner as might be resumed his acquaintance with the elements most effectual for the support of religion; of the mathematics, which he had com and began to communicate to the world the menced at Eton when ten years old.

fruits of these studies. In the autumn of 1641, he quitted Gene In the year 1663, the Royal Society beva, and travelled through Switzerland and ing incorporated by King Charles II. Mr. Italy to Venice, from whence he returned Boyle was named one of the council; and again to Florence, where he spent the win as le miglit justly be reckoned among the ter, studying the Italian language and his founders of that learned body, so he contitory, and the works of the celebrated astro nued one of the most useful and industrious nomér Galileo, who died in a village near of its members during the whole course of this city during Mr. Boyle's residence here. his life.

About the end of March, 1642, he set In 1688, Mr. Boyle's health declining out from Florence, visited Rome and other very much, he abridged greatly his time places in Italy, then returned to the south given to conversations and communications of France, and came back to England in with other persons, to have more time to 1644.

prepare for the press some others of his paFrom this time, Mr. Boyle's chief resi- pers, before his death; he died on the last dence, for some years at least, was at his day of December of the same year 1691, in nanor of Stalbridge, from whence he made the 65th year of his age, and was buried in occasional excursions to Oxford, London, St. Martin's church in the Fields, Westmin&c.; applying himself with great industry ster; his funeral sermon being preached by to varions kinds of studies, but especially Dr. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury; in to philosophy and chemistry; and seizing, which he displayed the excellent qualities every opportunity of cultivating the ac of our author, with many circumstances of quaintance of the most learned men of his his life, &c. He represents him as being time. He was one of the members of that well acquainted with the whole compass of small but learned body of men, who, when the mathematical sciences, and as well all academical studies were interrupted by versed even in the most abstruse parts of the civil wars, secreted themselves about geometry. the year 1645, and held private meetings, Mr. Boyle left also several papers behind first in London, afterwards at Oxford, to him, which have been published since his cultivate subjects of natural knowledge death. Beautiful editions of a!l his works upon that plan of experiment which Lord have been printed at London, in 5 volumes Bacon had delineated. They styled them. folio, and six volumes 410. Dr. Shaw also selves then the Philosophic College; but published in three volumes 4to., the saine after the restoration, when they were in.' works“ abridged, methodized, and disposed corporated, and distinguished openly, they under the general heads of Physic, Statics, took the name of the Royal Society. Pneumatics, Natural History, Chemistry,

In the summer of 1654, he went to set and Medicine;" to which he has prefixed a tle at Oxford, the Philosophical Society be. short catalogue of the philosophical writing removed from London to that place, ings, according to the order of time when that he might enjoy the conversation of the they were first published. The character other learned members, his friends, who of this great man can be only estimated by had retired thither, such as Wilkins, Wallis, av attention to his works, reflecting, at the

VOL. I.

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same time, on the state of science at the the mizen, two to each yard, reeved through period in which he lived. He was distin- blocks that are fastened to pemants, seized guished by the comprehensiveness of his to the yard arms. Their use is either to views, and the extent and variety of his re square, or traverse the yards. Hence to searches; by indefatigable diligence, and brace the yard, is to bring it to either side, invincible perseverance, in his collection of 'An braces come aftward on, as the main facts and investigation of their causes; by a brace comes to the poop, the main-top-sail total freedom from any preconceived at brace comes

the mizen-top, and thence tachment to theories and systems ; by can- to the main shrouds: the fore and fore-top. dour in discussing the opinions of others; sail braces come down by the main and and by fidelity and modesty in the narration main-top-sail stays, and so of the rest. But of his own performances.

the mizen-bowline serves to brace to the B QUADRO, QUADRATO, or DURALE, yard, and the cross-jack braces are brought in music, called by the French b quarre, forwards to the main-shrouds when the stup from its figure b. This is what we call B sails close by a wind. natural or sharp, in distinction to B mol or BRACES, in music, are those double flat. See Flat and

curves which are placed at the beginning of If the flat 6 be placed before a note in the staves of any composition. Their use the thorough bass, it intimates that its is to bend together the harmonizing parts, third is to be minor; and if placed with any

and lead the eye with facility from one set cypher over a note in the bass, as o 6, or

of staves to another. In those scores which lo 5, &c. it denotes, that the fifth or sixth include a part for a keyed irstrument, as thereto are to be fiat. But if the quadro usual to drawa smaller brace within the great

the organ, harpsicord, or piano-forte, it is ll be placed over any note, or with a cy

one, to include and to distinguish from the pher, in the thorough bass, it has the con

other parts of the score the two staves de. trary effect; for thereby the note or inter- signed for either of those instruments. val thereto is raised to its natural order. BRABEIUM, in botany, a genus of the

Braces to a drum, the cords which are Polygamia Monoecia class and order. Es

distended in oblique lines from the head to sential character: herm. scales of the and which by tightening or relaxing the

the bottom round the exterior of the drum, ament; corol four-parted, revolute above; parchment, serve to raise or flatten the tone. stamens four; pistil one; drupe roundish; seed globular; male, scales of the ament;

BRACELET, an ornament worn on the corol four or five-parted; stamens four, in wrist, much used among the ancients : it serted into the throat; style bifid, abortive.

was made of different materials, and in difThere is only one species, with its varie- ferent fashions, according to the age and ties, riz. B. stellulifolium, or African al- quality of the wearer. Bracelets are still mond, rises with an upright stem, which

worn by the savages of Africa, wlio are so is soft and full of pith, and covered with a

excessively fond of them, as to give the brown bark. Horizontal branches are sent

richest coinmodities, and even their fathers, out at every joint, the lower ones being wives, and children, in exchange for those longest, and every tier diminishing to the

made of no richer materials than shelk, top, so as to form a sort of pyramid. The glass, beads, and the like. flowers are produced near the ends of the BRACHIÆUS, in anatomy, a name shoots, coming out from between the leaves, given to two muscles, which are flexors of quite round the branches, they are of a pale the cubitus, and distinguished by the apcolour inclining to white, they appear early pellations of externus and internus. See in the spring, and fall away without any

ANATOMY. fruit succeeding them in this country. It BRACHMANS, a sect of Indian philo. is a native of the country about the Cape sophers, known to the ancient Greeks by of Good Hope.

the name of Gymuosophists. The ancient BRACE, in architecture, a piece of tim Brachmans lived upon herbs and pulse, ber framed in with bevil joints, the use of and abstained from every thing that had which is to keep the building from swerv life in it. They lived in solitude, without ing either way. When the brace is framed matrimony, and without property; aud into the king-pieces, or principal rafters, it they wished ardently for death, considering is by some called a strut.

life only as a burden. The modern BrachBraces, in the sea-language, are ropes mans make up one of the casts or tribes of belonging to all the yards of a ship, except the Banians. They are the priests of that

people, and perform their office of praying four bolts, which are called bed-bolts ; they and reading the law, with several mimical rise up on each side of the mortar, and gestures, and a kind of quavering voice. serve to keep her at any elevation, by They believe, that, in the beginning, nothing means of some strong iron bolts, called but God and the water existed, and that bracket-bolts, which go through these cheeks the Supreme Being, desirous to create the or brackets. world, cansed the leaf of a tree, in the shape BRADLEJA, in botany, so named from of a child playing with its great toe in its Richard Bradley, F.R.S. first professor of mouth, to foat on the water. From its botany at Cambridge, a genus of the Monavel there issued out a flower, whence noecia Monadelphia class and order. Esa Brama drew his original, who was intrusted sential character : male calyx none; corol by God with the creation of the world, and petals six, nearly equal; filaments three, presides over it with an absolute sway. with three twin anthers; female calyx They make no distinction between the

none; corol six-parted, three parts intesouls of men and brutes, but say the dig. rior; germ superior, with six to eight stignity of the buman soul consists in being mas; capsules six-celled, six-valved; seed placed in a better body, and having more solitary. There are three species, B. siroom to display its faculties. They allow nica, Chinese bradleja, is a shrub with of rewards and punishments after this life; leaves resembling the annona, but not of and have so great a veneration for cows, a lucid surface. The fructifications prothat they look on themselves as blessed, if ceed from the axils of the leaves. The they can but die with the tail of one of them fruits or seed-vessels are compressed, small in their hand. They have preserved some or bicular, straited and hard. B. zeylanica, noble fragments of the knowledge of the is a Ceylonese shrub. B. glochidium, is a ancient Brachmans. They are skilful arith- shrub which grows in the Islands of the meticians, and calculate, with great exact Southern or Pacific Ocean. ness, eclipses of the sun and moon. They BRADLEY (DR. James), a celebrated are remarkable for their religious austeri- English astronomer, the third son of William ties. One of them has been known to Bradley, was born at Sherborne in Gloumake a vow, to wear about his neck a heavy cestershire, in the year 1692. He went to collar of iron for a considerable timc: an- ford, and was admitted a commoner of Baother to chain himself by the foot to a tree, liol College, March 15, 1710, where he took with a firm resolution to die in that place: the degree of bachelor the 14th of Oct. 1714, and another to walk in wooden shoes stuck and of master of arts the 21st of January, full of nails on the inside. Their divine wor 1716. His friends intending him for the ship consists chiefly of processions, made in church, his studies were regulated with that honour of their deities. They have a col- view; and as soon as he was of a proper lege at Banara, a city seated on the Ganges. age to receive holy orders, the Bishop of

BRACHURUS, the name of a genus of Hereford, who had conceived a great esteem animalcules, with tails shorter than their for him, gave him the living of Bridstow, bodies, and no visible limbs.

and soon after he was inducted to that of BRACHYGLOTTIS, in botany, a genus Landewy Welfry, in Pembrokeshire. of the Syngenesia Superflua class and or He was nephew to Mr. Pound, a gentleder. Receptacle naked; down feathery; man well known in the learned world, by calyx cylindrical, simply equal; florets of many excellent astronomical and other obthe disk five-cleft. There are two species, servations, and who would have enriched it natives of the South Sea Islands.

much more, if the journals of his voyages had BRACHYGRAPHY, the art of short not been burnt at Pulo Condor, when the hand-writing. See SHORT-HAND.

place was set on fire, and the English who BRACKETS, in a ship, the small knees, were settled there cruelly massacred, Mr. serving to support the galleries, and com Pound himself very narrowly escaping with monly carved. Also the timbers that sup- his life. With this gentleman, at Wanstead, port the gratings in the head, are called Mr. Bradley passed all the time that he brackets.

could spare from the duties of his function; BRACKETS, in gunnery, are the cheeks being then sufficiently acquainted with the of the carriage of a mortar: they are made mathematics to improve by Mr. Pound's of strong plants of wood, of almost a semi- conversation. It may easily be imagined circular figure, and bound round with thick that the example and conversation of this iron plates; they are fixed to the beds by gentleman did not repder Bradley more

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fond of his profession, to which he had be- permission to apply for a grant of the rever. fore no great attachment: he continued, sion of it to him, and even offered to resign however, as yet to fulfil the duties of it, it in his favour, if it should be thonght ne. though at this time he had made such ob- cessary; but Dr. Halley died before he servations as laid the foundation of those could accomplish this kind object. Dr. discoveries which afterward distinguished Bradley however obtained the place in him as one of the greatest astronomers of February, 1741-2, by the interest of Lord his age. These observations gained him the Macclesfield, who was afterward president notice and friendship of the Lord Chancel- of the Royal Society, and upon this appointlor Macclesfield, Mr. Newton, afterward ment the University of Oxford sent him a Sir Isaac, Mr. Halley, and of many other diploma of doctor of divinity. members of the Royal Society, into which This appointment of astronomer royal at he was soon after elected a member. Greenwich, which was dated the sd of

Soon after, the chair of Savilian professor February, 1741-2, placed Mr. Bradley in of astronomy at Oxford became vacant, by his proper element, and he pursued his obthe death of the celebrated Dr. John Keil, servations with unwearied diligence. Howand Mr. Bradley was elected to succeed him ever numerous the collection of astronomi on the 31st of October, 1721, at 29 years of cal instruments at that observatory, it was age: his colleague being Mr. Halley, who impossible that such an observer as Dr. was professor of geometry on the same foun- Bradley should not desire to increase them, dation. Upon this appointment, Mr. Brad as well as to answer those particular views, ley resigned his church livings, and applied as iu general to make observations with himself wholly to the study of his favourite greater exactness. In the year 1748, therescience. In the course of his observations, fore, he took the opportunity of the visit of which were almost innumerable, he discover the Royal Society to the observatory, aned and settled the laws of the alterations of nually made to examine the instruments the fixed stars, from the progressive motion and receive the professor's observations for of light, combined with the earth's annual the year, to represent so strongly the necesmotion about the sun, and the nutation of sity of repairing the old instruments, and the earth's axis, arising from the unequal at providing new ones, that the Society thought traction of the sun and moon on the different proper to make application to the king, parts of the earth. The former of these who was pleased to, order one thousand effects is called the “aberration” of the pounds for that purpose. This sum was fixed stars, the theory of which he publish- laid out under the direction of 'ont author, ed in 1727; and the latter the “ nutation” who, witli the assistance of the late celeof the earth's axis, the theory of which ap- brated Mr. Graham and Mr. Bird, furnished peared in 1737 : so that in the space of the observatory with as complete a collec. about ten years he communicated to the tion of astronomical instruments as the most world two of the finest discoveries in mo skilful and diligent observer could desire. dern astronomy, which will for ever make During Dr. Bradley's residence at the a memorable epoch in the history of that Royal Observatory, the living of the church science. See ABERRATION and NUTA at Greenwich became vacant, and was of

fered to him: upon his refusing to accept it, In 1730 Mr. Bradley succeeded Mr. from a conscientious scruple, “ that the Whiteside, as lecturer in astronomy and duty of a pastor was incompatible with his experimental philosophy in the Museum at other studies and necessary engagements," Oxford: which was a considerable emolu- the king was pleased to grant him a pension ment to him, and which he held till within a of 2501, over and above the astronomer's year or two of his death, when his ill state original salary from the Board of Ordnance, of health induced him to resign it. He al. “ in consideration (as the sign manual, dated ways preserved the esteem and friendship of the 15th Feb. 1732, expresses it) of his Dr. Halley; who, being worn out by age great skill and knowledge in the several and infirmities, thought he could not do branches of astronomy and other parts of better for the service of astronomy than pro- the mathematics, which have proved so cure for Mr. Bradley the place of regius useful to the trade and navigation of this professor of astronomy at Greenwich, which kingdom.” A pension which Iras been rehe himself had many years possessed with gularly continued to the astronomers royal the greatest reputation. With this view he ever since. wrote many letters, desiring Mr. Bradley's About 1748 onr author became entitled

TION.

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